Publications by authors named "Chao Liu"

3,374 Publications

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Enantioselective assembly and recognition of heterochiral porous organic cages deduced from binary chiral components.

Chem Sci 2022 Jun 20;13(23):7014-7020. Epub 2022 May 20.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Materials Genome Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory for Science and Application of Functional Molecular and Crystalline Materials, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemistry and Biological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing Beijing 100083 China

Chiral recognition and discrimination is not only of significance in biological processes but also a powerful method to fabricate functional supramolecular materials. Herein, a pair of heterochiral porous organic cages (HPOC-1), out of four possible enantiomeric products, with mirror stereoisomeric crystal structures were cleanly prepared by condensation occurring in the exclusive combination of cyclohexanediamine and binaphthol-based tetraaldehyde enantiomers. Nuclear magnetic resonance and luminescence spectroscopy have been employed to monitor the assembly process of HPOC-1, revealing the clean formation of heterochiral organic cages due to the enantioselective recognition of (,)-binaphthol towards (,)-cyclohexanediamine derivatives and . Interestingly, HPOC-1 exhibits circularly polarized luminescence and enantioselective recognition of chiral substrates according to the circular dichroism spectral change. Theoretical simulations have been carried out, rationalizing both the enantioselective assembly and recognition of HPOC-1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2sc01876dDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9200113PMC
June 2022

Transformation of Porous Organic Cages and Covalent Organic Frameworks with Efficient Iodine Vapor Capture Performance.

J Am Chem Soc 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Materials Genome Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory for Science and Application of Functional Molecular and Crystalline Materials, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemistry and Biological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China.

The reaction of 5,5'-([2,2'-bipyridine]-5,5'-diyl)diisophthalaldehyde (BPDDP) with cyclohexanediamine and [benzidine (BZ)/[2,2'-bipyridine]-5,5'-diamine (BPDA)], respectively, affords a nitrogen-rich porous organic cage BPPOC and two two-dimensional (2D) covalent organic frameworks (COFs), USTB-1 and USTB-2 (USTB = University of Science and Technology Beijing), under suitable conditions. Interestingly, BPPOC with a single-crystal X-ray diffraction structure is able to successfully transform into USTB-1 and USTB-2 (newly converted COFs denoted as USTB-1c and USTB-2c, respectively) upon exchange of the imine unit of cyclohexanediamine in the cage by BZ and BPDA. Such a transformation also enables the isolation of analogous COFs (USTB-3c and USTB-4c) on the basis of an isostructural organic cage, BTPOC, which is derived from 5,5'-([2,2'-bithiophene]-4,4'-diyl)diisophthalaldehyde (BTDDP) and cyclohexanediamine. However, the conventional solvothermal reaction between BTDDP and BPDA leads to an impure phase of USTB-4 containing incompletely converted aldehyde groups due to the limited solubility of the building block. The newly prepared COFs have been characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. In particular, BPPOC is able to absorb the iodine vapor with an uptake of 5.64 g g, breaking the porous organic cage's (POC's) record value of 3.78 g g. Nevertheless, the cage-derived COFs exhibit improved iodine vapor adsorption capability in comparison with the directly synthesized counterparts, with the highest uptake of 5.80 g g for USTB-1c. The mechanism investigation unveils the superiority of nitrogen atoms to sulfur atoms for POCs in iodine vapor capture with the assistance of definite crystal structures. This, in combination with porosity, synergistically influences the iodine vapor capture capacity of COFs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.2c03959DOI Listing
June 2022

Effects of long term diabetogenic high fat diet on bone in ovariectomized female rats.

Biotech Histochem 2022 Jun 28:1-9. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Department of Endocrinology, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui.

A diabetogenic high fat diet (HFD) can be used to induce insulin resistance and obesity in animal models; however, its effects on bone are unknown. We investigated the effects of long term HFD on bone in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats. We used 12-week-old female rats divided randomly into four groups: sham operation (sham), sham operation with HFD (SHFD), OVX and OVX with HFD (OVX + HFD). Ovaries were removed in the OVX and OVX + HFD groups and the SHFD and OVX + HFD groups were fed a HFD for 28 weeks. Serum estrogen, testosterone, lipid, adiponectin, leptin, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and -mid fragment of osteocalcin (N-MID-OT) levels were measured. Structure, apoptosis and specific transcription factors in bone were evaluated using pathologic, densitometric and immunohistochemical analysis. Body weight, serum leptin, TRAP and testosterone levels were increased, while serum -MID-OT, estrogen and adiponectin levels were decreased in the SHFD, OVX and OVX + HFD groups. Expression of BCL2-associated X protein, caspase-3, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and calcitonin was increased, while bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) in femurs and lumbar spine, and expression of B cell lymphoma 2, type 1 collagen and osteocalcin were decreased in the bones of the SHFD, OVX and OVX + HFD groups. All indices were greatest in the OVX + HFD group and HFD produced a detrimental effect on bone in both normal and OVX rats, which may be due to increased apoptosis in bone and increased leptin and decreased adiponectin levels in serum. The effects of HFD and OVX may be synergistic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10520295.2022.2083685DOI Listing
June 2022

Nutrient retention in agricultural headwater stream: artificial manipulation of main-channel morphology and hydrologic condition.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Jun 27. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, 230009, China.

