Publications by authors named "Chao Xu"

1,062 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Method for quick DNA barcode reference library construction.

Ecol Evol 2021 Sep 4;11(17):11627-11638. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany Institute of Botany Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing China.

DNA barcoding has become one of the most important techniques in plant species identification. Successful application of this technology is dependent on the availability of reference database of high species coverage. Unfortunately, there are experimental and data processing challenges to construct such a library within a short time. Here, we present our solutions to these challenges. We sequenced six conventional DNA barcode fragments (ITS1, ITS2, 1, 2, 1, and 2) of 380 flowering plants on next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms (Illumina Hiseq 2500 and Ion Torrent S5) and the Sanger sequencing platform. After comparing the sequencing depths, read lengths, base qualities, and base accuracies, we conclude that Illumina Hiseq2500 PE250 run is suitable for conventional DNA barcoding. We developed a new "Cotu" method to create consensus sequences from NGS reads for longer output sequences and more reliable bases than the other three methods. Step-by-step instructions to our method are provided. By using high-throughput machines (PCR and NGS), labeling PCR, and the Cotu method, it is possible to significantly reduce the cost and labor investments for DNA barcoding. A regional or even global DNA barcoding reference library with high species coverage is likely to be constructed in a few years.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.7788DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8427591PMC
September 2021

Development of a Rat Sandwich-Cultured Hepatocytes Model Expressing Functional Human Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide (OATP) 1B3: A Potential Screening Tool for Liver-Targeting Compounds.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2021 ;24:475-483

College of Pharmacy, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA.

Purpose: Organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B3 transports many clinically important drugs, including statins, from blood into the liver. It exclusively expresses in human liver under normal physiological conditions. There is no rodent ortholog of human OATP1B3. Tissue targeting of therapeutic molecules mediated by transporters, including liver-targeting via liver-specific OATPs, is an emerging area in drug development. Sandwich-cultured primary hepatocytes (SCH) are a well characterized in vitro model for assessment of hepatic drug uptake and biliary excretion. The current study was designed to develop a novel rat SCH model expressing human OATP1B3 to study the hepatic disposition of OATP1B3 substrates.

Methods: Primary rat hepatocytes transduced with adenoviral vectors expressing FLAG-tagged OATP1B3 (Ad-OATP1B3), a control vector Ad-LacZ, or that were non-transduced were cultured in a sandwich configuration. FLAG immunoblot and immunofluorescence-staining determined expression and localization of OATP1B3. Uptake of [3H]-cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8), a specific OATP1B3 substrate, was determined. Taurocholate (TC) is a substrate routinely used in SCH to assess biliary excretion via bile canaliculi (BC) and is also a substrate of OATP1B3. [3H]-TC accumulation in cells+BC, cells, biliary excretion index (BEI) and in vitro Clbiliary were determined using B-CLEAR® technology.

Results: OATP1B3 protein was extensively expressed and primarily localized on the plasma membrane in day 4 Ad-OATP1B3-transduced rat SCH. [3H]-CCK-8 accumulation in cells+BC was significantly greater (~5-13 folds, p<0.001) in day 4 SCH with vs. without Ad-OATP1B3-transduction. Expressing OATP1B3 in rat SCH significantly increased [3H]-TC accumulation in cells+BC and cells, without affecting BEI and in vitro Clbiliary.

Conclusions: Rat SCH expressing human OATP1B3-is a novel in vitro model allowing simultaneous assessment of hepatic uptake, hepatocellular accumulation and biliary excretion process of a human OATP1B3 substrate. This model could be a potential tool for screening for liver-targeting compounds mediated by OATP1B3.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps31818DOI Listing
January 2021

Long non-coding RNA SNHG16 as a potential biomarker in hepatocellular carcinoma: A meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Sep;100(36):e27178

Department of Infectious Disease, Liaocheng People's Hospital, Liaocheng, Shandong Province, China.

Abstract: Small nucleolar RNA host gene 16 (SNHG16) has recently been reported as a potential biomarker in various cancers. However, the prognostic value of SNHG16 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been investigated yet. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to reveal the association between SNHG16 expression and clinicopathological characteristics of HCC.Standards-compliant literature was retrieved from multiple public databases, and data on overall survival, disease-free survival, and clinicopathological characteristics related to SNGH16 were extracted and meta-analysis was performed. Additionally, the Cancer Genome Atlas data were analyzed through the gene expression profiling interactive analysis database to verify previous results.A total of 5 reports involving 410 patients with HCC were enrolled. The high expression of SNHG16 indicated worse overall survival (hazard ratio, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.22-3.60; P = .007) and disease-free survival (hazard ratio, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.10-10.40; P = .03). Additionally, the high expression of SNHG16 predicted a larger tumor size, metastasis, and advanced TNM stage.SNHG16 could serve as a potential biomarker of poor prognosis in HCC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000027178DOI Listing
September 2021

Influence of anti-rheumatic agents on the periodontal condition of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Periodontal Res 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Periodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Objective: To evaluate the influence of diverse anti-rheumatic agents on the periodontal condition and to provide clinical medication guidance for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis.

Background: In recent years, the correlation between RA and periodontitis has become a hot research topic, but no medication recommendations for patients with RA and periodontitis are available at present.

Methods: The protocol of this review was registered in advance with PROSPERO (CRD42021248827). Electronic search and manual searches up to March 20, 2021 were conducted. The inclusion criteria for the studies were as follows: included patients diagnosed with periodontitis and RA submitted to anti-rheumatic agent therapy; with a control group receiving no anti-rheumatic agent therapy; with outcomes including at least one periodontal parameter. Probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were pooled using weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) while gingival index (GI)/modified gingival index (MGI) was analyzed by standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% CI.

