Publications by authors named "Chao Yuan"

330 Publications

A High-Throughput Nanofluidic Device for Exosome Nanoporation to Develop Cargo Delivery Vehicles.

Small 2021 Jul 21:e2102150. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Laboratory of Biomedical Microsystems and Nano Devices, Center for Bionic Sensing and Intelligence, Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, 518055, China.

Efficient loading of various exogenous cargos into exosomes while not affecting their integrity and functionalities remains a major challenge. Here, a nanofluidic device named "exosome nanoporator (ENP)" is presented for high-throughput loading of various cargos into exosomes. By transporting exosomes through nanochannels with height comparable to their dimension, exosome membranes are permeabilized by mechanical compression and fluid shear, allowing the influx of cargo molecules into the exosomes from the surrounding solution while maintaining exosome integrity. The ENP consisting of an array of 30 000 nanochannels demonstrates a high sample throughput, and the working mechanism of the device is elucidated through experimental and numerical study. Further, the exosomes treated by the ENP can deliver their drug cargos to human non-small cell lung cancer cells and induce cell death, indicating the potential opportunities of the device for developing new exosome-based delivery vehicles for medical and biological applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202102150DOI Listing
July 2021

miR-198 inhibits the progression of renal cell carcinoma by targeting BIRC5.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 Jul 21;21(1):390. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Hubei Key Laboratory for Kidney Disease Pathogenesis and Intervention, Hubei Polytechnic University School of Medicine, Xialu District guilin north, road no. 16, Huangshi, 435003, Hubei, China.

Background: miR-198 is involved in the formation, migration, invasion, and metastasis of various malignant cancers. However, the function and mechanism of action of miR-198 in the tumorigenesis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remain elusive. Here, we aimed to explore the role of miR198 in RCC.

Methods: Immunohistochemistry was performed to estimate the level of survivin in RCC sections. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the expression level of miR-198 in fresh RCC tissues. Furthermore, the target relationship between miR-198 and BIRC5 was predicted using the TargetScanHuman 7.2 database and verified via dual-luciferase reporter assay and western blotting. The effects of miR-198 on the viability, apoptosis, invasion, and migration of A498 and ACHN cells were studied using Cell Counting Kit-8, flow cytometry, transwell migration assay, and wound healing assay, respectively. Additionally, a xenograft nude mouse model was established to evaluate the effect of miR-198 on RCC tumorigenesis.

Results: The expression levels of BIRC5 and miR-198 were respectively higher and lower in RCC tissues than those in normal adjacent tissues. Furthermore, miR-198 could inhibit luciferase activity and reduce the protein level of survivin without affecting the BIRC5 mRNA levels. miR-198 inhibited cell viability, migration, and invasion and promoted cell apoptosis; co-transfection with BIRC5 could rescue these effects. Moreover, miR-198 could repress tumor growth in the xenograft nude mouse model of RCC.

Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that miR-198 suppresses RCC progression by targeting BIRC5.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-021-02092-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8296723PMC
July 2021

Capped L-norm metric based robust least squares twin support vector machine for pattern classification.

Neural Netw 2021 Jul 4;142:457-478. Epub 2021 Jul 4.

College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing, Haidian, 100083, China. Electronic address:

Least squares twin support vector machine (LSTSVM) is an effective and efficient learning algorithm for pattern classification. However, the distance in LSTSVM is measured by squared L-norm metric that may magnify the influence of outliers. In this paper, a novel robust least squares twin support vector machine framework is proposed for binary classification, termed as CL-LSTSVM, which utilizes capped L-norm distance metric to reduce the influence of noise and outliers. The goal of CL-LSTSVM is to minimize the capped L-norm intra-class distance dispersion, and eliminate the influence of outliers during training process, where the value of the metric is controlled by the capped parameter, which can ensure better robustness. The proposed metric includes and extends the traditional metrics by setting appropriate values of p and capped parameter. This strategy not only retains the advantages of LSTSVM, but also improves the robustness in solving a binary classification problem with outliers. However, the nonconvexity of metric makes it difficult to optimize. We design an effective iterative algorithm to solve the CL-LSTSVM. In each iteration, two systems of linear equations are solved. Simultaneously, we present some insightful analyses on the computational complexity and convergence of algorithm. Moreover, we extend the CL-LSTSVM to nonlinear classifier and semi-supervised classification. Experiments are conducted on artificial datasets, UCI benchmark datasets, and image datasets to evaluate our method. Under different noise settings and different evaluation criteria, the experiment results show that the CL-LSTSVM has better robustness than state-of-the-art approaches in most cases, which demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neunet.2021.06.028DOI Listing
July 2021

Comparative analysis of the effects of collection methods on salivary steroids.

BMC Oral Health 2021 Jul 16;21(1):352. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Preventive Dentistry, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, National Center of Stomatology, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology, Beijing, 100081, People's Republic of China.

Background: Steroid hormone test for saliva was a promising area of research, however the impact of different collection methods on salivary steroids was underexplored so far. This study was designed to compare the effects of different collection methods (unstimulated or stimulated by chewing paraffin, forepart or midstream) on salivary flow rate, concentrations and secretion rates of steroids in saliva.

Methods: Whole-saliva samples were collected from 10 systemically and orally healthy participants, whose forepart and midstream segments of saliva were collected under unstimulated and stimulated conditions, with the salivary flow rate of each sample recorded. The concentrations and secretion rates of salivary steroids including testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and progesterone were measured by ELISA, with the multiple of change calculated.