To make up for the deficiency of transient storage and nutrient retention capacity of some headwater streams, some effective artificial measures have been developed to improve the stream ecosystem functions. But few studies have focused on the effects of artificial manipulation on nutrient retention in hydrologic and non-hydrologic processes of streams. In response, we selected an agricultural headwater stream in the Banqiao River tributary of Chaohu Lake Basin, artificially altered the flow pattern in the main-channel by introducing barriers which were composed of soil, coarse sand, and stones, and used the tracer experiment and OTIS (one-dimensional transport with inflow and storage) model to assess the transient storage potential of stream and the nutrient retention of hydrologic and non-hydrologic processes. Compared with the control, the retention capacity of ammonium (NH) and phosphate (PO) and the transient storage potential were increased after introducing barriers. In addition, the total retention (TR), hydrologic retention (HR), and non-hydrologic retention (NHR) of NH and PO were significantly increased after manipulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-21660-6DOI Listing
June 2022

Efficient delivery of PKN3 shRNA for the treatment of breast cancer via lipid nanoparticles.

Bioorg Med Chem 2022 Jun 13;69:116884. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, PR China. Electronic address:

Protein kinase N3 (PKN3), an AGC-family member, is often overexpressed in breast tumor cells. RNAi therapy is a promising approach to inhibit tumor growth by reducing the expression of PKN3. In this report, lipid nanoparticles encapsulated with new shRNA PKN3 (SS-LNP/shPKN3) with redox-responsiveness were developed in order to specifically down-regulate the expression of PKN3 for breast cancer treatment. The SS-LNP/shPKN3 was prepared by microfluidic method using disulfide bonds based ionizable lipid as main component. The as-prepared SS-LNP/shPKN3 lipid nanoparticles were characterized via using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicated that the obtained SS-LNP/shPKN3 exhibited uniform particle size and regular spherical morphology. Moreover, glutathione (GSH) triggered release of shPKN3 confirmed the redox-responsiveness of the SS-LNP/shPKN3. Finally, the anti-tumor effect of SS-LNP/shPKN3 was evaluated against MDA-MB-231 cells and derived xenograft tumor bearing mice. It was found that the SS-LNP/shPKN3-2 had the highest PKN3 protein inhibition rate of 60.8% and tumor inhibition rate of 62.3%. Taken together, the SS-LNP/shPKN3 might be a potential therapeutic strategy for breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2022.116884DOI Listing
June 2022

GmNAC181 promotes symbiotic nodulation and salt tolerance of nodulation by directly regulating GmNINa expression in soybean.

New Phytol 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Hubei Hongshan Laboratory, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, P.R. China.

Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important crops worldwide. Under low nitrogen condition, soybean can form a symbiotic relationship with rhizobia to acquire sufficient nitrogen for their growth and production. Nodulation signaling controls soybean symbiosis with rhizobia. The soybean Nodule Inception (GmNINa) gene is a central regulator of soybean nodulation. However, the transcriptional regulation of GmNINa remains largely unknown. Nodulation is sensitive to salt stress, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we identified a NAC transcription factor designated GmNAC181 (also known as GmNAC11) as the interacting protein of GmNSP1a. GmNAC181 overexpression or knockdown resulted in increased or decreased numbers of nodules, respectively, in soybean. Accordingly, the expression of GmNINa was greatly up- and downregulated, respectively. Furthermore, we showed that GmNAC181 can directly bind to the GmNINa promoter to activate its gene expression. Intriguingly, GmNAC181 was highly induced by salt stress during nodulation and promoted symbiotic nodulation under salt stress. We identified a new transcriptional activator of GmNINa in the nodulation pathway and revealed a mechanism by which GmNAC181 acts as a network node orchestrating the expression of GmNINa and symbiotic nodulation under salt stress conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.18343DOI Listing
June 2022

One-Step Thermophoretic AND Gate Operation on Extracellular Vesicles Improves Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, No.11 Beiyitiao, Zhongguancun, Beijing, CHINA.

Circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as a valuable source of cancer biomarkers. However, the high degree of EV heterogeneity and the complexity of clinical samples pose a challenge in the sensitive identification of tumor-derived EVs. Here we introduce a one-step thermophoretic AND gate operation (Tango) assay that integrates polyethylene glycol (PEG)-enhanced thermophoretic accumulation of EVs and simultaneous AND gate operation on EV membranes by dual-aptamers recognition. By using the Tango assay to detect tumor-derived EVs with co-presence of EpCAM and PSMA directly from serum in a homogeneous, separation-free format, we can discriminate prostate cancer (PCa) patients from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients in the diagnostic gray zone with an accuracy of 91 % in 15 min. Our approach streamlines EV enrichment and AND gate operation on EVs in a single assay, providing a rapid, straightforward, and powerful method for precise and non-invasive diagnosis of cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202207037DOI Listing
June 2022

Heterometallic Polyoxotitanium Clusters as Bifunctional Electrocatalysts for Overall Water Splitting.

Inorg Chem 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan, P. R. China.

