Publications by authors named "Charité N Ricker"

9 Publications

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Risk assessment and genetic counseling for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndromes-Practice resource of the National Society of Genetic Counselors.

J Genet Couns 2021 Apr 7;30(2):342-360. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Cancer risk assessment and genetic counseling for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) are a communication process to inform and prepare patients for genetic test results and the related medical management. An increasing number of healthcare providers are active in the delivery of cancer risk assessment and testing, which can have enormous benefits for enhanced patient care. However, genetics professionals remain key in the multidisciplinary care of at-risk patients and their families, given their training in facilitating patients' understanding of the role of genetics in cancer development, the potential psychological, social, and medical implications associated with cancer risk assessment and genetic testing. A collaborative partnership of non-genetics and genetics experts is the ideal approach to address the growing number of patients at risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. The goal of this practice resource is to provide allied health professionals an understanding of the key components of risk assessment for HBOC as well as the use of risk models and published guidelines for medical management. We also highlight what patient types are appropriate for genetic testing, what are the most appropriate test(s) to consider, and when to refer individuals to a genetics professional. This practice resource is intended to serve as a resource for allied health professionals in determining their approach to delivering comprehensive care for families and individuals facing HBOC. The cancer risk and prevalence figures in this document are based on cisgender women and men; the risks for transgender or non-binary individuals have not been studied and therefore remain poorly understood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgc4.1374DOI Listing
April 2021

Psychosocial outcomes following germline multigene panel testing in an ethnically and economically diverse cohort of patients.

Cancer 2021 Apr 15;127(8):1275-1285. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Center for Precision Medicine, City of Hope National Medical Center and Beckman Research Institute, Duarte, California.

Background: Little is known about the psychological outcomes of germline multigene panel testing, particularly among diverse patients and those with moderate-risk pathogenic variants (PVs).

Methods: Study participants (N = 1264) were counseled and tested with a 25- or 28-gene panel and completed a 3-month postresult survey including the Multidimensional Impact of Cancer Risk Assessment (MICRA).

Results: The mean age was 52 years, 80% were female, and 70% had cancer; 45% were non-Hispanic White, 37% were Hispanic, 10% were Asian, 3% were Black, and 5% had another race/ethnicity. Approximately 28% had a high school education or less, and 23% were non-English-speaking. The genetic test results were as follows: 7% had a high-risk PV, 6% had a moderate-risk PV, 35% had a variant of uncertain significance (VUS), and 52% were negative. Most participants (92%) had a total MICRA score ≤ 38, which corresponded to a mean response of "never," "rarely," or only "sometimes" reacting negatively to results. A multivariate analysis found that mean total MICRA scores were significantly higher (more uncertainty/distress) among high- and moderate-risk PV carriers (29.7 and 24.8, respectively) than those with a VUS or negative results (17.4 and 16.1, respectively). Having cancer or less education was associated with a significantly higher total MICRA score; race/ethnicity was not associated with the total MICRA score. High- and moderate-risk PV carriers did not differ significantly from one another in the total MICRA score, uncertainty, distress, or positive experiences.

Conclusions: In a diverse population undergoing genetic counseling and multigene panel testing for hereditary cancer risk, the psychological response corresponded to test results and showed low distress and uncertainty. Further studies are needed to assess patient understanding and subsequent cancer screening among patients from diverse backgrounds.

Lay Summary: Multigene panel tests for hereditary cancer have become widespread despite concerns about adverse psychological reactions among carriers of moderate-risk pathogenic variants (mutations) and among carriers of variants of uncertain significance. This large study of an ethnically and economically diverse cohort of patients undergoing panel testing found that 92% "never," "rarely," or only "sometimes" reacted negatively to results. Somewhat higher uncertainty and distress were identified among carriers of high- and moderate-risk pathogenic variants, and lower levels were identified among those with a variant of uncertain significance or a negative result. Although the psychological response corresponded to risk, reactions to testing were favorable, regardless of results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33357DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8058169PMC
April 2021

Delivery Of Cascade Screening For Hereditary Conditions: A Scoping Review Of The Literature.

