Publications by authors named "Charles Kajetanek"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Combined ACL and Anterolateral Reconstruction Is Not Associated With a Higher Risk of Adverse Outcomes: Preliminary Results From the SANTI Randomized Controlled Trial.

Orthop J Sports Med 2020 May 1;8(5):2325967120918490. Epub 2020 May 1.

Sano Orthopedics, Advanced Orthopedics and Sports Medicine, Kansas City, Missouri, USA.

Background: The widespread historical abandonment of lateral extra-articular procedures in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries occurred as a result of concerns about high rates of adverse events. Recently, the popularity of lateral extra-articular procedures has resurged, warranting an urgent evaluation of their safety profile.

Purpose/hypothesis: The aim of this study was to perform an interim analysis of the ongoing SANTI randomized controlled trial to determine whether combined ACL and anterolateral ligament reconstruction (ACL + ALLR) is associated with an increased rate of adverse outcomes when compared with isolated ACL reconstruction (ACLR). The hypothesis was that there would be no significant difference between groups at a minimum follow-up of 1 year.

Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1.

Methods: Recruitment commenced in November 2016. Patients scheduled for ACLR were randomized to either isolated ACLR (with bone-patellar tendon-bone [BPTB] autograft) or combined ACL + ALLR (with hamstring tendon autograft). All patients with a minimum follow-up of 1 year by March 2019 were included. The evaluated parameters included complications and reoperations, knee laxity parameters, range of motion, and scores on the Tegner, Lysholm, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), and Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) instruments.

Results: A total of 224 patients (112 in each group) with a mean ± SD follow-up of 12.3 ± 1.9 months (range, 12-19 months) formed the study population. A significantly higher rate of reoperation for cyclops syndrome was noted in the isolated ACLR group compared with the combined ACL + ALLR group (8.9% vs 0%, respectively; = .0012). No significant differences were found in frequency of graft rupture (ACLR, 5.4%; ACL + ALLR, 0.9%; = .1191), range of motion deficits, pain, or reoperation for meniscectomy between groups. No cases of postoperative infection, venous thromboembolism, or arthrofibrosis were seen. Subjective IKDC (81.2 vs 86.8; = .0048), Lysholm (88 vs 92; = .0131), and some components of the KOOS were significantly better in the combined ACL + ALLR group.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates no evidence of an increased risk of short-term adverse events after combined ACL + ALLR compared with isolated ACLR with BPTB graft.

Registration: NCT03740022 ( Identifier).
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May 2020

Return to sport after early surgical repair of acute patellar tendon ruptures.

Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2020 May 13;106(3):503-507. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Service d'orthopédie et de traumatologie du sport, université Sorbonne, CHU Pitié-Salpétrière, 47, boulevard de l'Hôpital, 75013 Paris, France.

Introduction: Patellar tendon ruptures make up about 5% of all extensor mechanism injuries. They mainly occur in young, athletic men who have contributing risk factors such as chronic tendinopathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the return to sport after repair of an acute patellar tendon rupture. We hypothesized that surgical repair yields good functional outcomes with a high rate of return to competitive sports in patients treated with the same surgical technique.

Methods: This retrospective study involved 23 cases of patellar tendon rupture in 20 patients (2 women, 18 men). The average age was 42.0±13.8 years (24-68). Eighteen ruptures occurred at the patellar attachment and five were mid-substance. Either transosseous reattachment or direct suture repair was carried out within 21 days; all tendons were augmented with a non-metallic tibiopatellar suture. At the final assessment, a clinical examination was carried out (extensor mechanism testing and range of motion) with collection of functional scores (pain, VISA-P, Lysholm and satisfaction), date of return to sport and final radiographs.

Results: At a mean follow-up of 47.7 months (15-120), there were no cases of significant knee stiffness. Seventeen patients (94.4%) had returned to sport, 15 at their pre-injury level (83%). The mean time before running could be restarted was 9 months (6-15 months) and 17 months for sports at the same pre-injury level (8-18 months). The mean VISA score and the mean Lysholm score were 85.5 (62-99) and 67.3 (35-97) respectively; 85% of patients were satisfied or very satisfied. The prognosis was worse when the patient was older than 40 and had a BMI above 25. Early surgical repair of patellar tendon rupture yields good functional outcomes with return to sport possible at high levels.

