Publications by authors named "Chao Liu"

2,736 Publications

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[Correlation between estrogen levels and coronary heart disease with kidney deficiency and intervention effect of kidney-tonifying traditional Chinese medicine].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Apr;46(7):1738-1742

Guang'anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Beijing 100053, China.

With the process of urbanization and population aging in China, the burden of cardiovascular disease and the incidence of coronary heart disease among postmenopausal women have greatly increased. Studies have found that the incidence of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women is closely related to the level of estrogen, but there are still difficulties of low efficiency and large side effects in current therapies. Kidney deficiency has a strong correlation with reproductive development and overall function. The clinical manifestations and characteristics of postmenopausal coronary heart disease patients conform to the pathogenesis of kidney deficiency in traditional Chinese medicine. The kidney-invigorating method has a good efficacy in treating postmenopausal coronary heart disease patients. This paper summarizes clinical and pharmacological evidences, expounds the relationship between kidney deficiency and the level of estrogen, and the pathological mechanism of the kidney-tonifying method in the treatment of coronary heart disease, and defines the clinical efficacy and advantages of the kidney-tonifying method. The method may become an effective method to prevent and treat postmenopausal coronary heart disease, and is expected to benefit patients with coronary heart disease better.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20201221.601DOI Listing
April 2021

Corrigendum: A Matrine Derivative M54 Suppresses Osteoclastogenesis and Prevents Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss by Targeting Ribosomal Protein S5.

Front Pharmacol 2021 29;12. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00022.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.605592DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8108601PMC
March 2021

Relationship between long non-coding RNA PCAT-1 expression and gefitinib resistance in non-small-cell lung cancer cells.

Respir Res 2021 May 12;22(1):146. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Yunnan Cancer Hospital, Yunnan Cancer Center, No. 519 Kunzhou Road, Kunming, 650118, Yunnan, China.

Background: Gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been used as first-line treatment for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, during treatment, cancer cells often develop resistance to gefitinib, the mechanisms of which are not fully understood. This study was designed to elucidate the expression and role of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA)-PCAT-1, a potential biomarker for drug resistance and a therapeutic target for NSCLC, in gefitinib resistance in NSCLC cells.

Methods: In this study, we verified differential PCAT-1 expression in NSCLC gefitinib-resistant tissues or cells. PCAT-1 knockdown, clone formation, Transwell, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence assays were used to verify the correlation between PCAT-1 and gefitinib sensitivity. A nude mouse tumor-bearing model verified that PCAT-1 can reverse gefitinib resistance in vivo. Then, a PI3K/Akt agonist was used to verify the possible mechanism of PCAT-1 action.

Results: PCAT-1 is highly expressed in gefitinib-resistant NSCLC tissues and cells. PCAT-1 knockdown enhanced gefitinib sensitivity and gefitinib-induced apoptosis in H1299/GR cells. PCAT-1 knockdown reduced tumor volume and weight, and reversed acquired gefitinib resistance in vivo. PCAT-1 knockdown inhibited AKT and GSK3 phosphorylation in H1299/GR cells. A PI3K/AKT agonist reversed PCAT-1 knockdown-mediated enhancement of gefitinib sensitivity in H1299/GR cells CONCLUSION: PCAT-1 knockdown improves sensitivity to gefitinib by inhibition of AKT and GSK3 phosphorylation in NSCLC. PCAT-1 is as potential target for improving the clinical efficacy of gefitinib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12931-021-01719-7DOI Listing
May 2021

Paternal USP26 mutations raise Klinefelter syndrome risk in the offspring of mice and humans.

EMBO J 2021 May 12:e106864. Epub 2021 May 12.

Center for Reproductive Medicine, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Key Laboratory of Reproductive Endocrinology of Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Current understanding holds that Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is not inherited, but arises randomly during meiosis. Whether there is any genetic basis for the origin of KS is unknown. Here, guided by our identification of some USP26 variations apparently associated with KS, we found that knockout of Usp26 in male mice resulted in the production of 41, XXY offspring. USP26 protein is localized at the XY body, and the disruption of Usp26 causes incomplete sex chromosome pairing by destabilizing TEX11. The unpaired sex chromosomes then result in XY aneuploid spermatozoa. Consistent with our mouse results, a clinical study shows that some USP26 variations increase the proportion of XY aneuploid spermatozoa in fertile men, and we identified two families with KS offspring wherein the father of the KS patient harbored a USP26-mutated haplotype, further supporting that paternal USP26 mutation can cause KS offspring production. Thus, some KS should originate from XY spermatozoa, and paternal USP26 mutations increase the risk of producing KS offspring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/embj.2020106864DOI Listing
May 2021

Circular RNA circ_0128846 promotes the progression of osteoarthritis by regulating miR-127-5p/NAMPT axis.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 May 11;16(1):307. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Orthopaedics, Baoji Central Hospital, No. 8 Jiangtan Road, Weibin District, Baoji, 721008, Shaanxi Province, China.

