Publications by authors named "Charles L Hardy"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Synthetic Nanoparticles That Promote Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 2 Expressing Regulatory T Cells in the Lung and Resistance to Allergic Airways Inflammation.

Front Immunol 2017 22;8:1812. Epub 2017 Dec 22.

Department of Immunology and Pathology, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Synthetic glycine coated 50 nm polystyrene nanoparticles (NP) (PS50G), unlike ambient NP, do not promote pulmonary inflammation, but instead, render lungs resistant to the development of allergic airway inflammation. In this study, we show that PS50G modulate the frequency and phenotype of regulatory T cells (Treg) in the lung, specifically increasing the proportion of tumor necrosis factor 2 (TNFR2) expressing Treg. Mice pre-exposed to PS50G, which were sensitized and then challenged with an allergen a month later, preferentially expanded TNFR2Foxp3 Treg, which further expressed enhanced levels of latency associated peptide and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated molecule-4. Moreover, PS50G-induced CD103 dendritic cell activation in the lung was associated with the proliferative expansion of TNFR2Foxp3 Treg. These findings provide the first evidence that engineered NP can promote the selective expansion of maximally suppressing TNFR2Foxp3 Treg and further suggest a novel mechanism by which NP may promote healthy lung homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.01812DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5744007PMC
December 2017

High Fat Diet Inhibits Dendritic Cell and T Cell Response to Allergens but Does Not Impair Inhalational Respiratory Tolerance.

PLoS One 2016 2;11(8):e0160407. Epub 2016 Aug 2.

Department of Immunology, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia.

The incidence of obesity has risen to epidemic proportions in recent decades, most commonly attributed to an increasingly sedentary lifestyle, and a 'western' diet high in fat and low in fibre. Although non-allergic asthma is a well-established co-morbidity of obesity, the influence of obesity on allergic asthma is still under debate. Allergic asthma is thought to result from impaired tolerance to airborne antigens, so-called respiratory tolerance. We sought to investigate whether a diet high in fats affects the development of respiratory tolerance. Mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks showed weight gain, metabolic disease, and alteration in gut microbiota, metabolites and glucose metabolism compared to age-matched mice fed normal chow diet (ND). Respiratory tolerance was induced by repeated intranasal (i.n.) administration of ovalbumin (OVA), prior to induction of allergic airway inflammation (AAI) by sensitization with OVA in alum i.p. and subsequent i.n. OVA challenge. Surprisingly, respiratory tolerance was induced equally well in HFD and ND mice, as evidenced by decreased lung eosinophilia and serum OVA-specific IgE production. However, in a pilot study, HFD mice showed a tendency for impaired activation of airway dendritic cells and regulatory T cells compared with ND mice after induction of respiratory tolerance. Moreover, the capacity of lymph node cells to produce IL-5 and IL-13 after AAI was drastically diminished in HFD mice compared to ND mice. These results indicate that HFD does not affect the inflammatory or B cell response to an allergen, but inhibits priming of Th2 cells and possibly dendritic cell and regulatory T cell activation.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0160407PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4970708PMC
July 2017

The activin A antagonist follistatin inhibits cystic fibrosis-like lung inflammation and pathology.

Immunol Cell Biol 2015 Jul 10;93(6):567-74. Epub 2015 Mar 10.

1] Department of Allergy, Immunology & Respiratory Medicine, Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia [2] Department of Immunology, Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia [3] Department of Allergy, Immunology & Respiratory Medicine, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common life-limiting genetically acquired respiratory disorder. Patients with CF have thick mucus obstructing the airways leading to recurrent infections, bronchiectasis and neutrophilic airway inflammation culminating in deteriorating lung function. Current management targets airway infection and mucus clearance, but despite recent advances in care, life expectancy is still only 40 years. We investigated whether activin A is elevated in CF lung disease and whether inhibiting activin A with its natural antagonist follistatin retards lung disease progression. We measured serum activin A levels, lung function and nutritional status in CF patients. We studied the effect of activin A on CF lung pathogenesis by treating newborn CF transgenic mice (β-ENaC) intranasally with the natural activin A antagonist follistatin. Activin A levels were elevated in the serum of adult CF patients, and correlated inversely with lung function and body mass index. Follistatin treatment of newborn β-ENaC mice, noted for respiratory pathology mimicking human CF, decreased the airway activin A levels and key features of CF lung disease including mucus hypersecretion, airway neutrophilia and levels of mediators that regulate inflammation and chemotaxis. Follistatin treatment also increased body weight and survival of β-ENaC mice, with no evidence of local or systemic toxicity. Our findings demonstrate that activin A levels are elevated in CF and provide proof-of-concept for the use of the activin A antagonist, follistatin, as a therapeutic in the long-term management of lung disease in CF patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/icb.2015.7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4495664PMC
July 2015

The effects of engineered nanoparticles on pulmonary immune homeostasis.