Level Of Evidence: IV, Retrospective cohort study.
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May 2020

Complications After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Their Relation to the Type of Graft: A Prospective Study of 958 Cases.

Am J Sports Med 2019 09 12;47(11):2543-2549. Epub 2019 Aug 12.

Cabinet Goethe, Paris, France.

Background: Complications and adverse events after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are well known, but they have been underestimated in previous studies.

Purpose: To describe the complications and adverse events after ACL reconstruction within a 2-year follow-up and analyze them in relation to the type of graft.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: From 2000 to 2012, 958 patients with an isolated ACL injury underwent surgery by a single knee surgeon. ACL reconstruction was performed with the medial portal technique for the femoral tunnel and the use of bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) or hamstring tendon graft. Patients were reviewed at 6 weeks and 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery with the International Knee Documentation Committee score, plain radiographs, and the KT-1000 arthrometer.

Results: Of 958 patients enrolled, 147 (15%) were lost at last follow-up. The 2 groups (bone-patellar tendon-bone [n = 257] and hamstring [n = 554]) were similar regarding the mean age at the time of surgery and preoperative anterior laxity. The main complications were as follows: anterior knee pain (n = 130 of 811, 16%), stiffness (n = 72, 8.8%), secondary meniscal lesions (n = 59, 7.2%), pain attributed to fixation (n = 79, 9.7%), ACL rerupture (n = 47, 5.7%), contralateral ACL ruptures (n = 24, 3%), patellar fractures (n = 3, 0.3%), infections (n = 9, 1%), and thromboembolic complications (n = 5, 0.6%). There was no significant difference between the grafts with respect to the frequency of joint stiffness, secondary meniscal lesions, or anterior knee pain. During the first 2 postoperative years, the percentage of patients with anterior knee pain was higher in the patellar tendon group (23.3% vs 12.6%, < .001); however, this difference was not significant after the 2-year interval (3.1% vs 2.5%, = .63). The percentage of patients with a rerupture of the graft was significantly lower in the patellar tendon group than in the hamstring group (25 of 811 [3.1%] vs 57 of 811 [7%], = .023). Similar results were recorded regarding the pain related to the hardware material (7 of 811 [0.8%] in the BPTB group vs 113 of 811 [13.9%] in the hamstring group, = .001). The percentage of ACL ruptures contralateral to the repair was higher in the patellar tendon group (41 of 811 [5%] vs 17 of 811 [2%], = .016).

Conclusion: The total rate of complications after an ACL reconstruction was 39%, and the surgical revision rate for any reason was 28%. Problems with the hardware material were more frequent in the hamstring group, leading to an increased rate of surgical revision. Anterior knee pain was initially higher in the patellar tendon group, but there was no significant difference in a 2-year interval. The rerupture rate was statistically higher in the hamstring group.
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September 2019

Comparison of custom cutting guides based on three-dimensional computerized CT-scan planning and a conventional ancillary system based on two-dimensional planning in total knee arthroplasty: a randomized controlled trial.

Int Orthop 2019 11 21;43(11):2529-2538. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Hôpitaux Universitaires La Pitié Salpêtrière-Charles Foix, AP-HP, F-75013, Paris, France.

Purpose: Incorrect positioning of components during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) increases the risk of pain, instability, and early revision. The purpose of this study was to compare 3D planning-assisted and a conventional system for TKA positioning. We hypothesized that the use of three-dimensional CT-scan planning and custom cutting guides would increase the accuracy of component positioning.

Methods: A randomized, controlled, prospective study of two groups was performed. In one group, patient-specific custom cutting guides (PSCG) were used for component positioning based on 3D CT-scan planning. In the control group, TKA was performed with a conventional ancillary system. The components' positioning angles were measured on 3D reconstructions. The main evaluation criterion was the percentage of outliers outside of a target zone of ± 3° for the coronal positioning of the femoral component.

Results: Eighty patients were included. The percentage of outliers for the femoral component was significantly lower in the 3D-guided group (1 patient) compared to the control group (7 patients p = 0.02). The coronal femoral angle was restored with greater accuracy in the 3D-assisted group (- 0.1° ± 1.4°) compared to the control group (1.6° ± 2.5°). Surgery was significantly shorter in the 3D group. The clinical outcomes were better in the 3D group at the two year follow-up with fewer failures and a lower standard deviation in IKS scores.