Results: One thousand four hundred and seventy-eight studies potentially related to the aim of this review were screened, but only 463 patients from 14 studies were included in the qualitative analysis, and 146 patients from 4 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Statistically significant reductions were observed among the subjects who received anti-rheumatic agents for PD [WMD = -0.20; 95% CI (-0.33, -0.07); effect p = .003; I  = 50%; p = .11], CAL [WMD = -0.4; 95% CI (-0.66, -0.15); effect p = .002; I  = 57%; p = .07] and GI/MGI [SMD = -0.61;95% CI (-0.94, -0.27; effect p = .0004; I  = 26%; p = .25]. Consistent with the above results, this systematic review produced promising results that PD, CAL, GI/MGI, and bleeding on probing (BOP) decreased when patients with RA and periodontitis were treated with conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (csDMARDs), anti-B lymphocyte agents, anti-IL-6R agents, or JAK inhibitors. PD and CAL declined after the administration of anti-TNF-α agents; most studies reported decreased GI/MGI and BOP, while 2 studies reported increased GI/MGI and BOP.

Conclusions: These results revealed that csDMARDs, anti-B lymphocyte agents, anti-IL-6R agents, anti-TNF-α agents, and JAK inhibitors had potential positive effects in improving the periodontal condition of patients with RA and periodontitis. However, future research is needed to elucidate whether anti-TNF-α agents have a side effect of increased gingival inflammation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jre.12925DOI Listing
September 2021

Downregulation of LHPP Expression Associated with AFP Acts as a Good Prognostic Factor in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Biomed Res Int 2021 25;2021:1971048. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710038, China.

Background: Phospholysine phosphohistidine inorganic pyrophosphate phosphatase (LHPP) serves as a tumor suppressor in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the correlation between the expression of LHPP and the clinical parameters of oncogenic progression is still not well defined. This study is to reveal the correlation between the expression of LHPP in HCC and their clinical parameters.

Methods: Immunohistochemical analysis was used to assess the correlation between the expression of LHPP and the clinical parameters of HCC. Expressions of LHPP in HCC tissues and cultured HCC cells were detected by Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). LHPP, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and -fetoprotein (AFP) expression levels in blood or HCC tissues were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The Spearman rank correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation of the expression of LHPP and the clinical index of HCC. Correlation of survival and expression of LHPP were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test.

Results: Expressions of LHPP in HCC tissues were significantly downregulated than their paired adjacent normal tissues. A significant positive correlation was found between the cytoplasm and nuclear expression of LHPP in both HCC and their paired adjacent normal tissues. The expression of LHPP negatively correlated with the levels of GGT in the cytoplasm of adjacent tissues and with the AFP level in the nucleus of HCC cells. Relative levels of LHPP in HCC tissues were markedly lower than those of the paired adjacent normal tissues. Relative levels of LHPP in LO-2 cells were higher than those of HepG2, BEL-7404, and SMMC-7721 cell lines. The overall survival and DSF survival of patients with the high expression of LHPP were much higher than those with the low expression of LHPP in paired adjacent normal tissue.

Conclusions: LHPP is associated with the AFP level and acts as a good prognostic factor in HCC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/1971048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8416364PMC
August 2021

Safety Evaluation and Flow Modification in the Anterior Cerebral Artery after Pipeline Embolization Device Deployment across the Internal Carotid Artery Terminus.

Biomed Res Int 2021 21;2021:6657595. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China.

Method: The clinical and imaging data of PEDs in the postmarket multicenter registry study (PLUS) in China were retrospectively analyzed, and patients were divided into two groups on the basis of the follow-up angiographic results: group 1 (no significant change in A1 blood flow) and group 2 (A1 occlusion or decreased blood flow). We collected patients' baseline data and evaluated the following imaging indicators: diameter and ratio of bilateral A1, M1, and internal carotid artery (ICA) vessels before stenting and the ratio of the PED size (sPED) to the ipsilateral ICA (I-ICA) diameter on the implantation side.

Results: A total of 1171 patients were included, of whom 48 met the inclusion criteria (17 in group 1 and 31 in group 2). In group 2, three patients experienced neurological deterioration at follow-up. From the univariate analysis of outcomes, single PED without coils, incomplete aneurysm occlusion (IAO), maximum aneurysm diameter, aneurysms involving the ICA bifurcation (ICAb), and large sPED/I-ICA diameter ratio were included in the multivariate analysis ( < 0.20). The multivariate regression analysis results showed that the ratio of sPED/I-ICA diameter was the factor influencing A1 vessel occlusion. The area under the ROC curve was 73.2%. When the sPED/I-ICA diameter ratio was 1.14, sensitivity was 70.6%, and specificity was 77.4%.

Conclusion: When an oversized PED is placed from M1 to the ICA, the higher porosity formed at the covered A1 orifice is conducive to maintaining stable A1 blood flow and reducing the risk of A1 vessel occlusion. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03831672.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6657595DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8405287PMC
August 2021

Selective Extraction and Complexation Studies for Thorium(IV) with Bis-triamide Extractants: Synthesis, Solvent Extraction, EXAFS, and DFT.

Inorg Chem 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, P. R. China.

Three octyl-extended bis-triamide extractants (-) were designed and synthesized for the selective solvent extraction of Th(IV) over U(VI) in a kerosene-HNO system. and exhibited good extraction property and selectivity toward Th(IV) over U(VI) and reached extraction equilibrium within 10 min. In a wide range of a HNO concentration from 0.1 to 3.0 M, the separation factor of Th(IV) over U(VI) (SF) of and ranged from 12.1 ± 1.6 to 123.0 ± 20.2 and 15.2 ± 2.4 to 88.1 ± 14.9, respectively. Slope analysis indicated that Th(IV) was extracted as different species under different HNO concentrations, in which the slopes were 2.08 ± 0.20, 1.61 ± 0.03, and 1.54 ± 0.03 for and 2.37 ± 0.22, 2.07 ± 0.17, and 1.76 ± 0.18 for under 0.1, 1.0, and 3.0 M HNO, respectively. A continuous variation method (Job plot) illustrated a 1.5:1 ligand/thorium (L/Th) ratio in a methanol phase, indicating that / and Th(IV) could form mixed 1:1 and 2:1 L/Th extracted complexes. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed that the extracted complexes of and with Th during the extraction process at 0.1 M HNO were [2L1·Th·3(NO)] and [2L2·Th·3(NO)].
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.1c01660DOI Listing
September 2021