Drug Metab Rev 2014 May 25;46(2):176-90. Epub 2013 Nov 25.

Department of Immunology and.

Engineered nanoparticles (ENP), which could be composed of inorganic metals, metal oxides, metalloids, organic biodegradable and inorganic biocompatible polymers, are being used as carriers for vaccine and drug delivery. There is also increasing interest in their application as delivery agents for the treatment of a variety of lung diseases. Although many studies have shown ENP can be effectively and safely used to enhance the delivery of drugs and vaccines in the periphery, there is concern that some ENP could promote inflammation, with unknown consequences for lung immune homeostasis. In this study, we review research on the effects of ENP on lung immunity, focusing on recent studies using diverse animal models of human lung disease. We summarize how the inflammatory and immune response to ENP is influenced by the diverse biophysical and chemical characteristics of the particles including composition, size and mode of delivery. We further discuss newly described unexpected beneficial properties of ENP administered into the lung, where biocompatible polystyrene or silver nanoparticles can by themselves decrease susceptibility to allergic airways inflammation. Increasing our understanding of the differential effects of diverse types of nanoparticles on pulmonary immune homeostasis, particularly previously underappreciated beneficial outcomes, supports rational ENP translation into novel therapeutics for prevention and/or treatment of inflammatory lung disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/03602532.2013.859688DOI Listing
May 2014

Differential uptake of nanoparticles and microparticles by pulmonary APC subsets induces discrete immunological imprints.

J Immunol 2013 Nov 11;191(10):5278-90. Epub 2013 Oct 11.

Department of Immunology, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia;

There is increasing interest in the use of engineered particles for biomedical applications, although questions exist about their proinflammatory properties and potential adverse health effects. Lung macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) are key regulators of pulmonary immunity, but little is known about their uptake of different sized particles or the nature of the induced immunological imprint. We investigated comparatively the immunological imprints of inert nontoxic polystyrene nanoparticles 50 nm in diameter (PS50G) and 500 nm in diameter (PS500G). Following intratracheal instillation into naive mice, PS50G were preferentially taken up by alveolar and nonalveolar macrophages, B cells, and CD11b(+) and CD103(+) DC in the lung, but exclusively by DC in the draining lymph node (LN). Negligible particle uptake occurred in the draining LN 2 h postinstillation, indicating that particle translocation does not occur via lymphatic drainage. PS50G but not PS500G significantly increased airway levels of mediators that drive DC migration/maturation and DC costimulatory molecule expression. Both particles decreased frequencies of stimulatory CD11b(+)MHC class II(hi) allergen-laden DC in the draining LN, with PS50G having the more pronounced effect. These distinctive particle imprints differentially modulated induction of acute allergic airway inflammation, with PS50G but not PS500G significantly inhibiting adaptive allergen-specific immunity. Our data show that nanoparticles are taken up preferentially by lung APC stimulate cytokine/chemokine production and pulmonary DC maturation and translocate to the lung-draining LN via cell-associated transport. Collectively, these distinctive particle imprints differentially modulate development of subsequent lung immune responses. These findings support the development of lung-specific particulate vaccines, drug delivery systems, and immunomodulators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1203131DOI Listing
November 2013

The signalling imprints of nanoparticle uptake by bone marrow derived dendritic cells.

Methods 2013 May 28;60(3):275-83. Epub 2013 Feb 28.

Department of Immunology, Central Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia.