Results: The results indicated mechanical stimulation used in collection of saliva samples could affect concentrations and secretion rates of steroids, whereas forepart and midstream segments had little differences in levels of salivary steroids, which effects could be partly influenced by individual specificity. The asynchronism in change of secretion rate of steroids with that of salivary flow rate might play an important role during this course.

Conclusion: Based on these findings, we suggested to use the same collection method throughout one analytical study on salivary steroids or in longitudinal observations to ensure the comparability of the saliva samples collected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-021-01722-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8285872PMC
July 2021

Cardioprotective effect of saffron total glycoside tablets in patients with breast cancer receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy: study protocol for a multicentre, randomised, parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Jun 26. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Guang'anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer worldwide. Anthracyclines, alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents, are the most effective chemotherapy agents against breast cancer. However, the dose-dependent cardiotoxicity of anthracyclines is a serious drawback in clinical treatment. Considerable efforts have been made to establish suggestions to avoid anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. Crocin extracted from saffron has potential cardioprotective effects against anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. The aim of this study was to estimate the cardioprotective effects and safety of saffron total glycoside tablets relative to placebo in patients with breast cancer undergoing anthracycline-based chemotherapy.

Methods: This is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. A sample of 200 participants (100 per group) with breast cancer will be randomly assigned to receive either saffron total glycoside tablet or placebo (four tablets each time, three times each day) for 6 months. Each participant will be interviewed three times: baseline (visit 1), after 3 months (visit 2), and after 6 months (visit 3). The primary outcome is to confirm if administration of saffron total glycoside tablets reduces the rate of cardiotoxicity relative to that with placebo. Secondary outcomes include new arrhythmic events, and cardiac troponin I and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels. The quantity, quality, and severity of the adverse events will be carefully documented.

Discussion: We look forward to obtaining high-quality evidence that can be used to formulate clinical practice guidelines. Thus, the findings of this study are expected to help fill the current gap in cardiotoxicity prevention drugs.

Trial Registration: This trial was published in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (No. ChiCTR2000041134, registered on 19th December 2020).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-444DOI Listing
June 2021

Whole-genome re-sequencing association study on yearling wool traits in Chinese fine-wool sheep.

J Anim Sci 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Lanzhou Institute of Husbandry and Pharmaceutical Sciences of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Sheep Breeding Engineering Technology Research Center, Lanzhou, China.

To investigate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci associated with yearling wool traits of fine-wool sheep for optimizing marker-assisted selection and dissection of the genetic architecture of wool traits, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) based on the fixed and random model circulating probability unification (FarmCPU) for yearling staple length (YSL), yearling mean fiber diameter (YFD), yearling greasy fleece weight (YGFW), and yearling clean fleece rate (YCFR) by using the whole-genome re-sequenced data (totaling 577 sheep) from the following 4 fine-wool sheep breeds in China: Alpine Merino sheep (AMS), Chinese Merino sheep (CMS), Qinghai fine-wool sheep (QHS), and Aohan fine-wool sheep (AHS). A total of 16 SNPs were detected above the genome-wise significant threshold (p = 5.45E-09), and 79 SNPs were located above the suggestive significance threshold (p = 5.00E-07) from the GWAS results. For YFD and YGFW traits, 7 and 9 SNPs reached the genome-wise significance thresholds, while 10 and 12 SNPs reached the suggestive significance threshold, respectively. For YSL and YCFR traits, none of the SNPs reached the genome-wise significance thresholds, whereas 57 SNPs exceeded the suggestive significance threshold. We recorded 14 genes located at the region of ±50-kb near the genome-wise significant SNPs and 59 genes located at the region of ±50-kb near the suggestive significant SNPs. Meanwhile, we used the Average Information Restricted Maximum likelihood algorithm (AI-REML) in the "HIBLUP" package to estimate the heritability and variance components of the four desired yearling wool traits. The estimated heritability values (h 2) of YSL, YFD, YGFW, and YCFR were 0.6208, 0.7460, 0.6758, and 0.5559, respectively. We noted that the genetic parameters in this study can be used for fine-wool sheep breeding. The newly detected significant SNPs and the newly identified candidate genes in this study would enhance our understanding of yearling wool formation, and significant SNPs can be applied to genome selection in fine-wool sheep breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/skab210DOI Listing
July 2021

The first complete mitochondrial genome of (Caridea, Acanthephyridae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Jun 21;6(7):2050-2051. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

MNR Key Laboratory of Marine Eco-Environmental Science and Technology, First Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Qingdao, China.

is a deep-sea shrimp, belonging to Caridea, Acanthephyridae. The whole complete mitochondrial genome of was 17,956 bp in length, with 37 genes, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs. The GC content of was 39.43%. The genomic structure and gene arrangement were identical to those of Caridea species. The phylogenetic analysis of 13 protein-coding genes showed a close relationship to the genera .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1942259DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8218848PMC
June 2021

OTULIN allies with LUBAC to govern angiogenesis by editing ALK1 linear polyubiquitin.