Health Aff (Millwood) 2018 05;37(5):801-808

Heather Hampel is associate director of the Division of Human Genetics and of biospecimen research, and a professor of internal medicine, all at the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, in Columbus.

Cascade screening is the process of contacting relatives of people who have been diagnosed with certain hereditary conditions. Its purpose is to identify, inform, and manage those who are also at risk. We conducted a scoping review to obtain a broad overview of cascade screening interventions, facilitators and barriers to their use, relevant policy considerations, and future research needs. We searched for relevant peer-reviewed literature in the period 1990-2017 and reviewed 122 studies. Finally, we described 45 statutes and regulations related to the use and release of genetic information across the fifty states. We sought standardized best practices for optimizing cascade screening across various geographic and policy contexts, but we found none. Studies in which trained providers contacted relatives directly, rather than through probands (index patients), showed greater cascade screening uptake; however, policies in some states might limit this approach. Major barriers to cascade screening delivery include suboptimal communication between the proband and family and geographic barriers to obtaining genetic services. Few US studies examined interventions for cascade screening or used rigorous study designs such as randomized controlled trials. Moving forward, there remains an urgent need to conduct rigorous intervention studies on cascade screening in diverse US populations, while accounting for state policy considerations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2017.1630DOI Listing
May 2018

Patient communication of cancer genetic test results in a diverse population.

Transl Behav Med 2018 01;8(1):85-94

USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Research on the communication of genetic test results has focused predominately on non-Hispanic White (NHW) mutation-positive families with high-risk hereditary cancer conditions. Little is known about this process for racially and ethnically diverse individuals or for those with mutations in moderate risk genes. The communication behaviors of study participants who carry a gene mutation were analyzed 3 months after disclosure of genetic test results. Participants were queried about communication of their results, as part of a prospective study of multi-gene panel genetic testing. The responses of particpants who tested positive were analyzed by race/ethnicity and by level of cancer risk (high vs. moderate). Of the 216 mutation-positive study participants, 136 (63%) responded. Self-reported race/ethnicity was 46% NHW, 41% Hispanic, 10% Asian, and 2% Black. The majority (99.0%, n = 135) had shared their results with someone and 96% had told a family member (n = 130). Hispanic respondents were less likely to have told a healthcare provider about their results than NHW (29% vs. 68%, p < .0001). Asian respondents were less likely than NHW to encourage family members to undergo testing (OR = 0.1, p = .03); but Asian family members were more likely to undergo testing (OR = 8.0, p = .03). There were no differences in communication between those with a mutation in a high- or moderate-risk gene. Three months post genetic testing, communication of results was very high; 30% reported a family member underwent genetic testing. Further studies are needed to better understand the communication process in individuals from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/tbm/ibx010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6065549PMC
January 2018

DNA mismatch repair deficiency and hereditary syndromes in Latino patients with colorectal cancer.

Cancer 2017 Oct 22;123(19):3732-3743. Epub 2017 Jun 22.

Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.

Background: The landscape of hereditary syndromes and clinicopathologic characteristics among US Latino/Hispanic individuals with colorectal cancer (CRC) remains poorly understood.

Methods: A total of 265 patients with CRC who were enrolled in the Hispanic Colorectal Cancer Study were included in the current study. Information regarding CRC risk factors was elicited through interviews, and treatment and survival data were abstracted from clinical charts. Tumor studies and germline genetic testing results were collected from medical records or performed using standard molecular methods.