Nanoparticles (NP) possess remarkable adjuvant and carrier capacity, therefore are used in the development of various vaccine formulations. Our previous studies demonstrated that inert non-toxic 40-50 nm polystyrene NP (PS-NP) can promote strong CD8 T cell and antibody responses to the antigen, in the absence of observable inflammatory responses. Furthermore, instillation of PS-NP inhibited the development of allergic airway inflammation by induction of an immunological imprint via modulation of dendritic cell (DC) function without inducing oxidative stress in the lungs in mice. This is in contrast to many studies which show that a variety of ambient and man-made NP promote lung immunopathology, raising concerns generally about the safe use of NPs in biomedicine. Most NPs are capable of inducing inflammatory pathways in DC largely mediated by signalling via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK). Herein, we investigate whether PS-NPs also activate ERK in DC in vitro. Our data show that PS-NP do not induce ERK activation in two different types of bone marrow derived (BM) DC cultures (expanded with GM-CSF or with GM-CSF together with IL-4). The absence of such signalling was not due to lack of PS-NP uptake by BM-DC as confirmed by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. The process of NP uptake by DC usually initiates ERK signalling, suggesting an unusual uptake pathway may be engaged by PS-NPs. Indeed, data herein showns that uptake of PS-NP by BM-DC was substantially inhibited by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) but not cytochalasin D (CCD), suggesting an uptake pathway utilising caveole for PS-NP. Together these data show that BM-DC take up PS-NP via a caveole-dependent pathway which does not trigger ERK signalling which may explain their efficient uptake by DC, without the concomitant activation of conventional inflammatory pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymeth.2013.02.009DOI Listing
May 2013

Inert 50-nm polystyrene nanoparticles that modify pulmonary dendritic cell function and inhibit allergic airway inflammation.

J Immunol 2012 Feb 21;188(3):1431-41. Epub 2011 Dec 21.

Department of Immunology, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia.

Nanoparticles are being developed for diverse biomedical applications, but there is concern about their potential to promote inflammation, particularly in the lung. Although a variety of ambient, anthropogenic and man-made nanoparticles can promote lung inflammation, little is known about the long-term immunomodulatory effects of inert noninflammatory nanoparticles. We previously showed polystyrene 50-nm nanoparticles coated with the neutral amino acid glycine (PS50G nanoparticles) are not inflammatory and are taken up preferentially by dendritic cells (DCs) in the periphery. We tested the effects of such nanoparticles on pulmonary DC function and the development of acute allergic airway inflammation. Surprisingly, exposure to PS50G nanoparticles did not exacerbate but instead inhibited key features of allergic airway inflammation including lung airway and parenchymal inflammation, airway epithelial mucus production, and serum allergen-specific IgE and allergen-specific Th2 cytokines in the lung-draining lymph node (LN) after allergen challenge 1 mo later. PS50G nanoparticles themselves did not induce lung oxidative stress or cardiac or lung inflammation. Mechanistically, PS50G nanoparticles did not impair peripheral allergen sensitization but exerted their effect at the lung allergen challenge phase by inhibiting expansion of CD11c(+)MHCII(hi) DCs in the lung and draining LN and allergen-laden CD11b(hi)MHCII(hi) DCs in the lung after allergen challenge. PS50G nanoparticles further suppressed the ability of CD11b(hi) DCs in the draining LN of allergen-challenged mice to induce proliferation of OVA-specific CD4(+) T cells. The discovery that a defined type of nanoparticle can inhibit, rather than promote, lung inflammation via modulation of DC function opens the door to the discovery of other nanoparticle types with exciting beneficial properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1100156DOI Listing
February 2012

The roles of activin A and its binding protein, follistatin, in inflammation and tissue repair.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2012 Aug 20;359(1-2):101-6. Epub 2011 Oct 20.

Monash Institute of Medical Research and the Department of Immunology and Pathology, Monash University, Clayton Victoria 3800, Australia.

Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily of cytokines, is a critical controller of inflammation, immunity and fibrosis. It is rapidly released into the blood following a lipopolysaccharide challenge in experimental animals, through activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 signalling pathway. Blocking activin action by pre-treatment with its binding protein, follistatin, modifies the inflammatory cytokine cascade, and reduces the severity of the subsequent inflammatory response and mortality. Likewise, high serum levels of activin A are predictive of death in patients with septicaemia. However, activin A has complex immunomodulatory actions. It is produced by inflammatory macrophages, but can regulate either pro- or anti-inflammatory responses in these cells, depending on their prior activation status. Activin A is also produced by Th2 cells, and stimulates antibody production by B cells and the development of regulatory T cells. Production of activin A during inflammatory responses stimulates fibrosis and tissue remodelling, and follistatin inhibits these actions of activin A. The modulation of activin by follistatin may represent an important therapeutic target for the modulation and amelioration of inflammatory and fibrotic disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2011.10.009DOI Listing
August 2012

Interleukin-13 regulates secretion of the tumor growth factor-{beta} superfamily cytokine activin A in allergic airway inflammation.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2010 Jun 27;42(6):667-75. Epub 2009 Jul 27.