Conclusion: The use of a 3D planning and custom guides can improve TKA component positioning by increasing the accuracy of implants alignment and reducing the percentage of outliers. The same benefit was not demonstrated for the global knee alignment and the clinical scores with no indisputable clinical advantage for the PSCG.
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November 2019

Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture: Ultrasonography and Endoscopy-Assisted Percutaneous Repair.

Arthrosc Tech 2019 May 26;8(5):e489-e493. Epub 2019 Apr 26.

Orthopaedics and Traumatology Department, CHU Martinique, Martinique, France.

To date, there is no consensus concerning the treatment of acute Achilles tendon ruptures. Although surgical treatment decreases the risk of a recurrent rupture, it is not without complications. In particular, percutaneous sutures may cause a lesion of the sural nerve. The purpose of this Technical Note is to describe a reliable and reproducible surgical procedure for treating these lesions. The first operative phase consists of an ultrasound detection that makes it possible to identify the tendon extremities and the sural nerve, which is necessary to secure the posterolateral arthroscopic tract as well as to perform the percutaneous suture. The entry point is thus centered on the lesion and placed at a distance from any surrounding nerve risk. The second arthroscopic phase makes it possible to release the tendon lesion, control the transtendon passage of the surgical threads, and evaluate the dynamic contact of the tendon edges. At the end of the intervention, the complete disappearance from the transillumination via the rupture also makes it possible to ensure the disappearance of the tendon gap. Achilles tendon percutaneous sutures after the ultrasound detection and under arthroscopic control thus makes it possible to control the contact of the tendon edges, while at the same time decreasing the risk of a lesion of the sural nerve, with minimal scarring.
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May 2019

Hamstring Contracture After ACL Reconstruction Is Associated With an Increased Risk of Cyclops Syndrome.

Orthop J Sports Med 2017 Jan 27;5(1):2325967116684121. Epub 2017 Jan 27.

Centre Orthopédique Santy, FIFA Medical Center of Excellence, Générale de Santé, Hôpital Privé Jean Mermoz, Lyon, France.

Background: Cyclops syndrome is characterized by loss of terminal knee extension due to proliferative fibrous nodule formation in the intercondylar notch. This complication occurs in the early postoperative period after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). The pathogenesis of Cyclops syndrome is not well understood.

Hypothesis: Persistent hamstring contracture after ACLR is associated with an increased risk of subsequent Cyclops syndrome.

Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: The files of 45 patients who underwent arthroscopic debridement of a Cyclops lesion after ACLR were analyzed. Recorded data included demographic information and technical details of surgery. Preoperative magnetic resonance images were also analyzed, and patients with femoral bone bruising were identified. Passive and active range of motion were recorded in all patients preoperatively and at 3 and 6 weeks after surgery to address the Cyclops lesion. Passive extension deficit was evaluated in comparison with the contralateral limb and classified as secondary to hamstring contracture when contracture was observed and palpated in the prone position and when the extension deficit was reversed after exercises performed to fatigue the hamstrings. A control group was selected using a random numbers table among our entire ACLR cohort. Statistical analysis was performed to analyze differences between the 2 groups.

Results: There was no significant difference between the groups with regard to age at ACLR, sex distribution, time from injury to surgery ( > .05), proportion of professional athletes, presence of femoral bone bruise, or technical aspects of surgery. The overall extension deficit incidence was significantly higher in the Cyclops group at 3 weeks (Cyclops, 71%; control, 22%) ( < .001) and at 6 weeks (Cyclops, 60%; control, 7%) ( < .001). The extension deficit related to hamstring contracture was significantly higher in the Cyclops group at 3 weeks (Cyclops, 58%; control, 22%) ( < .001) and at 6 weeks (Cyclops, 29%; control, 2%) ( < .001).

Conclusion: The Cyclops lesion is associated with a persistent hamstring contracture at 3 and 6 weeks after ACLR.
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January 2017

Surgical Management of Rectus Femoris Avulsion Among Professional Soccer Players.

Orthop J Sports Med 2017 Jan 23;5(1):2325967116683940. Epub 2017 Jan 23.

Centre Orthopédique Santy, FIFA Medical Center of Excellence, Groupe Ramsay-Generale de sante, Hôpital privée jean Mermoz, Lyon, France.

Background: Rectus femoris injuries are common among athletes, especially in kicking sports such as soccer; however, proximal rectus femoris avulsions in athletes are a relatively rare entity.