Plasma-assisted in-situ preparation of graphene-Ag nanofiltration membranes for efficient removal of heavy metal ions.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Aug 21;423(Pt A):127012. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108, PR China. Electronic address:

Graphene-based membranes have been considered as promising separation membranes for water treatments due to their unique two-dimensional confined channels. However, subject to the preparation technology, the effective construction of graphene-based filtration membranes with suitable separation ability on heavy metal ions still face considerable challenges. Herein, we have successfully constructed a kind of graphene-based (reduced graphene oxide, rGO) nanofiltration membranes by adopting a plasma-assisted in-situ photocatalytic reduction method. Graphene oxide-Ag (GO-Ag) composite sheets are prepared firstly and then assembled into membranes by vacuum filtration. With the use of Ag nanoparticles as plasmonic photocatalyst, GO-Ag films can be in-situ reduced, leading to the formation of rGO-based composite membranes. Thanks to the mild in-situ reduction process, the filtration ability on heavy metal ions (Cr(VI), Cr, Cu and Pb) caused by lamellar structure is well retained in the as-formed rGO-Ag membranes. Especially, when treating the typical toxic Cr(VI) solution, the retention capacity, water flux and stability of rGO-Ag membranes are all improved compared with that of the original GO-Ag ones. In addition, the effectively rejection of Cr(VI) from mixed solutions containing both Cr(VI) and Cr(III) also suggests the good applicability of such rGO-Ag membranes in a complex wastewater system.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127012DOI Listing
August 2021

Effects of different fermentation assisted enzyme treatments on the composition, microstructure and physicochemical properties of wheat straw used as a substitute for peat in nursery substrates.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Aug 21;341:125815. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Wuhan Optics Valley Bluefire New Energy Co., Ltd., Wuhan 430000, China.

To solve the central problems caused by traditional composting treatments, such as long-time consumption and poor regulation effects, this study used three fermentation methods and four enzymes to develop rapid and directional regulation methods to convert wheat straw into a suitable substrate. The results showed that the mixed anaerobic method led to better pH (4.39-5.75) and EC values (1.27-1.89 mS/cm) in the straw substrates, while the aerobic method retained more nutrients and increased lignin and cellulose contents by 5.07-8.04% and 1.52-3.32%. The cellulase mixed with hemicellulase or laccase treatments all increased the crystallinity by 0.45-7.23%. The TG/DTG results showed that all treatments decreased the initial straw glass transition temperature, particularly when using the mixed anaerobic method, with decreases of 10.63-25.48 °C. Overall, mixed anaerobic fermentation and multiple enzymes, including cellulase, have been suggested as alternative biological modification methods for straw substrates.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125815DOI Listing
August 2021

ZIP4 promotes non-small cell lung cancer metastasis by activating snail-N-cadherin signaling axis.

Cancer Lett 2021 Aug 24;521:71-81. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Department of Medicine, the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA; Department of Surgery, the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA. Electronic address:

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most critical health problems worldwide, with high incidence and poor survival rate. A zinc importer ZIP4 has been implicated in the process of tumor growth and metastasis of many cancers. However, its exact role and the underlying mechanism in NSCLC remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we found that human ZIP4 was substantially overexpressed in NSCLC tissues and was correlated with poor overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Overexpression of ZIP4 promoted cell migration, invasion and metastasis both in vitro and in a mouse lung metastasis model. Silencing of ZIP4 attenuated migration, invasion and metastasis. Mechanistically, overexpression of ZIP4 increased the expression of Snail, Slug and N-cadherin while genetic inactivation of ZIP4 downregulated the expression of above-mentioned genes. Further analysis showed that transcriptional factor Snail which modulates N-cadherin was involved in the process of ZIP4-mediated NSCLC migration and invasion. We also demonstrated that ZIP4 positively correlates with the levels of Snail, Slug and N-cadherin in mice lung metastasis tumors. Together, these results suggest that ZIP4 acts as an important regulator of Snail-N-cadherin signaling axis in promoting NSCLC progression and may serve as a novel predictive marker and therapeutic target in NSCLC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2021.08.025DOI Listing
August 2021

Trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase inhibitor: N-(phenylthio) phthalimide, which can inhibit the DON biosynthesis of Fusarium graminearum.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 Oct 9;178:104917. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Testing Center, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Science, Nanjing 210014, China. Electronic address:

Fusarium head blight(FHB)caused by Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) is one of the most important diseases around the world. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a type of mycotoxin produced by FGSC when infecting cereal crops. It is a serious threat to the health of both humans and livestock. Trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP), a conserved metabolic enzyme found in many plants and pathogens, catalyzes the formation of trehalose. N-(phenylthio) phthalimide (NPP) has been reported to inhibit the normal growth of nematodes by inhibiting the activity of TPP, but this inhibitor of nematodes has not previously been tested against F. graminearum. In this study, we found that TPP in F. graminearum (FgTPP) had similar secondary structures and conserved cysteine (Cys356) to nematodes by means of bioinformatics. At the same time, the sensitivity of F. graminearum strains to NPP was determined. NPP exhibited a better inhibitory effect on conidia germination than mycelial growth. In addition, the effects of NPP on DON biosynthesis and trehalose biosynthesis pathway in PH-1 were also determined. We found that NPP decreased DON production, trehalose content, glucose content and TPP enzyme activity but increased trehalose-6-phosphate content and trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) enzyme activity. Moreover, the expression of TRI1, TRI4, TRI5, TRI6, and TPP genes were downregulated, on the contrary, the TPS gene was upregulated. Finally, in order to further determine the control ability of NPP on DON production in the field, we conducted a series of field experiments, and found that NPP could effectively reduce the DON content in wheat grain and had a general control effect on FHB. In conclusion, the research in this study will provide important theoretical basis for controlling FHB caused by F. graminearum and reducing DON production in the field.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2021.104917DOI Listing
October 2021

Platelet-Rich Plasma-Derived Exosomal USP15 Promotes Cutaneous Wound Healing via Deubiquitinating EIF4A1.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 9;2021:9674809. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China.