Results: The mean age of the patients at the time of diagnosis was 53.7 years (standard deviation, 10.3 years), and 48.3% were female. Overall, 21.2% of patients reported a first-degree or second-degree relative with CRC; 3.4% met Amsterdam I/II criteria. With respect to Bethesda guidelines, 38.5% of patients met at least 1 criterion. Of the 161 individuals who had immunohistochemistry and/or microsatellite instability testing performed, 21 (13.0%) had mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient (dMMR) tumors. dMMR tumors were associated with female sex (61.9%), earlier age at the time of diagnosis (50.4 ± 12.4 years), proximal location (61.9%), and first-degree (23.8%) or second-degree (9.5%) family history of CRC. Among individuals with dMMR tumors, 13 (61.9%) had a germline MMR mutation (MutL homolog 1 [MLH1] in 6 patients; MutS homolog 2 [MSH2] in 4 patients; MutS homolog 6 [MHS6] in 2 patients; and PMS1 homolog 2, mismatch repair system component [PMS2] in 1 patient). The authors identified 2 additional MLH1 mutation carriers by genetic testing who had not received immunohistochemistry/microsatellite instability testing. In total, 5.7% of the entire cohort were confirmed to have Lynch syndrome. In addition, 6 individuals (2.3%) had a polyposis phenotype.

Conclusions: The percentage of dMMR tumors noted among Latino individuals (13%) is similar to estimates in non-Hispanic white individuals. In the current study, the majority of individuals with dMMR tumors were confirmed to have Lynch syndrome. Cancer 2017. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society. Cancer 2017;123:3732-3743. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.30790DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5610604PMC
October 2017

Pathological characteristics of BRCA-associated breast cancers in Hispanics.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2011 Nov 21;130(1):281-9. Epub 2011 May 21.

Division of Clinical Cancer Genetics, City of Hope, Duarte, CA, 91010, USA.

The immunophenotype of BRCA-associated breast cancer has been studied in predominantly non-Hispanic whites (NHW). We evaluated the pathological characteristics of BRCA-associated invasive breast cancer in Hispanics. A case-control study was conducted on breast cancers from Hispanic and NHW women who enrolled in an IRB-approved registry and underwent BRCA gene analysis. BRCA negative controls (41 Hispanic, 39 NHW) were matched on age and ethnicity to BRCA positive cases (39 Hispanic, 35 NHW). A tissue array was constructed to characterize the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), HER2, Ki-67 and p53 by immunohistochemistry. Mean age at diagnosis was 37.1 years (range 24-59) for Hispanics (80% with Mexican ancestry) and 40.1 years (range 21-63) for NHW (P = 0.03). Hispanic BRCA1 cases were more likely than BRCA negative controls to have tumors that were ER-negative (P < 0.001) and PR-negative (P = 0.001), had higher levels of Ki-67 (P = 0.001) and p53 expression, and lower levels of HER2 overexpression. When stratified by genes, there were no significant differences in expression of ER, Ki-67, HER2, and p53 by ethnicity among mutation carriers. However, a significantly higher proportion of BRCA-positive Hispanics had PR-negative tumors compared to BRCA-positive NHW (80 vs. 57%, OR = 2.9, 95% CI 1.0-8.1, P = 0.04). Hispanic BRCA-associated breast cancers were found to have the unique immunophenotype associated with BRCA mutations; however, there was a trend toward a difference in PR expression among Hispanic BRCA1 and BRCA2 cases. Additional research on the molecular mechanisms involved in the loss of PR in this population is warranted as it could have important implications for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer in Hispanics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-011-1570-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3526343PMC
November 2011

Social-cognitive aspects of underserved Latinas preparing to undergo genetic cancer risk assessment for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer.

Psychooncology 2008 Aug;17(8):774-82

Department of Clinical Cancer Genetics, City of Hope Cancer Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA.

Objectives: As Latinos are a growing ethnic group in the United States, it is important to understand the socio-cultural factors that may be associated with cancer screening and prevention in this population. The socio-cultural factors that may affect preparedness to undergo genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) deserve particular attention. The pre-GCRA period can provide insight into variables that may influence how medically underserved Latinas, with limited health resources and access, understand hereditary cancer information and subsequently implement cancer risk management recommendations. This study explores social, cognitive and cultural variables in Latinas prior to undergoing GCRA.

Methods: The study sample consisted of low-income, underserved Latinas referred for GCRA because of a personal and/or family history of breast or ovarian cancer. Acculturation, cancer-specific fatalism, self-efficacy and social support were assessed prior to GCRA.