Purpose/hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to describe and report the results of an original technique of surgical excision of the proximal tendon remnant followed by a muscular suture repair. Our hypothesis was that this technique limits the risk of recurrence in high-level athletes and allows for rapid recovery without loss of quadriceps strength.

Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.

Methods: Our retrospective series included 5 players aged 31.8 ± 3.9 years with acute proximal rectus femoris avulsion injuries who underwent a surgical resection of the proximal tendon between March 2012 and June 2014. Four of these players had recurrent rectus femoris injuries in the 9 months before surgery, while 1 player had surgery after a first injury. Mean follow-up was 18.2 ± 12.6 months, and minimum follow-up was 9 months. We analyzed the age, sex distribution, physical examination outcomes, type and mechanism of injury, diagnosis, treatment and complications during surgery, postoperative follow-up, and time to return to play. The Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) and Marx scores were obtained at 3-month follow-up, and isokinetic tests were performed before return to sports. A telephone interview was completed to determine the presence of recurrence at an average follow-up of 18.2 months.

Results: At 3-month follow-up, all patients had Marx activity scores of 16 and LEFS scores of 80. Return to the previous level of play occurred at a mean of 15.8 ± 2.6 weeks after surgery, and none of the athletes suffered a recurrence. Isokinetic test results were comparable between both sides.

Conclusion: The surgical treatment of proximal rectus femoris avulsions, consisting of resection of the tendinous part of the muscle, is a reliable and safe technique allowing a fast recovery in professional athletes.
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January 2017

Anterolateral Ligament Reconstruction Is Associated With Significantly Reduced ACL Graft Rupture Rates at a Minimum Follow-up of 2 Years: A Prospective Comparative Study of 502 Patients From the SANTI Study Group.

Am J Sports Med 2017 Jun 2;45(7):1547-1557. Epub 2017 Feb 2.

Centre Orthopédique Santy, FIFA Medical Centre of Excellence, Groupe Ramsay-Generale de Sante, Hôpital Privé Jean Mermoz, Lyon, France.

Background: Graft failure and low rates of return to sport are major concerns after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, particularly in a population at risk.

Purpose: To evaluate the association between reconstruction techniques and subsequent graft rupture and return-to-sport rates in patients aged 16 to 30 years participating in pivoting sports.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2.

Methods: A prospective study of patients undergoing primary ACL reconstruction with a bone-patellar tendon-bone (B-PT-B) graft, quadrupled hamstring tendon (4HT) graft, or hamstring tendon graft combined with anterolateral ligament reconstruction (HT+ALL) was conducted by the Scientific ACL NeTwork International (SANTI) Study Group. Survivorship data from Kaplan-Meier analysis were analyzed in multivariate Cox regression models to identify the prognosticators of graft ruptures and return to sport.

Results: Five hundred two patients (mean age, 22.4 ± 4.0 years) with a mean follow-up of 38.4 ± 8.5 months (range, 24-54 months) were included. There were 105 B-PT-B, 176 4HT, and 221 HT+ALL grafts. The mean postoperative scores at latest follow-up were the following: Lysholm: 92.4 ± 8.6, Tegner: 7.4 ± 2.1, and subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC): 86.8 ± 10.5 for B-PT-B grafts; Lysholm: 91.3 ± 9.9, Tegner: 6.6 ± 1.8, and subjective IKDC: 85.4 ± 10.4 for 4HT grafts; and Lysholm: 91.9 ± 10.2, Tegner: 7.0 ± 2.0, and subjective IKDC: 81.8 ± 13.1 for HT+ALL grafts. The mean side-to-side laxity was 0.6 ± 0.9 mm for B-PT-B grafts, 0.6 ± 1.0 mm for 4HT grafts, and 0.5 ± 0.8 mm for HT+ALL grafts. At a mean follow-up of 38.4 months, the graft rupture rates were 10.77% (range, 6.60%-17.32%) for 4HT grafts, 16.77% (range, 9.99%-27.40%) for B-PT-B grafts, and 4.13% (range, 2.17%-7.80%) for HT+ALL grafts. The rate of graft failure with HT+ALL grafts was 2.5 times less than with B-PT-B grafts (hazard ratio [HR], 0.393; 95% CI, 0.153-0.953) and 3.1 times less than with 4HT grafts (HR, 0.327; 95% CI, 0.130-0.758). There was no significant difference in the graft failure rate between 4HT and B-PT-B grafts (HR, 1.204; 95% CI, 0.555-2.663). Other prognosticators of graft failure included age ≤25 years ( P = .012) and a preoperative side-to-side laxity >7 mm ( P = .018). The HT+ALL graft was associated with higher odds of returning to preinjury levels of sport than the 4HT graft (odds ratio [OR], 1.938; 95% CI, 1.174-3.224) but not compared with the B-PT-B graft (OR, 1.460; 95% CI, 0.813-2.613).