Epithelial regeneration is an essential wound healing process, and recent work suggests that different types of exosomes (Exos) can improve wound repair outcomes by promoting such epithelial regeneration. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is known to facilitate enhanced wound healing, yet the mechanisms underlying its activity are poorly understood. To explore these mechanisms, we first isolated PRP-derived Exos (PRP-Exos). Using immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) treated with PBS, PRP, or PRP-Exos, we conducted a series of Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), EdU, scratch wound, and transwell assays. We then established a wound defect model in mice and assessed differences in the mRNA expression within these wounds to better understand the basis for PRP-mediated wound healing. The functions of PRP-Exos and USP15 in the context of wound healing were then confirmed through additional and experiments. We found that PRP-Exos effectively promoted the proliferation, migration, and wound healing activity of HaCaT cells. USP15 was further identified as a key mediator through which these PRP-Exos were able to promote tissue repair both and . At a mechanistic level, USP15 enhanced the functional properties of HaCaT cells by promoting EIF4A1 deubiquitination. Thus, PRP-Exos and USP15 represent promising tools that can promote wound healing via enhancing epithelial regeneration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9674809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8371654PMC
August 2021

Dynamic changes in c-Fos and NF-κB gene expression and Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mg content due to brain injury in irradiated rats.

Neuroreport 2021 Oct;32(15):1241-1247

Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University.

Background: This study aims to investigate the dynamic changes of c-Fos and NF-κB expression, and to evaluate the Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mg content of hippocampal tissues in rat brains injured by 20 Gy of electron beam irradiation.

Materials And Methods: A single dose of 5 MeV is administered to the whole brains of rats to establish animal model of radiation-induced brain injury (RBI). Hematoxylin and eosin staining is performed to observe the pathological changes in brain microvascular endothelial cells. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and western blotting assays are utilized to test c-Fos and NF-κB gene expression levels in brain tissue. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry is leveraged to detect the Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mg contents of the hippocampi.

Results: The c-Fos and NF-κB gene expression levels in protective group are lower than those in the irradiated group after MgSO4 treatment. In the irradiated group, Ca content at several time points and Fe content on days 1, 3 and 7 are higher than those in the blank group. Additionally, in the irradiated group, Cu and Zn contents on days 1, 7, 14 and 60 are less than those in the blank group.

Conclusion: In RBI model, adding Mg2+ may relieve RBI. The protective mechanisms of Mg2+ in the hippocampi from a variety of brain activity indicators including the c-Fos and NF-κB genes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNR.0000000000001718DOI Listing
October 2021

Molecular characterization of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) from Megalobrama amblycephala and its potential roles in high glucose-induced inflammatory response.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Aug 12;188:460-472. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

College of Marine Sciences of South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture, Guangzhou 510642, China. Electronic address:

This study aimed to characterize the full-length cDNA of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) from Megalobrama amblycephala, and investigate its roles in high glucose (HC)-induced inflammatory response. The cDNA obtained covered 2706-bp with an open reading frame of 1203-bp encoding 400 amino acids, compared to Cyprinus carpio, it showed 89.96% homology. The highest expression of txnip was observed in head kidney followed by spleen and liver. After a 12-week feeding trial, high-carbohydrate diet remarkably increased txnip expression in liver and white muscle. Glucose administration resulted in a remarkably increased liver txnip expression, which peaked at 1 h. Thereafter, the expression decreased remarkably to the basal value at 12 h. However, insulin injection resulted in a significant decrease in txnip expression with minimum values attained at 2 h. Subsequently, it gradually increased to the normal values. Moreover, in the in-vitro study, over-expression of txnip along with remarkably increased il-1β and il-6 expression in hepatocytes, and its knockdown led to remarkably reduced il-1β expression. Furthermore, metformin treatment remarkably increased the cell viability and trx expression of hepatocytes under high glucose, while the opposite was true for ROS levels, LDH activity, the ALT/AST ratio, Txnip protein content and the transcriptions of txnip, tnfα and il-1β.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.08.064DOI Listing
August 2021

Meta-analysis of the effects of liming on soil pH and cadmium accumulation in crops.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Oct 11;223:112621. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Key Laboratory of Agro-Ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125, China. Electronic address:

Increasing cadmium (Cd) contamination in agricultural fields has resulted in a higher risk of Cd accumulation in the food chain. Lime addition can mitigate soil acidification and reduce Cd accumulation in crops cultured in Cd-contaminated soil. To determine key factors controlling the outcomes of liming in reducing Cd accumulation and enhancing soil pH, we performed a meta-analysis using previously published data from field and pot experiments. The results indicated that the liming showed positive effect sizes on the soil pH but negative effect sizes on Cd accumulation in crops, indicating the addition of different lime materials could enhance soil pH and reduce Cd accumulation in crops. The effect sizes of liming on soil pH under pot experimental conditions were higher than that under field experimental conditions, however, the effect sizes of application types and amount of limes on soil pH did not significantly differ between their individual different levels. Under a low background value of soil pH, SOM, CEC and clay, the addition of limes showed a significantly higher effect size on soil pH when compared to their individual higher soil background value, suggesting that the lower background values of soil pH, SOM, CEC and clay might facilitate the outcomes of liming to enhance soil pH. The experiment patterns, crop types and lime application amounts showed a limit effect on the outcomes of liming to reduce the shoot and grain Cd concentrations in crops. The lime types only showed a significant effect size on the shoot Cd accumulation but not on the grain Cd accumulation, in which the CaCO had the highest effect size (absolute value, the same below) followed by Ca(OH) and CaO. The low soil background values of total Cd concentration and CEC content, but a high soil SOM background content might facilitate the outcomes of liming to reduce the shoot Cd concentration in crops. However, only the background value of soil clay content showed a significantly negative effect size on the grain Cd accumulation, where a high soil clay content had a higher effect size than a low soil clay content. These findings provide useful knowledge about the effects of experiment patterns, crop types, soil conditions, lime types and lime addition amounts on the efficiency of liming in enhancing soil pH and decrease crop Cd concentration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112621DOI Listing
October 2021

Constitutive BAK/MCL1 complexes predict paclitaxel and S63845 sensitivity of ovarian cancer.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Aug 12;12(8):789. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Medical Physics and Technology, Institute of Health & Medical Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031, China.