Incorporating heterometal into titanium-oxygen clusters (TOCs) is an effective way to improve its catalytic activity. Herein, we synthesize three novel heterometallic TOCs with the formula of [TiCuO(Dmg)(OAc)(PrO)][HTiCuO(Dmg)(OAc)(PrO)] (), [TiCuO(Dmg)(OAc)(PrO)] (), and [TiCoO(Dmg)(Pdc)(PrO)Cl] (, DmgH = dimethylglyoxime; PdcH = pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid) using dimethylglyoxime and different carboxylates as the synergistic ligands. By depositing the clusters and on carbon cloth as electrodes, we investigated the electrocatalytic performance of TOCs for full water splitting for the first time. To reach a 10 mA cm current density in an alkaline solution, the @CC electrode needs an overpotential as low as 120 and 400 mV for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), respectively. In addition, full water-splitting equipment with @CC as a cathode and an anode need only 1.67 V to deliver a current density of 10 mA cm. Our work confirmed the potential of noble metal-free TOCs as bifunctional cluster-based electrocatalysts for water splitting, and their activities can be tuned by doping with different metal ions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.2c01254DOI Listing
June 2022

Optimization of Laser-MAG Hybrid Welding Parameters of Ship Steel Based on Response Surface Methodology.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Jun 18;15(12). Epub 2022 Jun 18.

Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617, China.

In this paper, the optimization of laser-MAG hybrid welding parameters of 10CrNi3MoV ship steel was developed. Using the Box-Behnken Design (BBD) model in Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and taking laser power, welding speed and welding current as response factors, the design matrix was completed and verified by experiment. The regression model associated with welding parameters was established by measuring the response indices, such as penetration, tensile strength and impact absorption energy. Through the model check, it was found that the accuracy of penetration and tensile strength of the model was high, and the optimized parameters were as follows: laser power (P) = 3700 W, welding speed (V) = 0.8 m/min, wire feeding speed (Vs) = 7 m/min. On the premise of meeting mechanical performance inspection standards, the maximum penetration was 8 mm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15124328DOI Listing
June 2022

Rethinking Lockdown Policies in the Pre-Vaccine Era of COVID-19: A Configurational Perspective.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 Jun 10;19(12). Epub 2022 Jun 10.

School of Humanities, Jiangsu University of Technology, Changzhou 213001, China.

The significance of lockdown policies for controlling the COVID-19 pandemic is widely recognized. However, most studies have focused on individual lockdown measures. The effectiveness of lockdown policy combinations has not been examined from a configurational perspective. This research applies fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to examine different lockdown policy combinations associated with high-epidemic situations in 84 countries. A high-epidemic situation can occur through three different "weak-confined" patterns of lockdown policy combinations. The findings demonstrate that a combination of lockdown policies is more successful than any single lockdown policy, whereas the absence of several key measures in policy combinations can lead to a high-epidemic situation. The importance of international travel controls can become obscured when they are the only measures adopted, and a high-epidemic situation can still arise where restrictions are placed on international travel but not on public transport or when workplaces are closed but schools remain open.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19127142DOI Listing
June 2022

PeTGA1 enhances disease resistance against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides through directly regulating PeSARD1 in poplar.

Int J Biol Macromol 2022 Jun 20. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

National Engineering Research Center of Tree breeding and Ecological remediation, College of Biological Sciences and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China. Electronic address:

Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) proteins play important roles in responding to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. However, the molecular mechanisms of plant resistance to pathogens remain largely unclear in poplar. The present study isolated a TGACG-binding (TGA) transcription factor, PeTGA1, from Populus euphratica. PeTGA1 belongs to subgroup D of the bZIP family and was localized to the nucleus. To study the role PeTGA1 plays in response to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, transgenic triploid white poplars overexpressing PeTGA1 were generated. Results showed that poplars with overexpressed PeTGA1 showed a higher effective defense response to C. gloeosporioides than the wild-type plants. A yeast one-hybrid assay and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that PeTGA1 could directly bind to the PeSARD1 (P. euphratica SYSTEMIC ACQUIRED RESISTANCE DEFICIENT 1) promoter, an important regulator for salicylic acid biosynthesis. The transactivation assays indicated that PeTGA1 activated the expression of PeSARD1, and PR1 (PATHOGENESIS-RELATED 1), a SA marker gene involved in SA signaling. Subsequently, we observed that the PeTGA1 overexpression lines showed elevated SA levels, thereby resulting in the increased resistance to C. gloeosporioides. Taken together, our results indicated that PeTGA1 may exert a key role in plant immunity not only by targeting PeSARD1 thus participating in the SA biosynthesis pathway but also by involving in SA signaling via activating the expression of PR1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.06.099DOI Listing
June 2022

A Small Gtp-Binding Protein GhROP3 Interacts with GhGGB Protein and Negatively Regulates Drought Tolerance in Cotton ( L.).

Plants (Basel) 2022 Jun 15;11(12). Epub 2022 Jun 15.

College of Life Science, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Nongda East Road, Urumqi 830001, China.

As a plant-specific Rho-like small G protein, the ROP (Rho-related GTPase of plants) protein regulates the growth and development of plants and various stress responses in the form of molecular switches. Drought is a major abiotic stress that limits cotton yield and fiber quality. In this study, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology was used to analyze the biological function of in cotton drought stress tolerance. Meanwhile, we used yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays to examine the interaction between GhROP3 and GhGGB. has a high expression level in cotton true leaves and roots, and responds to drought, high salt, cold, heat stress, and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and auxin (IAA) treatments. Silencing improved the drought tolerance of cotton. The water loss rates (WLR) of detached leaves significantly reduced in silenced plants. Also, the relative water content (RWC) and total contents of chlorophyll (Chl) and proline (Pro) of leaves after drought stress and the activities of three antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POD) significantly increased, whereas the contents of hydrogen peroxide (HO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) significantly reduced. In the leaves of silenced plants, the expression of genes related to ABA synthesis and its related pathway was significantly upregulated, and the expression of decomposition-related gene and genes related to IAA synthesis and its related pathways was significantly downregulated. It indicated that was a negative regulator of cotton response to drought by participating in the negative regulation of the ABA signaling pathway and the positive regulation of the IAA signaling pathway. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays showed that the GhROP3 protein interacted with the GhGGB protein in vivo and in vitro. This study provided a theoretical basis for the in-depth investigation of the drought resistance-related molecular mechanism of the gene and the biological function of the gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants11121580DOI Listing
June 2022