Conclusion: In a high-risk population of young patients participating in pivoting sports, the rate of graft failure with HT+ALL grafts was 2.5 times less than with B-PT-B grafts and 3.1 times less than with 4HT grafts. The HT+ALL graft is also associated with greater odds of returning to preinjury levels of sport when compared with the 4HT graft.
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June 2017

Minimally Invasive Anterolateral Ligament Reconstruction in the Setting of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury.

Arthrosc Tech 2016 Feb 29;5(1):e211-5. Epub 2016 Feb 29.

Centre Orthopédique Santy, Générale de Santé, Hôpital Privé Jean Mermoz, Lyon, France.

Recent evidence on the anatomy, function, and biomechanical properties of the anterolateral ligament has led to the recognition of the importance of this structure in the rotational control of the knee. This article describes a technique that allows for minimally invasive anterolateral ligament reconstruction as a complement to most techniques of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. A gracilis tendon autograft is harvested and prepared in a double-strand, inverted V-shaped graft. The graft is percutaneously placed through a femoral stab incision, and each strand is then passed deep to the iliotibial band, emerging through each tibial stab incision. After the femoral-end loop graft is fixed, the tibial fixation of each strand is performed in full extension for optimal isometry.
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February 2016

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Ganglion Cyst Treated Under Computed Tomography-Guided Aspiration in a Professional Soccer Player.

Orthop J Sports Med 2016 May 3;4(5):2325967116644585. Epub 2016 May 3.

Ramsay-Générale de Santé, Hôpital privé Jean Mermoz; Centre Orthopédique Santy, FIFA Medical Center of Excellence, Lyon, France.

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May 2016

Repair of Meniscal Ramp Lesions Through a Posteromedial Portal During Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Outcome Study With a Minimum 2-Year Follow-up.

Arthroscopy 2016 11 13;32(11):2269-2277. Epub 2016 May 13.

Ramsay Générale de Santé, Hôpital privé Jean Mermoz, Centre Orthopédique Santy, FIFA medical center, Lyon, France.

Purpose: To evaluate the results of arthroscopic all-inside suture repair of medial meniscal ramp lesions through a posteromedial portal during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.

Methods: All patients who underwent a suture of the posterior segment of the medial meniscus using a suture hook device through a posteromedial portal during ACL reconstruction with minimum 2 year-follow-up were included in the study. Repair was performed for longitudinal tears within the rim of less than 3 mm (capsulomeniscal junction or red-red zone) or 3 to 5 mm (red-white zone) of an unstable torn meniscus. Patients were assessed pre- and postoperatively with IKDC score and Tegner activity scale. Instrumented knee testing was performed with the Rolimeter arthrometer. Complications including reoperation for failed meniscal repair were also recorded.

Results: One hundred thirty-two patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean follow-up time was 27 months (range, 24 to 29 months). The average subjective IKDC rose from 63.8 ± 13.5 (range, 27 to 92) preoperatively to 85.7 ± 12 (range, 43 to 100) at last follow-up (P < .0001). The Rolimeter test decreased from a side-to-side difference in anterior knee laxity of 7 mm (range, 5 to 14 mm) to a mean value of 0.4 mm (range, -3 to 5 mm) at last follow-up (P < .0001). The Tegner activity scale at the last follow-up (6.9 ± 1.72) was slightly lower than that before surgery (7.2 ± 1.92; P = .0017). Nine patients (6.8%) had failure of the meniscal repair. In 5 cases, recurrent tears were related to a newly formed tear located anterior to the initial tear.

Conclusions: Our results show that arthroscopic meniscal repair of ramp lesions during ACL reconstruction through a posteromedial portal provided a high rate of meniscus healing at the level of the tear and appeared to be safe and effective in this group of patients.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study, case series (no control group).
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November 2016