Mol Cell 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, National Center for Protein Sciences (Beijing), Beijing Institute of Lifeomics, Beijing 100850, China. Electronic address:

OTULIN coordinates with LUBAC to edit linear polyubiquitin chains in embryonic development, autoimmunity, and inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanism by which angiogenesis, especially that of endothelial cells (ECs), is regulated by linear ubiquitination remains unclear. Here, we reveal that constitutive or EC-specific deletion of Otulin resulted in arteriovenous malformations and embryonic lethality. LUBAC conjugates linear ubiquitin chains onto Activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1), which is responsible for angiogenesis defects, inhibiting ALK1 enzyme activity and Smad1/5 activation. Conversely, OTULIN deubiquitinates ALK1 to promote Smad1/5 activation. Consistently, embryonic survival of Otulin-deficient mice was prolonged by BMP9 pretreatment or EC-specific ALK1 (constitutively active) knockin. Moreover, mutant ALK1 from type 2 hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT2) patients exhibited excessive linear ubiquitination and increased HOIP binding. As such, a HOIP inhibitor restricted the excessive angiogenesis of ECs derived from ALK1-expressing HHT2 patients. These results show that OTULIN and LUBAC govern ALK1 activity to balance EC angiogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2021.05.031DOI Listing
June 2021

In situ reduction triggers the highly sensitive detection of pesticide by classic gold nanoparticle and quantum dots nanocomposite.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Aug 24;1172:338679. Epub 2021 May 24.

College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China; Interdisciplinary Sciences Institute, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China. Electronic address:

Fluorescence "turn on" method is always preferable for target detection under the urgent demand to develop point-of-care portable sensors in practical applications due to its higher selectivity and less false positives. However, there is only few reports of pesticide monitoring based on this strategy so far most probably ascribed to its poor hydrophilicity and reactivity. In this work, triggered by reductant tris (2-carboxyethyl) phosphine hydrochloride (TCEP), initially fluorescence-quenched gold nanoparticles (Au NPs)-decorated quantum dots (QDs)-embedded nanobead shows obvious fluorescence "turn on" signal response to thiram with concentration response range of 0.01-20 μM and limit of detection (LOD) of 7 nM due to the target-induced dissociation of Au NPs from the surface of probe nanobead. Moreover, paper sensor has been successfully developed by immersing commercial drainage membrane in probe solution for visual detection of thiram with the ultrahigh LOD (50 nM) by the naked eye. More importantly, this work, for the first time, reported an in situ reduction strategy to improve the interaction between target and nanoprobe and thus bring obvious signal output for pesticide detection with high sensitivity, demonstrating the potential to expand the detection scope of nanomaterials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2021.338679DOI Listing
August 2021

The Cyclophilin Regulates ABA-Induced Stomatal Closure and the Drought Stress Response of .

Front Plant Sci 2021 25;12:668792. Epub 2021 May 25.

Key Laboratory of Plant Development and Environmental Adaption Biology, Ministry of Education, School of Life Science, Shandong University, Qingdao, China.

Drought causes a major constraint on plant growth, development, and crop productivity. Drought stress enhances the synthesis and mobilization of the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). Enhanced cellular levels of ABA promote the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn induce anion channel activity in guard cells that consequently leads to stomatal closure. Although Cyclophilins (CYPs) are known to participate in the biotic stress response, their involvement in guard cell ABA signaling and the drought response remains to be established. The gene encodes a CYP. Arabidopsis T-DNA mutants showed a reduced level of ABA-activated S-type anion currents, and stomatal closure than wild type (WT). Also, mutants exhibited rapid loss of water in leaf than wild type. Two complementation lines of mutants showed similar stomatal response to ABA as observed for WT. Both complementation lines also showed similar water loss as WT by leaf detached assay. Biochemical assay suggested that positively regulates ROS accumulation by inhibiting catalase activity. In response to ABA treatment or drought stress, mutant show down regulation of a number of stress responsive genes. All findings indicate that positively regulates ABA-induced stomatal closure and the drought response by regulating ROS homeostasis and the expression of various stress-activated genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.668792DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8186832PMC
May 2021

Thermal Transport across Metal/β-GaO Interfaces.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 10;13(24):29083-29091. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, United States.

In this work, we study the thermal transport at β-GaO/metal interfaces, which play important roles in heat dissipation and as electrical contacts in β-GaO devices. A theoretical Landauer approach was used to model and elucidate the factors that impact the thermal transport at these interfaces. Experimental measurements using time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) provided data for the thermal boundary conductance (TBC) between β-GaO and a range of metals used to create both Schottky and ohmic electrical contacts. From the modeling and experiments, the relation between the metal cutoff frequency and the corresponding TBC is observed. Moreover, the effect of the metal cutoff frequency on TBC is seen as the most significant factor followed by chemical reactions and defects between the metal and the β-GaO. Among all β-GaO/metal interfaces, for Schottky contacts, Ni/β-GaO interfaces show the highest TBC, while for ohmic contacts, Cr/β-GaO interfaces show the highest TBC. While there is a clear correlation between TBC and the phonon cutoff frequency of metal contacts, it is also important to control the chemical reactions and other defects at interfaces to maximize the TBC in this system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c05191DOI Listing
June 2021

The Value of Stimulated Thyroglobulin Before the First Radioactive Iodine Treatment in Metastasis for Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.

Clin Lab 2021 Jun;67(6)

Background: To evaluate the value of preablative stimulated thyroglobulin (ps-Tg) before the first radioactive ablation iodine (RAI) treatment to predict the postoperative metastasis of DTC.