Department of Immunology, Monash University, Commercial Road, Melbourne, VIC 3004 Australia.

Activin A is a member of the TGF-beta superfamily and plays a role in allergic inflammation and asthma pathogenesis. Recent evidence suggests that activin A regulates proinflammatory cytokine production and is regulated by inflammatory mediators. In a murine model of acute allergic airway inflammation, we observed previously that increased activin A concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid coincide with Th2 cytokine production in lung-draining lymph nodes and pronounced mucus metaplasia in bronchial epithelium. We therefore hypothesized that IL-13, the key cytokine for mucus production, regulates activin A secretion into BAL fluid in experimental asthma. IL-13 increased BAL fluid activin A concentrations in naive mice and dose dependently induced activin A secretion from cultured human airway epithelium. A key role for IL-13 in the secretion of activin A into the BAL fluid during allergic airway inflammation was confirmed in IL-13-deficient mice. Eosinophils were not involved in this response because there was no difference in BAL fluid activin A concentrations between wild-type and eosinophil-deficient mice. Our data highlight an important role for IL-13 in the regulation of activin A intraepithelially and in BAL fluid in naive mice and during allergic airway inflammation. Given the immunomodulatory and fibrogenic effects of activin A, our findings suggest an important role for IL-13 regulation of activin A in asthma pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1165/rcmb.2008-0429OCDOI Listing
June 2010

Promising particle-based vaccines in cancer therapy.

Expert Rev Vaccines 2008 Sep;7(7):1103-19

Vaccine & Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Commercial Rd, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia.

Immunotherapy and preventative cancer vaccines offer the hope of controlling cancer in humans with few of the undesirable side effects associated with current chemotherapy-based methods. Particulate vaccines are effectively taken up by dendritic cells, inducing both T-cell and antibody responses. Virus-like particles (VLPs) have shown preventive efficacy against cervical cancer. Herein we review a range of leading particle-based vaccine approaches: VLPs, immunostimulating complexes, liposomes, synthetic nanoparticles and microparticles (both biocompatible and biodegradable, such as polylactide-co-glycolides and poly[D,L-lactic-co-glycolic] acid). Immune efficacy, regulatory and safety issues, as well the application of immunotherapeutics to immunosuppressed patients with high levels of Tregs are also discussed. We argue that developmental issues (cost and intellectual property lifespan) and the lack of reliable preclinical animal models, rather than the lack of innovative vaccine approaches, currently present a major obstacle to rapid and effective vaccine development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/14760584.7.7.1103DOI Listing
September 2008

T cell reactivity during infectious mononucleosis and persistent gammaherpesvirus infection in mice.

J Immunol 2004 Mar;172(5):3078-85

Trudeau Institute, Saranac Lake, NY 12983, USA.

Intranasal infection of mice with murine gammaherpesvirus 68 causes a dramatic increase in numbers of activated CD8(+) T cells in the blood, analogous in many respects to EBV-induced infectious mononucleosis in humans. In the mouse model, this lymphocytosis has two distinct components: an early, conventional virus-specific CD8(+) T cell response, and a later response characterized by a dramatic increase among CD8(+) T cells that bear Vbeta4(+) TCRs. We previously demonstrated that Vbeta4(+)CD8(+) T cells recognize an uncharacterized ligand expressed on latently infected B cells in an MHC-independent manner. The frequency of Vbeta4(+)CD8(+) T cells increases dramatically following the peak of viral latency in the spleen. In the current studies, we show that elevated Vbeta4(+)CD8(+) T cell levels are sustained long-term in persistently infected mice, apparently a consequence of continued ligand expression. In addition, we show that Vbeta4(+)CD8(+) T cells can acquire effector functions, including cytotoxicity and the capacity to secrete IFN-gamma, although they have an atypical activation profile compared with well-characterized CD8(+) T cells specific for conventional viral epitopes. The characteristics of Vbeta4(+)CD8(+) T cells (potential effector function, stimulation by latently infected B cells, and kinetics of expansion) suggested that this dominant T cell response plays a key role in the immune control of latent virus. However, Ab depletion and adoptive transfer studies show that Vbeta4(+)CD8(+) T cells are not essential for this function. This murine model of infection may provide insight into the role of unusual populations of activated T cells associated with persistent viral infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.172.5.3078DOI Listing
March 2004

Characterization of a mouse model of allergy to a major occupational latex glove allergen Hev b 5.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003 May 25;167(10):1393-9. Epub 2003 Feb 25.