Detection of subsp. in a HIV patient using metagenomic Next Generation Sequencing.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2022 Jun 23:1-9. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Infection hospital area of the First Affiliated Hospital of University of science and technology of China, Hefei, China.

Bartonella are fastidious, aerobic bacteria that are transmitted by blood-sucking arthropods. spp. are responsible for cat scratch disease, Carrion's disease, bacillary angiomatosis and trench fever. On the other hand, is rarely reported in literature and there exists few reports of systemic infection caused by in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A 31-year-old male (diagnosed with AIDS six years ago) had persistent fever and ulceration in the right knee. The elevated levels of inflammatory markers suggested an infectious aetiology. Despite the negative findings of blood culture, metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing of plasma detected . Polymerase chain reaction of whole blood and Sanger sequencing confirmed the mNGS findings. Immunohistochemical staining had later suggested bacillary angiomatosis, which was consistent with Bartonella infection. Following antibiotic treatment, the ulcers shrunk significantly but high fever persisted. The patient died due to sudden respiratory failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2022.2094287DOI Listing
June 2022

Multifunctional Lipid Nanoparticles for Protein Kinase N3 shRNA Delivery and Prostate Cancer Therapy.

Mol Pharm 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 214122, PR China.

Protein kinase N3 (PKN3), by virtue of its abnormal expression in prostate cells, has been widely used as a target of RNAi (shRNA, siRNA, miRNA) therapy. The major challenges of PKN3 RNAi therapy lie in how to design effective interference sequences and delivery systems. Herein, new PKN3 shRNA sequences (shPKN3-2459 and shPKN3-3357) were designed, and bioreducible, biodegradable, ionizable lipid-based nanoparticles were developed for shPKN3 delivery. First, an ionizable lipid (DDA-SS-DMA) bridged with disulfide bond and ester bonds was synthesized by a three-step reaction and confirmed by MS, H NMR, and C NMR. The ionizable lipid was mixed with cholesterol, DSPC, PEG-lipid, and shPKN3 by a microfluidic mixer to prepare lipid nanoparticles (LNP-shPKN3) which were characterized by DLS and TEM. Afterward, the pH and glutathione (GSH)-responsiveness of the DDA-SS-DMA based LNP delivery system were investigated by lysosome escape and gel electrophoresis assays. Compared with the commercial transfection reagent Lipo2000, the DDA-SS-DMA based delivery system showed higher transfection efficiency and lower toxicity. Western blot analysis, invasion tests, and migration assays were performed to evaluate the silencing effect of shPKN3 . In studies, high tumor suppression (65.8%) and treatment safety were evident in the LNP-shPKN3-2459 treatment group. Taken together, the DDA-SS-DMA based delivery system encapsulating shPKN3-2459 showed significant antitumor efficacy and might be a promising formulation for the treatment of prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.2c00244DOI Listing
June 2022

Prognostic value of PD-L1 and Siglec-15 expression in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Sci Rep 2022 Jun 21;12(1):10401. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Department of Oncology, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, 646000, China.

Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 15 (Siglec-15) might be involved in the activation of important pathways related to tumor immune escape, along with programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1). Here, we aimed to investigate the correlation between the expression of Siglec-15 and PD-L1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. We determined the expression of PD-L1 via immunohistochemical staining and that of Siglec-15 via immunofluorescence staining in 182 NPC tissue samples. A significant correlation was identified between the PD-L1 and Siglec-15 expression (P = 0.000). Moreover, Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that PD-L1 expression was associated with improved overall survival (OS) (P = 0.025) and Siglec-15 expression was associated with improved distant failure-free survival (D-FFS) (P = 0.048). Moreover, multivariate Cox analysis showed that PD-L1 and Siglec-15 were independent predictors of OS (P = 0.020) and D-FFS (P = 0.047), respectively. The results of the log-rank test and Cox regression analyses showed that patients exhibiting no PD-L1/Siglec-15 expression had significant advantages regarding OS, compared to other groups (P = 0.037). PD-L1 and Siglec-15 may represent novel biomarkers for predicting the prognosis of NPC patients. Siglec-15 may be considered as a potential target for the development of therapeutics for NPC treatment in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-13997-2DOI Listing
June 2022

Altered polymerase theta expression promotes chromosomal instability in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.