Methods: A total of 235 DTC patients, who underwent total thyroidectomy and neck lymph node dissection, were enrolled. On the basis of the presence or absence of metastasis, all patients were divided into metastasis (M1) and non-metastasis (M0) groups. Besides, the patients in the M1 group were further divided into two subgroups according to sites of metastasis. These groups included cervical lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis groups. Subsequently, the level of serum ps-Tg was measured 3 - 4 days before the first RAI ablation treatment, whereas 131I whole-body imaging and SPECT/CT tomography were performed 5 - 7 days after radio ablation. Subsequently, the Mann Whitney U test was used to compare the different levels of ps-Tg between the two groups. Additionally, the relationship between ps-Tg and the metastasis of DTC was analyzed through correlation analysis, regression analysis, and the ROC curve.

Results: The ps-Tg level in the M1 group was higher than that in the M0 group. Further analysis discovered that the ps-Tg in the distant metastasis group was higher than that in the cervical lymph node metastasis and non-metastasis groups. Also, the ps-Tg level was positively correlated with distant metastasis (r = 0.599, p = 0.000). Besides, the results of multivariate logistic regression analysis outlined that the level of ps-Tg was an independent risk factor for the development of distant metastasis (OR = 1.008, p = 0.018). Subsequently, the results from the ROC analysis also showed a good diagnostic performance for ps-Tg in treating distant metastasis (AUC = 0.964, p = 0.000), and the optimal cutoff value was 61.87 ng/mL.

Conclusions: The ps-Tg in patients with DTC before the first RAI ablation treatment is an independent risk factor and a meaningful indicator in predicting postoperative distant metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7754/Clin.Lab.2020.201032DOI Listing
June 2021

Mechanically Robust and UV-Curable Shape-Memory Polymers for Digital Light Processing Based 4D Printing.

Adv Mater 2021 Jul 17;33(27):e2101298. Epub 2021 May 17.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Biomimetic Robotics and Intelligent Systems, Department of Mechanical and Energy Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, 518055, China.

4D printing is an emerging fabrication technology that enables 3D printed structures to change configuration over "time" in response to an environmental stimulus. Compared with other soft active materials used for 4D printing, shape-memory polymers (SMPs) have higher stiffness, and are compatible with various 3D printing technologies. Among them, ultraviolet (UV)-curable SMPs are compatible with Digital Light Processing (DLP)-based 3D printing to fabricate SMP-based structures with complex geometry and high-resolution. However, UV-curable SMPs have limitations in terms of mechanical performance, which significantly constrains their application ranges. Here, a mechanically robust and UV-curable SMP system is reported, which is highly deformable, fatigue resistant, and compatible with DLP-based 3D printing, to fabricate high-resolution (up to 2 µm), highly complex 3D structures that exhibit large shape change (up to 1240%) upon heating. More importantly, the developed SMP system exhibits excellent fatigue resistance and can be repeatedly loaded more than 10 000 times. The development of the mechanically robust and UV-curable SMPs significantly improves the mechanical performance of the SMP-based 4D printing structures, which allows them to be applied to engineering applications such as aerospace, smart furniture, and soft robots.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202101298DOI Listing
July 2021

Numerical Investigation of T-Shaped Microfluidic Oscillator with Viscoelastic Fluid.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Apr 22;12(5). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300350, China.

Oscillatory flow has many applications in micro-scaled devices. The methods of realizing microfluidic oscillators reported so far are typically based on the impinging-jet and Coanda effect, which usually require the flow Reynolds number to be at least at the order of unity. Another approach is to introduce elastomeric membrane into the microfluidic units; however, the manufacturing process is relatively complex, and the membrane will become soft after long-time operation, which leads to deviation from the design condition. From the perspective of the core requirement of a microfluidic circuit, i.e., nonlinearity, the oscillatory microfluidic flow can be realized via the nonlinear characteristics of viscoelastic fluid flow. In this paper, the flow characteristics of viscoelastic fluid (Boger-type) in a T-shaped channel and its modified structures are studied by two-dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS). The main results obtained from the DNS study are as follows: (1) Both Weissenberg (Wi) number and viscosity ratio need to be within a certain range to achieve a periodic oscillating performance; (2) With the presence of the dynamic evolution of the pair of vortices in the upstream near the intersection, the oscillation intensity increases as the elasticity-dominated area in the junction enlarges; (3) Considering the simplicity of the T-type channel as a potential oscillator, the improved structure should have a groove carved toward the entrance near the upper wall. The maximum oscillation intensity measured by the standard deviation of flow rate at outlet is increased by 129% compared with that of the original standard T-shaped channel under the same condition. To sum up, with Wi number and viscosity ratio within a certain range, the regular periodic oscillation characteristics of Oldroyd-B type viscoelastic fluid flow in standard T-shaped and its modified channels can be obtained. This structure can serve as a passive microfluidic oscillator with great potential value at an extremely low Reynolds number, which has the advantages of simplicity, no moving parts and fan-out of two.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi12050477DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143478PMC
April 2021

Correction: 1,2,4-Trimethoxybenzene selectively inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation and attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Key Laboratory of Modern Preparation of TCM, Ministry of Education, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang 330004, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41401-021-00670-zDOI Listing
April 2021

Impact of meteorological factors on hospital admissions for spinal diseases in Shanghai during 2015-2019.

Int J Environ Health Res 2021 Apr 5:1-11. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of orthopedic, Zhongshan Hospital Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Purpose: To assess the correlation between meteorological factors and spinal disease admissions.