Results: Fifty Latinas (mean age=40.1+/-7.7) completed instruments; 86% had invasive cancer, 78% spoke primarily Spanish and 61% were of Mexican ancestry. Low levels of acculturation (n=50, mean=9.0+/-5.8) and cancer-specific fatalism (n=43, mean=5.6+/-3.2), but relatively high self-efficacy (n=49, mean=40.9+/-7.8) and social support (n=49, mean=37.3+/-8.7) were reported. Cancer-specific fatalism and self-efficacy were inversely correlated (r=-0.47, p=0.002). Those over age 38 at the time of cancer diagnosis reported higher acculturation (mean=11.4+/-7.2, p=0.02) and social support (mean=40.5+/-1.2, p=0.05).

Conclusions: These findings suggest that medically underserved Latinas may already possess some of the necessary skills to successfully approach the GCRA process, but that special attention should be given to cultural factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pon.1358DOI Listing
August 2008

Evidence for common ancestral origin of a recurring BRCA1 genomic rearrangement identified in high-risk Hispanic families.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007 Aug 23;16(8):1615-20. Epub 2007 Jul 23.

Department of Clinical Cancer Genetics, City of Hope, 1500 East Duarte Road, Duarte, CA 91010, USA.

Background: Large rearrangements account for 8% to 15% of deleterious BRCA mutations, although none have been characterized previously in individuals of Mexican ancestry.

Methods: DNA from 106 Hispanic patients without an identifiable BRCA mutation by exonic sequence analysis was subjected to multiplexed quantitative differential PCR. One case of Native American and African American ancestry was identified via multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Long-range PCR was used to confirm deletion events and to clone and sequence genomic breakpoints. Splicing patterns were derived by sequencing cDNA from reverse transcription-PCR of lymphoblastoid cell line RNA. Haplotype analysis was conducted for recurrent mutations.

Results: The same deletion of BRCA1 exons 9 through 12 was identified in five unrelated families. Long-range PCR and sequencing indicated a deletion event of 14.7 kb. A 3-primer PCR assay was designed based on the deletion breakpoints, identified within an AluSp element in intron 8 and an AluSx element in intron 12. Haplotype analysis confirmed common ancestry. Analysis of cDNA showed direct splicing of exons 8 to 13, resulting in a frameshift mutation and predicted truncation of the BRCA1 protein.

Conclusions: We identified and characterized a novel large BRCA1 deletion in five unrelated families-four of Mexican ancestry and one of African and Native American ancestry, suggesting the possibility of founder effect of Amerindian or Mestizo origin. This BRCA1 rearrangement was detected in 3.8% (4 of 106) of BRCA sequence-negative Hispanic families. An assay for this mutation should be considered for sequence-negative high-risk Hispanic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-0198DOI Listing
August 2007

Beliefs and interest in cancer risk in an underserved Latino cohort.

Prev Med 2007 Mar 6;44(3):241-5. Epub 2006 Oct 6.

City of Hope National Medical Center, Clinical Cancer Genetics Department, Duarte, CA 91010, USA.

Objective: To measure beliefs about cancer causation, cancer screening behaviors, access to information about and resources for cancer screening, and interest in cancer genetics services in two underserved predominantly Latino communities.

Methods: An anonymous survey, in both English and Spanish, was distributed at the registration desk to all attendees of selected general medicine clinics in two underserved healthcare systems.

Results: There were a total of 312 respondents, representing 98% of eligible candidates. The reported data focus on 75.3% (n=235) of Latino respondents; mean age 43 years; 78% female; 72% less than high school education. Heredity was perceived as the most frequent cause of cancer, after smoking. Only 37% knew of free cancer screening programs. Over 85% expressed interest in obtaining information about personal cancer risk and motivation to participate in cancer genetics services.

Conclusions: The results of this survey demonstrate an awareness of heredity as a potential cause of cancer. The observed high level of interest in cancer genetics services suggests the acceptability of cancer genetics services in this predominantly underserved Latino population. Furthermore, cancer genetics services would likely augment awareness and utilization of available cancer screening services in the community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2006.08.018DOI Listing
March 2007