We previously found that preformed complexes of BAK with antiapoptotic BCL2 proteins predict BH3 mimetic sensitivities in lymphohematopoietic cells. These complexes have not previously been examined in solid tumors or in the context of conventional anticancer drugs. Here we show the relative amount of BAK found in preformed complexes with MCL1 or BCLX varies across ovarian cancer cell lines and patient-derived xenografts (PDXs). Cells bearing BAK/MCL1 complexes were more sensitive to paclitaxel and the MCL1 antagonist S63845. Likewise, PDX models with BAK/MCL1 complexes were more likely to respond to paclitaxel. Mechanistically, BIM induced by low paclitaxel concentrations interacted preferentially with MCL1 and displaced MCL1-bound BAK. Further studies indicated that cells with preformed BAK/MCL1 complexes were sensitive to the paclitaxel/S63845 combination, while cells without BAK/MCL1 complexes were not. Our study suggested that the assessment of BAK/MCL1 complexes might be useful for predicting response to paclitaxel alone or in combination with BH3 mimetics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-04073-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8361168PMC
August 2021

A systematic approach to decode the mechanism of Cornus in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Oct 9;909:174405. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

The Second Affiliated Hospital, Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 712000, China; College of Basic Medicine, Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 712046, China. Electronic address:

Cornus Officinalis (Cornus), the dried pulp of mature Cornus, is used to treat liver diseases. However, the pharmacological mechanism of Cornus in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been systematically studied. The chemical compounds and the bioactive chemical compounds of Cornus were screened through Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP). Gene Cards database was used to explore the targets in liver cancer pathogenesis. The disease-drug Venn diagram was constructed using the VENN 2.1 and the STRING database was used to analyze protein-protein Interaction Network (PPI). Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis were performed using the R package. Molecular docking was performed using Discovery Studio were assessed using Pymol and Discovery Studio 2016. Cell survival of BEL-7404 cells treated by Hydroxygenkwanin (HGK) were valued through CCK-8 assay. Expressions of caspase-3 and cleaved PARP was detected through Western blot. Pharmacological network diagrams of the Cornus compound-target network and HCC-related target network were successfully constructed. A total of 20 active compounds, 1841 predicted biological targets of Cornus, and 7100 HCC-related targets were identified. 37 target genes between Cornus and HCC were screened trough the network pharmacology. Molecular docking studies suggested that HGK has the highest affinity with caspase-3. HGK could induce apoptosis of HCC cells and significantly activate the caspase-3 protease activity in BEL-7404. This study systematically elaborated the mechanism of Cornus in the treatment of HCC and provided a new perspective to exploit Antineoplastic from Cornus.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2021.174405DOI Listing
October 2021

Identification and characterization of novel compound variants in SLC25A26 associated with combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 28.

Gene 2021 Dec 8;804:145891. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250021, China; Institute of Endocrinology, Shandong Academy of Clinical Medicine, Jinan 250021, Shandong, China; Shandong Clinical Medical Center of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Jinan 250021, Shandong, China. Electronic address:

Background: Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 28 (COXPD28) is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction caused by mutations in SLC25A26, the gene which encodes the mitochondrial S-adenosylmethionine carrier (SAMC) that responsible for the transport of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) into the mitochondria.

Objective: To identify and characterize pathogenic variants of SLC25A26 in a Chinese pedigree, provide a basis for clinical diagnosis and genetic counseling.

Methods: We conducted a systematic analysis of the clinical characteristics of a female with COXPD28. Whole-exome and mitochondrial genome sequencing was applied for the genetic analysis, together with bioinformatic analysis of predicted consequences of the identified variant. A homotrimer model was built to visualize the affected region and predict possible outcomes of this mutation. Then a literature review was performed by online searching all cases reported with COXPD28.

Results: The novel compound heterozygous SLC25A26 variants (c.34G > C, p.A12P; c.197C > A; p.A66E) were identified in a Chinese patient with COXPD28. These two variants are located in the transmembrane region 1 and transmembrane region 2, respectively. As a member of the mitochondrial carrier family, the transmembrane region of SAMC is highly conserved. The variants were predicted to be pathogenic by in silico analysis and lead to a change in the protein structure of SAMC. And the change of the SAMC structure may lead to insufficient methylation and cause disease by affecting the SAM transport.

Conclusions: The variants in this region probably resulted in a variable loss of mitochondrial SAMC transport function and cause the COXPD28. This study that further refine genotype-phenotype associations can provide disease prognosis with a basis and families with reproductive planning options.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2021.145891DOI Listing
December 2021

Natural orifice specimen extraction surgery versus conventional laparoscopic-assisted resection for colorectal cancer in elderly patients: a propensity-score matching study.