Methods: Data was obtained from the electronic medical records of a tertiary general hospital. Meteorological data was collected from China Meteorological Science Data Sharing Service. Distributed lag nonlinear models were used to evaluate the impact of meteorological variables on weekly spinal disease admissions.

Results: A total of 2739 spinal cases were documented. Compared with estimates at the 50, the cumulative relative risk (RR) for extremely high temperatures at the 97.5 over lag week 18 to lag week 20 increased by 75.7%. When the weekly maximum temperature reached 38°C during lag week 20, the maximum RR was 1.96 (95% CI:1.095-3.506). Moreover, the effects of extremely high temperatures on spinal disease admissions were more obvious in females and the age group ≥65 years old compared with males and the age group<65 years old.

Conclusions: Extremely high temperatures were significantly associated with higher risks of spinal disease admissions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09603123.2021.1912302DOI Listing
April 2021

Genomic insights into evolution of pathogenicity and resistance of multidrug-resistant Raoultella ornithinolytica WM1.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine and Biotherapy, School of Life Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081, China.

Raoultella ornithinolytica is a poorly understood opportunistic pathogen, and the underlying mechanisms of its multidrug resistance and pathogenicity have not yet been comprehensively investigated. The multidrug-resistant (MDR) strain WM1 was isolated from the blood of a male patient in Tianjin, China, in 2018. Here, we describe the complete genome and provide a genomic analysis of R. ornithinolytica WM1. The isolate was resistant to all tested antimicrobials except amikacin, tobramycin, and tigecycline. Two plasmids, pWM1-1 (IncHI5) and pWM1-2 (IncR), carried multidrug-resistance regions. A large antimicrobial resistance island region resided on pWM1-1 and exhibited mosaic structures resulting from the acquisition of complex integrations of variable regions, including genes conferring resistance to multiple classes of antimicrobials. Moreover, WM1 possessed virulence-related elements that encode several virulence factors, including type I fimbriae, Escherichia coli common pilus, type II and VI secretion systems, yersiniabactin, enterobactin, and surface polysaccharide, indicating pathogenic potential. Furthermore, the core genome phylogeny and pan-genome analyses revealed extensive genetic diversity. Our analysis indicates the need for stringent infection control, antimicrobial stewardship, periodic resistance monitoring, and rational medication to address potential threats posed by MDR R. ornithinolytica strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14595DOI Listing
March 2021

Discovery of New α-Glucosidase Inhibitors: Structure-Based Virtual Screening and Biological Evaluation.

Front Chem 2021 8;9:639279. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

School of Biological Science and Technology, University of Jinan, Jinan, China.

α-Glycosidase inhibitors could inhibit the digestion of carbohydrates into glucose and promote glucose conversion, which have been used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In the present study, 52 candidates of α-glycosidase inhibitors were selected from commercial Specs compound library based on molecular docking-based virtual screening. Four different scaffold compounds (7, 22, 37, and 44) were identified as α-glycosidase inhibitors with IC values ranging from 9.99 to 35.19 μM. All these four compounds exerted better inhibitory activities than the positive control (1-deoxynojirimycin, IC = 52.02 μM). The fluorescence quenching study and kinetic analysis revealed that all these compounds directly bind to α-glycosidase and belonged to the noncompetitive α-glycosidase inhibitors. Then, the binding modes of these four compounds were carefully investigated. Significantly, these four compounds showed nontoxicity (IC > 100 μM) toward the human normal hepatocyte cell line (LO2), which indicated the potential of developing into novel candidates for type 2 diabetes treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2021.639279DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7982526PMC
March 2021

Peptidomic changes of saliva after nonsurgical treatment of stage I / II generalized periodontitis.

Oral Dis 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Preventive Dentistry, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Digital Stomatology, Beijing, PR China.

Objective: To explore the changes of peptidome profiles of saliva, serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) before and after nonsurgical periodontal treatment in patients with generalized periodontitis (stage I / II).

Subjects And Methods: Saliva, serum and GCF samples were collected from 17 patients at baseline (T ), one week after ultrasonic supragingival scaling (T ) and eight weeks after subgingival scaling and root planning (T ). Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was carried out to detect changes in peptidomic profiles. Then nano-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC/ESI-MS/MS) was performed to identify potential peptide biomarkers.

Results: Most of the peptides from the patients exhibited a decreasing trend from the time point of pre-treatment to that of post-treatment. Cluster analysis and scatter plots using these peptides indicated that salivary peptidome has an acceptable capability of reflecting the status of stage I / II generalized periodontitis. Seven of these peptides were successfully identified as α-1-antitrypsin, immunoglobulin κ variable 4-1, haptoglobin and immunoglobulin heavy constant γ2.