J Cell Mol Med 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

College of Stomatology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

Genomic instability (GIN) plays a key role in cancer progression. The disorders of polymerase theta (POLQ) were reported to contribute to GIN and progression in many cancers. Here, we found that POLQ over-expression was related to salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) progression and poor prognosis. Then, we investigated the role and mechanism of POLQ in the GIN in SACC. GIN was assessed by chromosome staining with DAPI and Giemsa, as well as qRT-PCR of the mitosis-related gene expression. Meanwhile, PCR-SSCP was used to evaluate microsatellite instability. Modulation of POLQ expression increased chromosomal instability and enhanced the sensitivity to etoposide without impacting microsatellite stability. Mechanistically, POLQ regulated genome stability by promoting the expression of the error-prone alt-NHEJ-related protein PARP1, and down-regulating c-NHEJ- and HR-related proteins KU70 and RAD51. In vitro CCK, Transwell assays and in vivo murine xenograft models indicated that the PARP inhibitor olaparib suppressed SACC growth in the case of etoposide-induced DNA damage. Bioinformatic analysis identified CEBPB as a potential POLQ-regulating transcription factor. In summary, our research provides new insights into the mechanisms of SACC chromosomal instability and identifies new potential targets for SACC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.17429DOI Listing
June 2022

Comparison of Application of MD-VF-Auto SEM Method and Plankton Gene Multiplex PCR System in the Diagnosis of Drowning.

Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi 2022 Feb;38(1):114-118

Huadu District Branch of Guangzhou Public Security Bureau, Guangzhou 510800, China.

Objectives: To compare the application effect of microwave digestion - vacuum filtration - automated scanning electron microscopy (MD-VF-Auto SEM) method and plankton gene multiplex PCR system in the diagnosis of drowning.

Methods: Lung, liver and kidney tissue of 10 non-drowning cases and 50 drowning cases were prepared for further MD-VF-Auto SEM method analysis and plankton gene multiplex PCR system analysis. The positive detection rate of the two methods in each tissue was calculated.

Results: The positive rate of the MD-VF-Auto SEM method detecting diatoms in drowning cases was 100%, and few diatoms were detected in the liver and kidney tissues of 6 non-drowning cases. By using the plankton gene multiplex PCR system, the diatom positive rate of drowning cases was 84%, and all the non-drowning cases were negative. There were significant differences in the positive rate of the liver, kidney tissues between MD-VF-Auto SEM method and plankton gene multiplex PCR system (<0.05), as well as the total positive rate of cases. However, no significant differences were found in the positive rates of lung tissues (>0.05).

Conclusions: MD-VF-Auto SEM method is more sensitive than plankton gene multiplex PCR system in diatom test. But the plankton gene multiplex PCR system can also detect plankton other than diatoms. Combination of the two methods can provide a more reliable basis for the diagnosis of drowning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2021.410605DOI Listing
February 2022

Application of Diatoms Quantitative Analysis in the Diagnosis of Drowning.

Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi 2022 Feb;38(1):110-113

Guangzhou Forensic Science Institute & Key Laboratory of Forensic Pathology, Ministry of Public Security, Guangzhou 510442, China.

Objectives: To retrospectively analyze diatom test cases of corpses in water and discuss the value of quantitative analysis of diatoms in the diagnosis of drowning.

Methods: A total of 490 cases of water-related death were collected. They were divided into drowning group and postmortem immersion group according to the cause of death. Diatoms in lung, liver, kidney tissue and water sample were analyzed quantitatively by microwave digestion-vacuum filtration-automated scanning electron microscopy (MD-VF-Auto SEM) method. The ratios of content of diatoms in lung tissue and water sample (/) were calculated.

Results: The results of diatom test for three organs (lung, liver and kidney) were all positive in 400 cases (85.5%); the content of diatom in lung, liver, kidney tissues, and water samples of drowning group were (113 235.9±317 868.1), (26.7±75.6), (23.3±52.2) and (12 113.3±21 760.0) cells/10 g, respectively; the species of diatom were (7.5±2.8), (2.6±1.9), (2.9±2.1) and (8.9±3.0) types, respectively; the / of drowning group and postmortem immersion group were (100.6±830.7) and (0.3±0.4), respectively.

Conclusions: Quantitative analysis of diatoms can provide supportive evidence for the diagnosis of drowning, and the parameter / can be introduced into the analysis to make a more accurate diagnosis of drowning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2021.410707DOI Listing
February 2022

Effects of Digestive Temperature and Time on Diatom Test.

Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi 2022 Feb;38(1):77-81

Guangzhou Forensic Science Institute & Key Laboratory of Forensic Pathology, Ministry of Public Security, Guangzhou 510442, China.

Objectives: To study the effects of temperature and time for diatoms digestion and find out suitable digestive temperature and time.

Methods: Eighty pieces of liver tissues were collected, each piece of tissue was 2 g, and 2 mL Pearl River water was added to each piece of tissue. The digestion temperature was set at 100 ℃, 120 ℃, 140 ℃, 160 ℃, 180 ℃ and the digestion time was set at 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 min. The liver tissue and water mixture were divided into 8 portions in each group. All the samples were tested by microwave digestive - vacuum filtration - automated scanning electron microscopy method. The quantity of diatom recovered and the quality of residue on the membrane were recorded.

Results: When the digestion time was set to 60 min, there were statistically significant differences in the number of diatoms recovered at different temperatures (<0.05). The maximum number of diatoms recovered was (28 797.50±6 009.67) at 140 ℃, and the minimum residue was (0.60±0.28) mg at 180 ℃. When the digestion temperature was set at 140 ℃, there were statistically significant differences in the number of diatoms recovered at different digestion times (<0.05). The number of diatoms recovered was the highest at 40 min, it was up to (20 650.88±1 950.29), and the residue quality of each group had no statistical significance among different digestion time groups(>0.05).