Cooperative Research Centre for Asthma, Department of Pathology and Immunology, Monash Medical School, Commercial Road, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia.

Allergen-specific immunotherapy is a clinically proven effective treatment for many allergic diseases, including asthma; however, it is not currently available for latex allergy because of the high risk of anaphylaxis. There is, therefore, a crucial need for an animal model of latex allergy in which to develop effective immunotherapy. Previous mouse models of latex allergy either did not characterize the allergic pulmonary immune response or used crude latex extracts, making it difficult to quantify the contribution of individual proteins and limiting their usefulness for developing specific immunotherapy. We immunized mice with recombinant Hev b 5, a defined major latex allergen, or latex glove protein extract, representing the range of occupationally encountered processed latex allergens. The immune response was compared with that seen in ovalbumin-immunized mice. Immunization with Hev b 5 or glove extract elicits hallmarks of allergic pulmonary Th2-type immune responses, comparable to those for ovalbumin, including (1) serum antigen-specific IgE, (2) an eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate in the lung, (3) increased interleukin-5 in lung bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and (4) mucus hypersecretion by epithelial cells in the lung airways. This mouse model will aid the development of potentially curative treatments for latex-sensitized individuals, including those with occupational asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.200209-1002OCDOI Listing
May 2003

Glucocorticoid receptor deficient thymic and peripheral T cells develop normally in adult mice.

Eur J Immunol 2002 Dec;32(12):3546-55

Monash University Medical School, Department of Pathology and Immunology, Victoria, Australia.

The involvement of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling in T cell development is highly controversial, with several studies for and against. We have previously demonstrated that GR(-/-) mice, which usually die at birth because of impaired lung development, exhibit normal T cell development, at least in embryonic mice and in fetal thymus organ cultures. To directly investigate the role of GR signaling in adult T cell development, we analyzed the few GR(-/-) mice that occasionally survive birth, and irradiated mice reconstituted with GR(-/-) fetal liver precursors. All thymic and peripheral T cells, as well as other leukocyte lineages, developed and were maintained at normal levels. Anti-CD3-induced cell death of thymocytes in vitro, T cell repertoire heterogeneity and T cell proliferation in response to anti-CD3 stimulation were normal in the absence of GR signaling. Finally, we show that metyrapone, an inhibitor of glucocorticoid synthesis (commonly used to demonstrate a role for glucocorticoids in T cell development), impaired thymocyte development regardless of GR genotype indicating that this reagent inhibits thymocyte development in a glucocorticoid-independent fashion. These data demonstrate that GR signaling is not required for either normal T cell development or peripheral maintenance in embryonic or adult mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1521-4141(200212)32:12<3546::AID-IMMU3546>3.0.CO;2-SDOI Listing
December 2002

Prevention of diabetes-induced albuminuria in transgenic rats overexpressing human aldose reductase.

Endocrine 2002 Jun;18(1):47-56

University of Melbourne Department of Medicine, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

Studies using pharmacologic inhibitors have implicated the enzyme aldose reductase in the pathogenesis of albuminuria and diabetic renal disease. However, a clear conclusion is not easily drawn from such studies since these pharmacologic inhibitors have nonspecific properties. To examine further the role of aldose reductase, we have overexpressed the human enzyme in a transgenic rat model. Transgene expression in the kidney was predominantly localized to the outer stripe of the outer medulla, compatible with the histotopography of the straight (S3) proximal tubule. The effect of enzyme overexpression on diabetes-induced renal function and structure was then investigated. Contrary to what may have been anticipated from the previous enzyme inhibition studies, diabetes-induced albuminuria was completely prevented by the overexpression of aldose reductase. No effect of overexpression of aldose reductase on renal structure nor on urinary excretion of beta2-microglobulin and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase was observed in this transgenic rat model. In conclusion, our study strongly suggests that multiple roles for aldose reductase may give it a more complex place in diabetic nephropathy than is currently recognized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1385/ENDO:18:1:47DOI Listing
June 2002