Conclusions: Certain peptides in saliva, serum and GCF were down-regulated after nonsurgical periodontal treatment, demonstrating the application prospects of saliva in monitoring and surveillance of periodontal diseases in both clinical settings and communities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/odi.13838DOI Listing
March 2021

Application analysis on the different neutron gamma density (NGD) logging methods.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Jun 11;172:109672. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

College of Geophysics and Petroleum Resources, Yangtze University, Wuhan, 430100, China. Electronic address:

Neutron gamma density (NGD) logging is the most promising alternative to the traditional density logging (GGD), which is of significance for resolving the radiation and safety issues in oil industry. However, due to the different HI correction methods, multiple NGD methods based on the fast neutron, thermal neutron, and capture gamma detection coexist in the well-logging field, and show considerable differences in the tool specifications. To clarify these differences and guide the NGD development, three typical NGD methods using the fast neutron count ratio, thermal neutron count ratio, and capture gamma count ratio (abbreviated as NGD-FC, NGD-TC, and NGD-CC methods) are selected as representatives for comparative study. Using the Monte Carlo simulation, an integrated NGD tool model was established for studying the differences of three NGD methods in the logging responses, data processing methods, and environmental applications. Research shows that, although the three NGD methods have different measurement systems and data processing methods, the three methods can get rid of the HI effect and obtain accurate formation density. The changes of wellbore size and wellbore fluid have similar and significant impact on the three NGD methods and lead to large density errors, especially for the large-size wellbore or wellbore gas conditions. In the different lithology conditions, three methods have good performances, but the NGD-FC and NGD-CC methods have smaller density errors than NGD-TC method. Compared to the other two NGD methods, the NGD-FC method also has a perfect performance in the oil or gas-saturated formation, while NGD-TC and NGD-CC methods have extremely large errors in the gas-saturated formation. Besides, the NGD-FC method are hardly affected by the formation water salinity, the NGD-TC method is slightly affected, while the NGD-CC method is greatly affected. This study can provide a guidance for the tool design, data processing and environment correction of the NGD technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2021.109672DOI Listing
June 2021

Vessel flow void sign and hyperintense vessel sign on FLAIR images distinguish between MELAS and AIS.

Mitochondrion 2021 May 11;58:131-134. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Neurology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the vessel signs, including the Vessel Flow Void Sign (VFVS) and the Hyperintense Vessel Sign (HVS) in Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) images during the differentiation of Mitochondrial Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-like Episodes (MELAS) in Acute Ischemic Stroke (AIS).

Methods: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans of 13 MELAS and 20 AIS patients were obtained during the acute stage of the diseases (median time to scan <1 day from symptom onset). To evaluate VFVS and HVS on the FLAIR images, Logistic Regression was used to analyze their correlation with MELAS. Then, a new scale of scoring, involving two aspects (VFVS and HVS) on FLAIR images was established. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the efficacy of the developed criterion.

Results: FLAIR images from 12 of the 13 MELAS patients exhibited VFVS while none exhibited HVS. Moreover, FLAIR images from 3 of the 20 AIS patients exhibited VFVS while 17 exhibited HVS. Logistic Regression showed that VFVS and the absence of HVS (NoHVS) were independent MELAS predictors. If there were VFVS, the patient scored 2 points, while there were NoHVS, the patient scored 1 point. Patients with >1.5 scores were prone to be MELAS, while patients with <1.5 scores were prone to be AIS. Sensitivity was found to be 92.3%, specificity was 85%, with an AUC of 0.94.

Conclusion: We have established a new scoring criterion, with a high sensitivity and specificity, for differentiating between MELAS and AIS in patients during the acute stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mito.2021.02.015DOI Listing
May 2021

Selective Sweeps Uncovering the Genetic Basis of Horn and Adaptability Traits on Fine-Wool Sheep in China.

Front Genet 2021 23;12:604235. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Animal Science Department, Lanzhou Institute of Husbandry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China.

Long-term natural and artificial selection leads to change in certain regions of the genome, resulting in selection signatures that can reveal genes associated with selected traits, such as horns (i.e., polled/horned), high-quality wool traits, and high-altitude hypoxia adaptability. These are complex traits determined by multiple genes, regulatory pathways, and environmental factors. A list of genes with considerable effects on horn and adaptability traits has not been found, although multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified. Selection signatures could be identified using genetic differentiation (F ), polymorphism levels θπ, and Tajima's D. This study aimed to identify selection signatures in fine-wool sheep and to investigate the genes annotated in these regions, as well as the biological pathways involved in horn and adaptability traits. For this purpose, the whole-genome sequence of 120 individuals from four breeds, which come from different elevations and habitats in China, was used to analyze selection signatures for horn and adaptability traits. Annotation of the consensus regions of F and θπ ratios revealed a list of identified genes associated with polled/horned and high-altitude hypoxia adaptability traits, such as , EE, , , , , , and . Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis identified genes related primarily to mismatch repair, metabolism, vascular smooth muscle contraction, and cardiac muscle contraction. This is the first study to demonstrate that selection signatures play an important role in the polled/horned and high-altitude hypoxia adaptability traits of fine-wool sheep breeds that have undergone high-intensity selection and adapted to different ecological environments in China. Changes observed in the genome of fine-wool sheep may have acted on genomic regions that affect performance traits and provide a reference for genome design and breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.604235DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7940688PMC
February 2021

Identification of differentially expressed lncRNAs as potential plasma biomarkers for active tuberculosis.

Tuberculosis (Edinb) 2021 05 3;128:102065. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, 250033, Jinan, Shandong, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Background: Tuberculosis, one of the deadliest infectious diseases worldwide, is difficult to diagnose. As long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) were demonstrated to be promising biomarkers, we aimed to identify lncRNAs in plasma as potential biomarkers for tuberculosis.

Methods: We analyzed a GEO dataset (GSE94907) to identify the differential lncRNAs in serum exosomes between active tuberculosis (ATB) patients and healthy controls. To search for promising candidates that can be used for tuberculosis diagnosis, we excluded low-abundance lncRNAs using a cutoff value of FPKM >5. Four lncRNAs were selected for validation using real-time quantitative PCR in 69 ATB patients and 69 healthy individuals. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed to evaluate the diagnostic value of these lncRNAs for ATB.