Conclusions: The effect of diatom digestion is related to temperature and time. When the digestion temperature was 140 ℃ and the digestion time was 40, 50 and 60 min, it is favorable for diatom test.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2021.410611DOI Listing
February 2022

Pathway of Diatoms Enter Experimental Rabbits through the Lymphatic System of the Digestive Tract.

Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi 2022 Feb;38(1):67-70

Guangzhou Forensic Science Institute & Key Laboratory of Forensic Pathology, Ministry of Public Security, Guangzhou 510442, China.

Objectives: To study whether diatoms can enter the body through the lymphatic system of the digestive tract.

Methods: Twenty experimental rabbits were divided into the test group and the control group randomly, and intragastric administration was performed with 20 mL water sample from the Pearl River and 20 mL ultrapure water, respectively. After 30 min, lymph, lungs, livers and kidneys were extracted for the diatom test. The concentration, size and type of diatoms were recorded.

Results: The concentration of diatoms of the test group was higher than that of the control group (<0.05). In the test group, , , , , , , and were detected; in the control group, , and were detected. The long diameter and the short diameter of diatoms of the test group were higher than those of the control group (<0.05). In the test group, 1-2 diatoms were detected in 3 lung samples and 2 liver samples, which were or , and no diatoms were detected in the kidney samples; in the control group, 1-2 diatoms were detected in 2 lung samples and 3 liver samples, which were or , and no diatoms were detected in the kidney samples.

Conclusions: Diatoms can enter the body through the lymphatic fluid, which is one of the reasons for the presence of diatoms in tissues and organs of non-drowning cadavers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2021.410607DOI Listing
February 2022

Evaluation of Inspection Efficiency of Diatom Artificial Intelligence Search System Based on Scanning Electron Microscope.

Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi 2022 Feb;38(1):40-45

Department of Forensic Medicine, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China.

Objectives: To explore the application values of diatom artificial intelligence (AI) search system in the diagnosis of drowning.

Methods: The liver and kidney tissues of 12 drowned corpses were taken and were performed with the diatom test, the view images were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Diatom detection and forensic expert manual identification were carried out under the thresholds of 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9 of the diatom AI search system, respectively. Diatom recall rate, precision rate and image exclusion rate were used to detect and compare the efficiency of diatom AI search system.

Results: There was no statistical difference between the number of diatoms detected in the target marked by the diatom AI search system and the number of diatoms identified manually (>0.05); the recall rates of the diatom AI search system were statistically different under different thresholds (<0.05); the precision rates of the diatom AI system were statistically different under different thresholds(<0.05), and the highest precision rate was 53.15%; the image exclusion rates of the diatom AI search system were statistically different under different thresholds (<0.05), and the highest image exclusion rate was 99.72%. For the same sample, the time taken by the diatom AI search system to identify diatoms was only 1/7 of that of manual identification.

Conclusions: Diatom AI search system has a good application prospect in drowning cases. Its automatic diatom search ability is equal to that of experienced forensic experts, and it can greatly reduce the workload of manual observation of images.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2021.410719DOI Listing
February 2022

Review and Prospect of Diagnosis of Drowning Deaths in Water.

Authors:
Chao Liu Bin Cong

Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi 2022 Feb;38(1):3-13

Hebei Key Laboratory of Forensic Medicine, College of Forensic Medicine, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050011, China.

Drowning is the death caused by asphyxiation due to fluid blocking the airway. In the practice of forensic medicine, it is the key to determine whether the corpse was drowned or entered the water after death. At the same time, the drowning site inference and postmortem submersion interval (PMSI) play an important role in the investigating the identity of the deceased, narrowing the investigation scope, and solving the case. Based on diatoms testing, molecular biology, imaging and artificial intelligence and other technologies, domestic and foreign forensic scientists have done relative research in the identification of the cause of death, drowning site inference and PMSI, and achieved certain results in forensic medicine application. In order to provide a reference for future study of bodies in the water, this paper summarizes the above research contents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2021.410625DOI Listing
February 2022

[Opportunities and challenges in the diagnosis of postmortem drowning in water].

Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi 2022 02;38(1):1-2

Guangzhou Forensic Science Institute & Key Laboratory of Forensic Pathology, Ministry of Public Security, Guangzhou 510442, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12116/j.issn.1004-5619.2021.411211DOI Listing
February 2022

Formation of regulated and unregulated disinfection byproducts during chlorination and chloramination: Roles of dissolved organic matter type, bromide, and iodide.

J Environ Sci (China) 2022 Jul 19;117:151-160. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Algal blooms and wastewater effluents can introduce algal organic matter (AOM) and effluent organic matter (EfOM) into surface waters, respectively. In this study, the impact of bromide and iodide on the formation of halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination and chloramination from various types of dissolved organic matter (DOM, e.g., natural organic matter (NOM), AOM, and EfOM) were investigated based on the data collected from literature. In general, higher formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) was observed in NOM than AOM and EfOM, indicating high reactivities of phenolic moieties with both chlorine and monochloramine. The formation of haloacetaldehydes (HALs), haloacetonitriles (HANs) and haloacetamides (HAMs) was much lower than THMs and HAAs. Increasing initial bromide concentrations increased the formation of THMs, HAAs, HANs, and HAMs, but not HALs. Bromine substitution factor (BSF) values of DBPs formed in chlorination decreased as specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) increased. AOM favored the formation of iodinated THMs (I-THMs) during chloramination using preformed chloramines and chlorination-chloramination processes. Increasing prechlorination time can reduce the I-THM concentrations because of the conversion of iodide to iodate, but this increased the formation of chlorinated and brominated DBPs. In an analogous way, iodine substitution factor (ISF) values of I-THMs formed in chloramination decreased as SUVA values of DOM increased. Compared to chlorination, the formation of noniodinated DBPs is low in chloramination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2022.04.014DOI Listing
July 2022

Interference with connective tissue growth factor attenuated fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition and pulmonary fibrosis.