Updates Surg 2021 Aug 9. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Colorectal Surgery, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Whether natural orifice specimen extraction surgery (NOSES) could provide beneficial effects in treating elderly patients is still under debate. The aim of the study was to compare the clinical outcomes of transanal NOSES with conventional laparoscopic-assisted resection (LA) in elderly colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. A retrospective analysis from the Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University between 2013 and 2017 was performed. Outcomes related to surgery, body image, quality of life, anal function and long-term survival were compared between the two groups with the propensity-score matching (PSM) method. After PSM, 78 patients were successfully compared. Patients with NOSES had faster gastrointestinal function recovery (P = 0.028), less postoperative complications (P = 0.025), lower pain scores on days 1, 3 and 5 after surgery (P < 0.001). The body image score (P < 0.001) and cosmetic score (P < 0.001) were significantly higher in the NOSES group than the LA group at 1 month after surgery. Patients with NOSES posed better global health status (P < 0.001), role function (P = 0.009), emotional function (P = 0.011) and social function (P = 0.011) at 3 months after surgery. Moreover, NOSES showed non inferiority in anal function 6 months after surgery. No significant difference could be found regarding to overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), local recurrence (LR) and distant metastasis (DM). In elderly CRC patients, NOSES harbored favorable postoperative outcomes, excellent cosmetic properties and better quality of life. Besides, anal function and long-term outcomes of NOSES can be sure for elderly patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13304-021-01143-yDOI Listing
August 2021

USF2 reduces BMP3 expression via transcriptional activation of miR-34a, thus promoting osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs.

J Bone Miner Metab 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Orthopaedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, No.318, Chaowang Road, Gongshu District, Hangzhou, 310005, Zhejiang Province, China.

Introduction: Osteoporosis is the most susceptible disease for people over 60. The main cause of osteoporosis is the decreased osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Here we showed that upstream stimulatory factor 2 (USF2)/microRNA-34a (miR-34a)/bone morphogenetic protein 3 (BMP3) axis regulated osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs.

Materials And Methods: USF2 and miR-34a expression were examined using qPCR. Protein levels of BMP3 and osteogenic markers expression were evaluated using both western blot and qPCR. Activity of ALP was determined by ALP assay kit. Mineralization capacity of hBMSCs was assessed using ARS. Besides, CHIP assay was employed to verify whether USF2 could bind to miR-34a promoter. Finally, RIP assay and dual-luciferase reporter assay were employed to verify whether miR-34a directly bound to BMP3.

Results: Our results suggested that miR-34a was upregulated during osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, and miR-34a overexpression could enhance osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. USF2 could positively regulate miR-34a expression by interacting with its promoter. USF2 overexpression enhanced osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, while miR-34a inhibition reversed the effect. Besides, BMP3 was the target of miR-34a. MiR-34a overexpression enhanced osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, which was abolished by BMP3 overexpression.

Conclusion: Taken together, USF2 enhanced osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs via downregulating BMP3 by interacting with miR-34a promoter.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00774-021-01254-xDOI Listing
August 2021

Selective Capture Mechanism of Radioactive Thorium from Highly Acidic Solution by a Layered Metal Sulfide.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Aug 29;13(31):37308-37315. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States.

Thorium as a potential nuclear fuel for the next-generation thorium-based molten salt reactors holds significant environmental and economic promise over the current uranium-based nuclear reactors. However, because thorium (Th) usually coexists with other rare earth elements, alkali or alkaline earth metals in minerals, or highly acidic radioactive waste, seeking acid-resistant sorbents with excellent selectivity, high capacity, and fast removal rate for Th is still a challenging task. In this work, we investigated a robust layered metal sulfide (KInSnS, KMS-5) for Th removal from strong acidic solutions. We report that KMS-5 could capture Th from a 0.1 M HNO solution with extremely high efficiency (∼99.9%), fast sorption kinetics (equilibrium time < 10 min), and large distribution coefficient (up to 1.5 × 10 mL/g). Furthermore, KMS-5 exhibited excellent sorption selectivity towards Th in the presence of large amounts of competitive metal ions like Eu, Na, and Ca. This extraordinary capture property for Th is attributed to the facile ion exchange of Th with K in the interlayers and subsequent formation of a stable coordination complex via Th-S bonds. These results indicate that KMS-5 is a promising functional sorbent for the effective capture of Th from highly acidic solutions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c12004DOI Listing
August 2021

Pre-incubation with OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 inhibitors potentiates inhibitory effects in physiologically relevant sandwich-cultured primary human hepatocytes.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2021 Oct 24;165:105951. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, US. Electronic address:

Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP)1B1 and OATP1B3 are liver-specific transport proteins that express on the basolateral membrane of human hepatocytes and mediate hepatic uptake of many drugs, including statins. They are important determinants of transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs). It has been reported that pre-incubation with some OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 inhibitors potentiates the inhibitory effects, yielding reduced IC values. The US FDA draft guidance has recently recommended to use the lower IC values after inhibitor-preincubation to assess OATP1B1 and OATP1B3-mediated DDIs. However, it remains unknown whether the potentiation effects of inhibitor-preincubation on IC values occur in a physiologically relevant cell model. The current study was designed to determine the IC values of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 inhibitors everolimus (EVR), sirolimus (SIR), and dasatinib against OATP1B substrates in physiologically relevant primary human hepatocytes with or without inhibitor-preincubation and to compare the OATP-mediated DDI prediction using data from primary human hepatocytes and that reported previously in transporter-expressing cell lines. Primary human hepatocytes were cultured in a sandwich configuration. Accumulation of [H]-CCK-8 (1 µM, 1.5 min), [H]-rosuvastatin (0.5 µM, 2 min) and [H]-pitavastatin (1 µM, 0.5 min) was determined in human sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH) in the presence of vehicle control or an inhibitor with or without inhibitor-preincubation at designated concentrations, and was utilized to determine the IC values for these inhibitors. R-value models were used to predict OATP-mediated DDIs. Pre-incubation with EVR at a clinically relevant concentration of 0.2 µM significantly reduced accumulation of [H]-CCK-8 and [H]-rosuvastatin even after washing. Reduced IC values following inhibitor pre-incubation were observed for all three inhibitors using [H]-CCK-8 and [H]-rosuvastatin as substrates in human SCH. The IC values after inhibitor-preincubation were lower or comparable in transporter-expressing cell lines compared with that in human SCH. For dasatinib, R-values from both cell lines and human SCH were greater than the US FDA cut-off value of 1.1. For EVR, R values from cell lines were 1.23 and were lowered to near 1.1 (1.08-1.09) in human SCH. For SIR, R values from either cell type were less than the cut-off values of 1.1. In conclusion, the current study is the first to report that pre-incubation with OATP1B inhibitors potentiates inhibitory effects in physiologically relevant primary human hepatocytes, supporting the rationale of the current US FDA draft guidance of including an inhibitor-preincubation step when assessing OATP-mediated DDIs in vitro. IC values after inhibitor-preincubation in transporter-expressing cell lines may be used for DDI prediction for the purpose of mitigating false-negative OATP-mediated DDI prediction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2021.105951DOI Listing
October 2021

InSe/Te van der Waals Heterostructure as a High-Efficiency Solar Cell from Computational Screening.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jul 6;14(14). Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Multiscale Computational Materials Facility, and Key Laboratory of Eco-Materials Advanced Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350100, China.