Results: Integrated analysis of the GEO dataset and NONCODE database identified nine dysregulated lncRNAs in ATB patient serum exosomes. Compared with the heathy controls, NONHSAT101518.2, NONHSAT067134.2, NONHSAT148822.1 and NONHSAT078957.2 were significantly downregulated in ATB patient plasma. ROC curve analysis suggests that these four lncRNAs can discriminate ATB from healthy individuals with high specificity and sensitivity.

Conclusion: We identified four differentially expressed lncRNAs in ATB patient plasma that can be used as potential diagnostic biomarkers of ATB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tube.2021.102065DOI Listing
May 2021

1,2,4-Trimethoxybenzene selectively inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation and attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Center on Translational Neuroscience, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing, 100081, China.

NOD-like receptor (NLR) family pyrin domain-containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is implicated in inflammation-associated diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and stroke. Targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome is beneficial to these diseases, but few NLRP3 inflammasome-selective inhibitors are identified to date. Essential oils (EOs) are liquid mixtures of volatile and low molecular-weight organic compounds extracted from aromatic plants, which show various pharmacological activities, including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study we screened active ingredients from essential oils, and identified 1,2,4-trimethoxybenzene (1,2,4-TTB) as a selective NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor. We showed that 1,2,4-TTB (1 mM) markedly suppressed nigericin- or ATP-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation, thus decreased caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion in immortalized murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (iBMDMs) and in primary mouse microglia. Moreover, 1,2,4-TTB specifically inhibited the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome without affecting absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasome activation. We further demonstrated that 1,2,4-TTB inhibited oligomerization of the apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) and protein-protein interaction between NLRP3 and ASC, thus blocking NLRP3 inflammasome assembly in iBMDMs and in primary mouse macrophages. In mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), administration of 1,2,4-TTB (200 mg · kg · d, i.g. for 17 days) significantly ameliorated EAE progression and demyelination. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that 1,2,4-TTB is an NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor and attenuates the clinical symptom and inflammation of EAE, suggesting that 1,2,4-TTB is a potential candidate compound for treating NLRP3 inflammasome-driven diseases, such as multiple sclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41401-021-00613-8DOI Listing
February 2021

Long Non-Coding RNA JPX Contributes to Tumorigenesis by Regulating miR-5195-3p/VEGFA in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 12;13:1477-1489. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Oncology, The People's Hospital of Shouguang, Weifang, People's Republic of China.

Background: Lung cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer. Of all lung cancers, 80-85% are verified as non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Just proximal to X-inactive specific transcript (JPX), functions as lncRNA, contributed to tumor progression and suggested a poor prognosis in NSCLC. However, the pathogenesis of JPX involved in NSCLC is still unclear.

Methods: The expressions of JPX, miR-5195-3p, and Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Proliferation, colony number, apoptosis, invasion, and migration were analyzed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), colony formation, flow cytometry, transwell, and wound healing assays, severally. The protein levels of VEGFA, E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and Vimentin were detected by Western blot assay. The interaction between JPX, miR-5195-3p and VEGFA was predicted by starBase, and then verified by the dual-luciferase reporter, RNA Immunoprecipitation (RIP) and RNA pull-down assay. The biological role of JPX on NSCLC tumor growth was assessed by the xenograft tumor model in vivo.

Results: JPX and VEGFA were upregulated, and miR-5195-3p was downregulated in NSCLC. JPX induced proliferation, colony number, invasion, migration, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and inhibited apoptosis of NSCLC cells. JPX is directly bound to miR-5195-3p. JPX regulated NSCLC cell proliferation, apoptosis and EMT by modulating miR-5195-3p. miR-5195-3p hindered NSCLC cells proliferation, EMT and accelerated apoptosis by directly targeting VEGFA. JPX silencing hindered the cell growth of NSCLC in vivo.

Conclusion: JPX facilitated proliferation, colony number, invasion, migration, EMT, and repressed apoptosis by miR-5195-3p/VEGFA axis, offering a possible therapeutic strategy for NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S255317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7886111PMC
February 2021

Genome-wide association studies detects candidate genes for wool traits by re-sequencing in Chinese fine-wool sheep.

BMC Genomics 2021 Feb 18;22(1):127. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Lanzhou Institute of Husbandry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Sheep Breeding Engineering Technology Research Center of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, 730050, China.

Background: The quality and yield of wool determine the economic value of the fine-wool sheep. Therefore, discovering markers or genes relevant to wool traits is the cornerstone for the breeding of fine-wool sheep. In this study, we used the Illumina HiSeq X Ten platform to re-sequence 460 sheep belonging to four different fine-wool sheep breeds, namely, Alpine Merino sheep (AMS), Chinese Merino sheep (CMS), Aohan fine-wool sheep (AHS) and Qinghai fine-wool sheep (QHS). Eight wool traits, including fiber diameter (FD), fiber diameter coefficient of variance (FDCV), fiber diameter standard deviation (FDSD), staple length (SL), greasy fleece weight (GFW), clean wool rate (CWR), staple strength (SS) and staple elongation (SE) were examined. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed to detect the candidate genes for the eight wool traits.