Ann Transl Med 2022 May;10(10):566

Department of Emergency Medicine, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Background: The aberrant activation and phenotype shift of resident fibroblasts in lung tissues via fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition (FMT) is considered a pivotal step in pulmonary fibrogenesis, resulting in excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) production and deposition. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating FMT and lung fibrosis are still unclear. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has been reported to be both an ECM protein and a versatile signaling molecule that is involved in multiple pathophysiological contexts, especially fibrosis. The relationship between CTGF, FMT, and lung fibrosis has not yet been well defined.

Methods: In this study, a pulmonary fibrosis (PF) rat model and FMT cell model induced by paraquat (PQ) were established to explore the relevant regulatory mechanisms and .

Results: The results showed that the CTGF was highly activated and was a mediator of canonical Wnt signaling during FMT and PF. The inhibition of the CTGF by small-interfering ribonucleic acid decreased the expression of FMT markers, including α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, and collagen I, inhibited the activated Wnt signaling pathway, and ameliorated lung fibrosis.

Conclusions: Our findings showed that CTGF was the key effector of the FMT and fibrotic changes, and emphasized the therapeutic potential of the inhibitor or monoclonal antibody against CTGF for PF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-22-1397DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9201195PMC
May 2022

Two-step proximal gradient descent algorithm for photoacoustic signal unmixing.

Photoacoustics 2022 Sep 9;27:100379. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

City University of Hong Kong, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

Photoacoustic microscopy uses multiple wavelengths to measure concentrations of different absorbers. The speed of sound limits the shortest wavelength switching time to sub-microseconds, which is a bottleneck for high-speed broad-spectrum imaging. Via computational separation of overlapped signals, we can break the sound-speed limit on the wavelength switching time. This paper presents a new signal unmixing algorithm named two-step proximal gradient descent. It is advantageous in separating multiple wavelengths with long overlapping and high noise. In the simulation, we can unmix up to nine overlapped signals and successfully separate three overlapped signals with 12-ns delay and 15.9-dB signal-to-noise ratio. We apply this technique to separate three-wavelength photoacoustic images in microvessels. In vivo results show that the algorithm can successfully unmix overlapped multi-wavelength photoacoustic signals, and the unmixed data can improve accuracy in oxygen saturation imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pacs.2022.100379DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9198964PMC
September 2022

Short-term moderate caloric restriction in a high-fat diet alleviates obesity via AMPK/SIRT1 signaling in white adipocytes and liver.

Food Nutr Res 2022 3;66. Epub 2022 May 3.

Endocrinology Department, Affiliated Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China.

Background: Obesity is a growing problem for public health worldwide. Calorie restriction (CR) is a safety and effective life intervention to defend against obesity. Short-term moderate CR may be a more favorable strategy against this pathology. However, the mechanisms behind the effects of CR remain to be clarified. Increased energy expenditure in the liver and brown adipose tissue could potentially be manipulated to modulate and improve metabolism in obesity. Moreover, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are well-characterized metabolic modulators. We aim to explore the anti-obesity effects of short-term moderate CR by improving energy metabolism via the SIRT1/AMPK pathway in white adipocytes and liver in a mouse model of obesity.

Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice were randomized into two groups receiving either a standard or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks to induce obesity. The HFD-induced obese mice were further randomized into two groups: HFD group or CR group (received 75% of the food eaten by HFD group). Their energy metabolism, white adipose tissue (WAT) contents, hepatic fat deposition, the expression of AMPK, SIRT1, peroxisome proliferators γ-activated receptor coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in WAT, and hepatic tissues were determined.

Results: After 4 weeks, body weight, total serum cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, and insulin levels were significantly lower in the CR group. Moreover, CR ameliorated hepatocyte steatosis, attenuated white adipogenesis, and increased energy expenditure and expressions of SIRT1, PGC-1α, and phosphorylated AMPK in subcutaneous WAT and the hepatic tissues. In addition, CR reduced the protein levels of NF-κB and increased the eNOS expression.

Conclusion: Short-term moderate CR decreases obesity, increases the thermogenesis, and inhibits inflammation in a mouse model of obesity, probably via the activation of the AMPK/SIRT1 pathway in WAT and liver.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29219/fnr.v66.7909DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9180121PMC
May 2022

The Effect of Animation-Guided Mindfulness Meditation on the Promotion of Creativity, Flow and Affect.

Front Psychol 2022 26;13:894337. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Ming Chi University of Technology, New Taipei, Taiwan.