Designing the electronic structures of the van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures to obtain high-efficiency solar cells showed a fascinating prospect. In this work, we screened the potential of vdW heterostructures for solar cell application by combining the group III-VI MX (M = Al, Ga, In and X = S, Se, Te) and elementary group VI X (X = Se, Te) monolayers based on first-principle calculations. The results highlight that InSe/Te vdW heterostructure presents type-II electronic band structure feature with a band gap of 0.88 eV, where tellurene and InSe monolayer are as absorber and window layer, respectively. Interestingly, tellurene has a 1.14 eV direct band gap to produce the photoexcited electron easily. Furthermore, InSe/Te vdW heterostructure shows remarkably light absorption capacities and distinguished maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 13.39%. Our present study will inspire researchers to design vdW heterostructures for solar cell application in a purposeful way.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14143768DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8306732PMC
July 2021

Co-fermentation of succinic acid and ethanol from sugarcane bagasse based on full hexose and pentose utilization and carbon dioxide reduction.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Nov 19;339:125578. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

School of Chemical Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China; Zhengzhou Tuoyang Industrial Co, Ltd, Zhengzhou 450001, China; Zhengzhou University Industrial Technology Research Institute Co, Ltd, Zhengzhou 450001, China. Electronic address:

The full utilization of carbohydrates in lignocellulosic biomass is essential for an efficient biorefining process. In this study, co-fermentation was performed for processing ethanol and succinic from sugarcane bagasse. By optimizing the co-fermentation conditions, nutrition and feeding strategies, a novel process was developed to make full utilization of the glucose and xylose in the hydrolysate of sugarcane bagasse. The achieved concentrations of succinic acid and ethanol reached to 22.1 and 22.0 g/L, respectively, and could realize the conversion of 100 g SCB raw material into 8.6 g ethanol and 8.7 g succinic acid. It is worth mentioning that the CO released from S. cerevisiae in co-fermentation system was recycled by A. succinogenes to synthesize succinic acid, realized CO emission reduction in the process of lignocellulosic biomass biorefinery. This study provided a clue for efficient biorefinery of lignocellulosic biomass and reduction greenhouse gas emissions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125578DOI Listing
November 2021

Prediction of the excited-state reaction channels in photo-induced processes of nitrofurantoin using first-principle calculations and dynamics simulations.

Chemosphere 2021 Oct 18;281:130831. Epub 2021 May 18.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Chemical Pollution and Environmental Safety and MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Theoretical Chemistry, SCNU Environmental Research Institute, School of Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510006, PR China. Electronic address:

The understanding of the photochemistry of antibiotic compounds is important because it gives the direct information on the possible environmental pollution caused by them. Due to their large size, the theoretical studies of their excited-state reactions are rather challenging. In current work, we combined the on-the-fly trajectory surface-hopping dynamics, conical-intersection optimizations and excited-state pathway calculations to study the photochemistry of the trans-isomer of nitrofurantoin, a widely-used drug to treat the urinary tract infections. The dynamics-then-pathway approach was taken. First the trajectory surface hopping dynamics at the state-averaged complete-active-space self-consistent-field (SA-CASSCF) level with small active space and small basis sets were run. Second, the minimum-energy conical-intersection optimizations were performed. Finally the excited pathways from the Frank-Condon region to different reaction channels were built at the multi-state multi-reference second-order perturbation (MS-CASPT2) level with large active space and large basis set. Several possible channels responsible for the photo-induced reaction mechanism of the trans-nitrofurantoin were obtained, including the cleavage of the NO bond of the NO moiety, the photoisomerization at the central CN bond, and other internal conversion channels. Our findings give some preliminary explanations on available experimental observations. It is also demonstrates that the current theoretical approach is a powerful tool to explore the excited-state reactions in the photochemistry of media-sized or large-sized drug compounds.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130831DOI Listing
October 2021

The Impact of Adherence to Disease-Modifying Therapies on Functional Outcomes in Veterans with Multiple Sclerosis.

J Cent Nerv Syst Dis 2021 6;13:11795735211028769. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center (Statistician), Oklahoma, UK.

Background: Patients who adhere to their DMTs have lower rate of MS-related relapses and disability.

Objective: We sought to determine the adherence rate to disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) and its impact on functional outcome(s) in veterans with multiple sclerosis (MS).

Method: We reviewed the electronic records of 279 veterans with MS who were periodically followed in our MS clinic. We compared 3 groups of patients, defined according to their adherence to DMTs (non-adherent; poorly adherent; adherent) on their effect on disability progression and time to sustained EDSS score of 6.

Results: There were 148 (53%) veterans with MS who were non-adherent to any DMT medication(s) while of the 131 (47%) veterans who were taking medications, 118 (42%) had a good- and 13 (5%) had poor-adherence. The mean age at MS onset was 36.6 (± 11.2) and mean duration of MS for the sample was 24 ± 13.5 years. The mean initial EDSS and TFIM scores were 4.09 ± 2.9 SD and 104 ± 25.7 for the study sample. The change in MMSE, TFIM scores, and time to sustained EDSS score of 6 significantly favored the good- compared to the non-adherence group ( < .01).