Results: A total of 8.222 Tb of raw data was generated, with an average of approximately 8.59X sequencing depth. After quality control, 12,561,225 SNPs were available for analysis. And a total of 57 genome-wide significant SNPs and 30 candidate genes were detected for the desired wool traits. Among them, 7 SNPs and 6 genes are related to wool fineness indicators (FD, FDCV and FDSD), 10 SNPs and 7 genes are related to staple length, 13 SNPs and 7 genes are related to wool production indicators (GFW and CWR), 27 SNPs and 10 genes associated with staple elongation. Among these candidate genes, UBE2E3 and RHPN2 associated with fiber diameter, were found to play an important role in keratinocyte differentiation and cell proliferation. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment results, revealed that multitude significant pathways are related to keratin and cell proliferation and differentiation, such as positive regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway (GO:0090263).

Conclusion: This is the first GWAS on the wool traits by using re-sequencing data in Chinese fine-wool sheep. The newly detected significant SNPs in this study can be used in genome-selective breeding for the fine-wool sheep. And the new candidate genes would provide a good theoretical basis for the fine-wool sheep breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-021-07399-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7893944PMC
February 2021

High-Amylose Corn Starch/Konjac Glucomannan Composite Film: Reinforced by Incorporating β-Cyclodextrin.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Mar 17;69(8):2493-2500. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

State Key Laboratory of Biobased Material and Green Papermaking, Qilu University of Technology, Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan 250353, China.

Glycerol-plasticized high-amylose corn starch/konjac glucomannan (HCS/KGM) composite films incorporated with various concentrations of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) were prepared and investigated for structural, mechanical, and physical properties. The results of X-ray diffraction, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analyses, and scanning electron microscopy indicated that β-CD excluded from the polymer chains and aggregated to form crystals during film formation, which drove HCS to interact with KGM more compactly. The thickness and transparency of the films increased after β-CD was incorporated. More associations of HCS/KGM enhanced the mechanical properties and reduced the moisture content of the films. The water vapor permeability of the HCS/KGM composite film was also improved significantly with the incorporation of β-CD. The enhanced association between biopolymers in the presence of β-CD will advance the development of a degradable active composite packaging film.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c06648DOI Listing
March 2021

Synthesis of polystyrene-based fluorescent quantum dots nanolabel and its performance in H5N1 virus and SARS-CoV-2 antibody sensing.

Talanta 2021 Apr 2;225:122064. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, PR China; College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, PR China; Key Laboratory of Development of Veterinary Diagnostic Products, Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan, 430070, PR China. Electronic address:

Quantum dots (QDs) based fluorescent nanobeads are considered as promising materials for next generation point-of-care diagnosis systems. In this study, we carried out, for the first time, the synthesis of QDs nanobeads using polystyrene (PS) nanobead as the template. QDs loading on PS nanobead surface in this method can be readily achieved by the use of polyelectrolyte, avoiding the time-consuming and uncontrollable silane reagents-involved functionalization procedure that conventional synthesis of silica-based QDs nanobeads often suffer from. Notably, the application of QDs nanobeads in suspension microarray for H5N1 virus detection leads to a sensitivity lower than 25 PFU/mL. In addition, QDs nanobead was also incorporated into lateral flow assay for SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection, leading to more than one order of magnitude detection sensitivity as compared to that of commercial one based on colloid gold.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2020.122064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7831906PMC
April 2021

Mediator structure and conformation change.

Mol Cell 2021 04 10;81(8):1781-1788.e4. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Shanghai Institute for Advanced Immunochemical Studies, ShanghaiTech University, 201210 Shanghai, China; Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address:

Mediator is a universal adaptor for transcription control. It serves as an interface between gene-specific activator or repressor proteins and the general RNA polymerase II (pol II) transcription machinery. Previous structural studies revealed a relatively small part of Mediator and none of the gene activator-binding regions. We have determined the cryo-EM structure of the Mediator at near-atomic resolution. The structure reveals almost all amino acid residues in ordered regions, including the major targets of activator proteins, the Tail module, and the Med1 subunit of the Middle module. Comparison of Mediator structures with and without pol II reveals conformational changes that propagate across the entire Mediator, from Head to Tail, coupling activator- and pol II-interacting regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2021.01.022DOI Listing
April 2021

The Beneficial Effects of Saffron Extract on Potential Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Diseases.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 19;2021:6699821. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Guang'anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053, China.

Saffron is commonly used in traditional medicines and precious perfumes. It contains pharmacologically active compounds with notably potent antioxidant activity. Saffron has a variety of active components, including crocin, crocetin, and safranal. Oxidative stress plays an important role in many cardiovascular diseases, and its uncontrolled chain reaction is related to myocardial injury. Numerous studies have confirmed that saffron exact exhibits protective effects on the myocardium and might be beneficial in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. In view of the role of oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease, people have shown considerable interest in the potential role of saffron extract as a treatment for a range of cardiovascular diseases. This review analyzed the use of saffron in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases through antioxidant stress from four aspects: antiatherosclerosis, antimyocardial ischemia, anti-ischemia reperfusion injury, and improvement in drug-induced cardiotoxicity, particularly anthracycline-induced. Although data is limited in humans with only two clinically relevant studies, the results of preclinical studies regarding the antioxidant stress effects of saffron are promising and warrant further research in clinical trials. This review summarized the protective effect of saffron in cardiovascular diseases and drug-induced cardiotoxicity. It will facilitate pharmacological research and development and promote utilization of saffron.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6699821DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7840270PMC
January 2021