Creativity is so important for social and technological development that people are eager to find an easy way to enhance it. Previous studies have shown that mindfulness has significant effects on positive affect (PA), working memory capacity, cognitive flexibility and many other aspects, which are the key to promoting creativity. However, there are few studies on the relationship between mindfulness and creativity. The mechanism between mindfulness and creativity is still uncertain. Meditation is an important method of mindfulness training, but for most people who do not have the basic training, it's difficult to master how to get into a state of mindfulness. Animation has been shown by many studies to help improve cognition and is often used as a guiding tool. Using animation as the guiding carrier of meditation is more convenient and easier to accept. Therefore, this study adopted the intervention method of animation-guided meditation, aiming to explore: (1) the effect of animation-guided meditation on enhancing creativity; (2) the role of flow and emotion in the influence of mindfulness on creativity. We advertised recruitment through the internal network of a creative industrial park, and the final 95 eligible participants were divided into two groups: animation ( = 48) and audio ( = 47) guided meditation. The animation group was given an animated meditation intervention, and the audio group was given an audio meditation intervention, both interventions were performed 3 times a week and last for 8 weeks. Results: (1) Animation-guided meditation significantly increased participants' mindfulness and creativity levels; Significantly reduced their cognitive load compared to audio-guided meditation. (2) Mindfulness has a significant direct effect on creativity, and significant indirect effects on creativity; Flow and PA act as the mediating variable. Conclusion: (1) Mindfulness, flow, and PA all helped to improve the subjects' work creativity. In addition to the direct positive impact of mindfulness on creativity, mindfulness can also have an indirect positive impact on creativity through flow and PA. (2) Compared with audio, animation can significantly reduce cognitive load and help improve users' cognitive ability, which is more suitable for the guidance materials of mindfulness meditation to enhance the effect of meditation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.894337DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9204527PMC
May 2022

Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index is Associated with Hospital Death in Elderly Patients with Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome: A Retrospective Study Based on the MIMIC-III Database.

Front Nutr 2022 3;9:834256. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, The First Medical Center, Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Purpose: Elderly patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) have a higher mortality during hospitalization in the intensive care unit (ICU). Elderly patients often suffer from malnutrition. On the basis of the MIMIC-III database, this study analyzed the effect of the baseline nutritional status on the death of elderly patients with MODS during hospitalization.

Materials And Methods: Elderly patients with MODS were screened out from MIMIC-III 1.4 database. The geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) was calculated and used to group patients into: normal nutrition (GNRI > 98) and malnutrition (GNRI ≤ 98) groups. The malnutrition group was divided into mild (92-98), moderate (82-91), and severe (≤81) groups. The differences in the baseline data and the incidence of adverse events between groups were compared. The GAM model was used to determine whether a curve relationship was present between the hospital death of elderly patients with MODS and GNRI and analyze the threshold saturation effect. The multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) of in-hospital deaths in different GNRI groups. The interaction test was performed to find subgroups with differences.

Results: A total of 2456 elderly patients with MODS were enrolled. A total of 1,273 (51.8%) and 1183 (48.2%) patients were in the normal nutrition and malnutrition groups, respectively. The mortality rate of patients in the normal nutrition group during hospitalization was lower than that in the malnutrition group (206/1273 vs. 292/1183, X2 = 27.410, < 0.001; OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.48-0.72). The GAM model fitting analysis showed a threshold saturation effect at GNRI = 92. Adjusted OR values with GNRI ≥ 92 began to change to 1, and GNRI and death had no association. At GNRI < 92, high GNRI related to low risk of death. Subgroup analysis of patients with GNRI < 92 showed that the risk of death in elderly male patients was lower than that of female patients.

Conclusion: GNRI is related to the severity of illness in elderly patients with MODS. At GNRI < 92, moderate to severe malnutrition increases the risk of death in elderly patients with MODS during hospitalization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.834256DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9204224PMC
June 2022

Characterization of oral and gut microbiome and plasma metabolomics in COVID-19 patients after 1-year follow-up.

Mil Med Res 2022 06 17;9(1):32. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Infectious Diseases, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450052, China.

Background: Due to the outbreak and rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), more than 160 million patients have become convalescents worldwide to date. Significant alterations have occurred in the gut and oral microbiome and metabonomics of patients with COVID-19. However, it is unknown whether their characteristics return to normal after the 1-year recovery.

Methods: We recruited 35 confirmed patients to provide specimens at discharge and one year later, as well as 160 healthy controls. A total of 497 samples were prospectively collected, including 219 tongue-coating, 129 stool and 149 plasma samples. Tongue-coating and stool samples were subjected to 16S rRNA sequencing, and plasma samples were subjected to untargeted metabolomics testing.

Results: The oral and gut microbiome and metabolomics characteristics of the 1-year convalescents were restored to a large extent but did not completely return to normal. In the recovery process, the microbial diversity gradually increased. Butyric acid-producing microbes and Bifidobacterium gradually increased, whereas lipopolysaccharide-producing microbes gradually decreased. In addition, sphingosine-1-phosphate, which is closely related to the inflammatory factor storm of COVID-19, increased significantly during the recovery process. Moreover, the predictive models established based on the microbiome and metabolites of patients at the time of discharge reached high efficacy in predicting their neutralizing antibody levels one year later.

Conclusions: This study is the first to characterize the oral and gut microbiome and metabonomics in 1-year convalescents of COVID-19. The key microbiome and metabolites in the process of recovery were identified, and provided new treatment ideas for accelerating recovery. And the predictive models based on the microbiome and metabolomics afford new insights for predicting the recovery situation which benefited affected individuals and healthcare.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40779-022-00387-yDOI Listing
June 2022
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