Conclusion: This study suggests that veterans with MS who adhered to their DMTs had less decline in their MS-related cognition, disease severity and disability compared to non- and poorly-adherent groups even after adjusting for age, gender, MS duration, and type. Time to EDSS score of 6 was significantly prolonged in the good-adherence group.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/11795735211028769DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8264741PMC
July 2021

Accumulation and Distribution of Fluorescent Microplastics in the Early Life Stages of Zebrafish.

J Vis Exp 2021 Jul 4(173). Epub 2021 Jul 4.

College of Environment, Zhejiang University of Technology;

As a new type of environmental pollutant, microplastic has been widely found in the aquatic environment and poses a high threat to aquatic organisms. The bioaccumulation of microplastics plays a key role in their toxic effects; however, as a particulate, their bioaccumulations are different from many other pollutants. Described here is a feasible method to visually determine the accumulation and distribution of microplastics in zebrafish embryos or larvae using fluorescent microplastics. Embryos are exposed to different concentrations (0.1, 1, and 10 mg/L) of fluorescent microplastics with a diameter of 500 nm for 120 h. It is shown in the results that microplastics can bioaccumulate in zebrafish embryos/larvae in a concentration-dependent manner. Before hatching, strong fluorescence is found around the embryonic chorion; while in zebrafish larvae, the yolk sac, pericardium, and gastrointestinal tract are the main accumulated sites of microplastics. The results demonstrate the uptake and internalization of microplastics in zebrafish at early life stages, which will provide basis for better understanding the impact of microplastics on aquatic animals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/62117DOI Listing
July 2021

Giant photothermoelectric effect in silicon nanoribbon photodetectors.

Light Sci Appl 2020 Jul 14;9(1):120. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

School of Physics and Technology, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, and Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072, China.

The photothermoelectric (PTE) effect enables efficient harvesting of the energy of photogenerated hot carriers and is a promising choice for high-efficiency photoelectric energy conversion and photodetection. Recently, the PTE effect was reported in low-dimensional nanomaterials, suggesting the possibility of optimizing their energy conversion efficiency. Unfortunately, the PTE effect becomes extremely inefficient in low-dimensional nanomaterials, owing to intrinsic disadvantages, such as low optical absorption and immature fabrication methods. In this study, a giant PTE effect was observed in lightly doped p-type silicon nanoribbons caused by photogenerated hot carriers. The open-circuit photovoltage responsivity of the device was 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than those of previously reported PTE devices. The measured photovoltage responses fit very well with the proposed photothermoelectric multiphysics models. This research proposes an application of the PTE effect and a possible method for utilizing hot carriers in semiconductors to significantly improve their photoelectric conversion efficiency.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41377-020-00364-xDOI Listing
July 2020

[Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics study of the efficacy of Chinese medicine asthma-relieving decoction on respiratory syncytial virus infection].

Se Pu 2021 Mar;39(3):281-290

Dalian Children' s Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116012, China.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause lower respiratory tract infections, such as bronchiolitis in infants. In China, traditional asthma-relieving medicine has numerous clinical applications in the treatment of RSV infections. However, due to the complexity of the traditional Chinese medicine system, its therapeutic mechanism and main pharmacological components remain unclear. Metabolomics can be used to analyze the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine to provide modern scientific evidence for such treatments. In this study, an animal model experiment was performed with seven groups of three-week-old rats. The model group and five intervention groups were inoculated nasally with RSV for three consecutive days, and the normal group was treated with the same amount of saline for three consecutive days under the same conditions. In parallel, the five intervention groups were treated separately with the following via intragastric administration for seven consecutive days: asthma-relieving traditional Chinese medicine decoction, its three constituent agents (ascending (xuan) therapy, descending (jiang) therapy, pyretic clearing (qing) therapy), and ribavirin. Both normal group and RSV model group were administered with normal saline via intragastric administration as controls for seven consecutive days. The fundus plasma of rats in each group was collected on day 0, day 3, and day 7. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics analysis was performed to investigate the changes in the metabolome after RSV infection, the effects of the asthma-relieving decoction on the regulation of metabolites related to RSV infection, and the primary source of efficacy. The detected metabolite ions were corrected using internal standards. Multivariate analysis of ions with an RSD value of less than 30% in quality control (QC) samples was used to construct principal component analysis models to monitor the overall metabolic changes of each group. The results showed that, during RSV infection and treatment, the asthma-relieving decoction and the positive control ribavirin had similar effects on the overall metabolic regulation of RSV-infected rats. Among the three asthma-relieving decoction constituent agents, the ascending (xuan) therapy agents which was composed of ephedra and ginkgo had a closer metabolic regulation effect with asthma-relieving decoction, and might be the main source of pharmacological efficacy. Based on the retention time, value and tandem mass spectra in the database established by our laboratory, a total of 150 metabolites were identified. Paired -tests were performed using data of the identified metabolites before and after RSV infection in each group, and it was found that 83 metabolite levels significantly changed after RSV infection, indicating that RSV infection could lead to disorders of multiple metabolic pathways in rats. The altered pathways included aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan biosynthesis, primary bile acid biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism and sphingomyelin metabolism. On the third day, the asthma-relieving decoction had regulatory effects on several metabolites such as bile acids, amino acids, organic acids, lipids, etc. Among the three asthma-relieving decoction constituent agents, the ascending (xuan) therapy agents had more similar effects on the regulation of metabolites with the asthma-relieving decoction. On the other hand, the descending (jiang) therapy agents and pyretic clearing (qing) therapy agents down-regulated the abnormal increase in acylcarnitine caused by the RSV infection. Additionally, both asthma-relieving decoction and its constituent agents could maintain the stability of the immune system and metabolism of the intestinal flora in rats. This study used metabolomics to evaluate the efficacy of an asthma-relieving decoction and demonstrate the metabolites and the corresponding changes after asthma-relieving decoction-based treatment. It provides theoretical support for research on the therapeutic mechanism and active ingredients of asthma-relieving decoction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1123.2020.06013DOI Listing
March 2021
-->