Background: Mounting evidence indicates that circular RNAs (circRNAs) participate in the occurrence and development of various diseases, including osteoarthritis (OA). However, the effects and molecular mechanism of circ_0128846 in OA have not been reported.

Methods: The expression levels of circ_0128846, microRNA-127-5p (miR-127-5p), and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) or western blot assay. Cell viability was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Cell apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry and western blot assay. Inflammatory response and cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation were evaluated by western blot assay. The relationship between miR-127-5p and circ_0128846 or NAMPT was predicted by bioinformatics tools and verified by dual-luciferase reporter and RNA Immunoprecipitation (RIP) assays.

Results: Circ_0128846 and NAMPT were upregulated and miR-127-5p was downregulated in OA cartilage tissues. Knockdown of circ_0128846 increased cell viability and inhibited apoptosis, inflammation and ECM degradation in OA chondrocytes, while these effects were reversed by downregulating miR-127-5p. Moreover, circ_0128846 positively regulated NAMPT expression by sponging miR-127-5p. Furthermore, miR-127-5p promoted cell viability and suppressed apoptosis, inflammation, and ECM degradation in OA chondrocytes by directly targeting NAMPT.

Conclusion: Circ_0128846 knockdown might inhibit the progression of OA by upregulating miR-127-5p and downregulating NAMPT, offering a new insight into the potential application of circ_0128846 in OA treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13018-021-02428-zDOI Listing
May 2021

Increased AT receptor expression mediates vasoconstriction leading to hypertension in Snx1 mice.

Hypertens Res 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Cardiology, Daping Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (ATR) is a vital therapeutic target for hypertension. Sorting nexin 1 (SNX1) participates in the sorting and trafficking of the renal dopamine D receptor, while angiotensin and dopamine are counterregulatory factors in the regulation of blood pressure. The effect of SNX1 on ATR is not known. We hypothesized that SNX1, through arterial ATR sorting and trafficking, is involved in blood pressure regulation. CRISPR/Cas9 system-generated SNX1 mice showed dramatic elevations in blood pressure compared to their wild-type littermates. The angiotensin II-mediated contractile reactivity of the mesenteric arteries and ATR expression in the aortas were also increased. Moreover, immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that SNX1 and ATR were colocalized and interacted in the aortas of wild-type mice. In vitro studies revealed that ATR protein levels and downstream calcium signaling were upregulated in A10 cells treated with SNX1 siRNA. This may have resulted from decreased ATR protein degradation since the ATR mRNA levels showed no changes. ATR protein was less degraded when SNX1 was downregulated, as reflected by a cycloheximide chase assay. Furthermore, proteasomal rather than lysosomal inhibition increased ATR protein content, and this effect was accompanied by decayed binding of ubiquitin and ATR after SNX1 knockdown. Confocal microscopy revealed that ATR colocalized with PSMD6, a proteasomal marker, and the colocalization was reduced after SNX1 knockdown. These findings suggest that SNX1 sorts ATR for proteasomal degradation and that SNX1 impairment increases arterial ATR expression, leading to increased vasoconstriction and blood pressure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41440-021-00661-xDOI Listing
May 2021

Micro-rocket robot with all-optic actuating and tracking in blood.

Light Sci Appl 2020 May 11;9(1):84. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, 999077, Hong Kong, China.

Micro/nanorobots have long been expected to reach all parts of the human body through blood vessels for medical treatment or surgery. However, in the current stage, it is still challenging to drive a microrobot in viscous media at high speed and difficult to observe the shape and position of a single microrobot once it enters the bloodstream. Here, we propose a new micro-rocket robot and an all-optic driving and imaging system that can actuate and track it in blood with microscale resolution. To achieve a high driving force, we engineer the microrobot to have a rocket-like triple-tube structure. Owing to the interface design, the 3D-printed micro-rocket can reach a moving speed of 2.8 mm/s (62 body lengths per second) under near-infrared light actuation in a blood-mimicking viscous glycerol solution. We also show that the micro-rocket robot is successfully tracked at a 3.2-µm resolution with an optical-resolution photoacoustic microscope in blood. This work paves the way for microrobot design, actuation, and tracking in the blood environment, which may broaden the scope of microrobotic applications in the biomedical field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41377-020-0323-yDOI Listing
May 2020

Rapid Access to -Protected Sulfonimidoyl Fluorides: Divergent Synthesis of Sulfonamides and Sulfonimidamides.

Org Lett 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Key Laboratory of Organofluorine Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 345 Lingling Road, Shanghai 200032, China.

Herein we report a practical and efficient copper-catalyzed approach for the conversion of various arenediazonium salts to the corresponding -protected sulfonimidoyl fluorides. This operationally simple protocol tolerates a wide range of functional groups and can be applied to the late-stage modification of complex bioactive molecules. Furthermore, pharmaceutically important primary sulfonamides and sulfonimidamides derived from these valuable -protected sulfonimidoyl fluoride units were prepared in minimal synthetic steps.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c01118DOI Listing
May 2021

Genetic polymorphism of 23 autosomal STR loci in Han population from Yuncheng, Shanxi Province.

Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Apr;46(4):351-360

Key Laboratory of Cell Engineering in Guizhou Province; Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi Guizhou 563099.

Objectives: Due to the genetic feature of high diversity than other DNA markers, short tandem repeat (STR) plays key roles in forensic, anthropology, and population genetics. Newly introduced multiple STR kit is more valuable because of the greatly improved discriminatory power with the increase in the number of STR loci. The genetic polymorphic data are essential for the application and research in specific population. This study aims to investigate the genetic polymorphism of Han population residing in Yuncheng district, Shanxi Province, to evaluate the application of 23 STR loci in forensic personal identification and paternity test, and to explore the genetic relationship of Han population between Yuncheng and other populations.

Methods: A total of 23 STR loci were amplified from 525 healthy unrelated individuals from the Han nationality in Yuncheng, Shanxi Province using the AGCU EX25 amplification kit. The products were detected and separated by ABI 3500 Genetic Analyzer. Alleles were genotyped by GeneMapper ID (Version 3.2) software, and corresponding frequencies and forensic parameters were calculated. We calculated the genetic distance and plotted the neighboring-joining tree with other 13 population.

Results: The allele frequency of the 23 STRs ranged from 0.0010 to 0.5090. No deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (>0.05) and linkage disequilibrium was observed. The cumulative discriminatory power (CPD), cumulative power of exclusion for trios (CPE)and cumulative Power of exclusion for duos (CPE) with total 23 STRs were 1-1.305 263 374 8×10, 1-2.583 152 052 2×10 and 1-1.193 637 500 4×10, respectively. Comprehensive population comparison showed that Shanxi Yuncheng Han nationality was genetically closer to populations of the same linguistic family or geographically close proximity, such as Shaanxi Weinan Han, Liaoning Han, and Ningbo Han nationality while relatively far away from different linguistic ethnic groups and geographically distant populations like Xinjiang Uygur and Guangdong Han nationality.

Conclusions: These 23 STRs are highly genetic polymorphic and informative in the Han population of Yuncheng, Shanxi Province, which can provide basic data for forensic personal identification, paternity testing, and population genetic research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11817/j.issn.1672-7347.2021.190357DOI Listing
April 2021

Phototunable Cloud Point Temperatures Stemming from Cyclic Topology: Synthesis and Thermal Phase Transition Behavior of Cyclic Poly(N-acryloylsarcosine methyl ester).

Macromol Rapid Commun 2021 May 8:e2100136. Epub 2021 May 8.

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230026, China.

Cyclic polymers possess distinct properties compared with their linear counterparts, such as smaller hydrodynamic volume, lower viscosity, and higher glass-transition temperature, etc. To explore the impact of the cyclic topology on the thermo-induced phase transition behavior of poly(N-acryloylsarcosine methyl ester) (PNASME), the anthracene-terminated telechelic PNASMEs are synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of monomer NASME using a bifunctional chain transfer agent (CTA) with two anthryl groups. Subsequently, cyclic PNASMEs are prepared via UV-induced cyclization under 365 nm UV. There are considerable increases (up to 50 °C) for the cloud point temperatures (T s) of cyclic PNASMEs compared with the linear counterparts. In view of the increment, the T of PNASME is tuned by varying the cyclic/linear ratio (the molar ratio between cyclic PNASME and linear PNASME in the product) with different irradiation time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/marc.202100136DOI Listing
May 2021

A green and facile approach to a graphene-based peroxidase-like nanozyme and its application in sensitive colorimetric detection of L-cysteine.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

CAS Key Laboratory of High Magnetic Field and Ion Beam Physical Biology, Anhui Key Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Pollution Control Technology, Hefei Institute of IntelligentAgriculture, Institute of Intelligent Machines,Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Hefei, 230031, Anhui, China.

A facile and green approach to the preparation of peroxidase-like nanozymes by reducing and functionalizing graphene oxide (rGO) with Ganoderma polysaccharide (GP) has been achieved in this work. Our results showed that the as-fabricated nanozyme, namely rGO-GP, possessed the excellent property of simulating peroxidase with higher catalytic activity compared with GO or rGO obtained by using chitosan, which may be due to the better dispersion of rGO-GP in the solution. Steady-state kinetics studies further showed that the catalytic process conformed to Michaelis-Menten equation and ping-pong mechanism. Benefiting from the excellent peroxidase property of rGO-GP, we have also successfully established a highly sensitive and selective colorimetric detection approach to trace detection of L-cysteine (L-Cys). The limit of detection (LOD) of L-cysteine is 0.1 μM and the linear detection range is 2-30 μM. Furthermore, the nanozyme was successfully applied for detecting L-cysteine in serum. This work therefore demonstrates the advantages of rGO-GP as an effective nanozyme in both its green synthesis and detecting application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-021-03352-1DOI Listing
May 2021

A meta-analysis and meta-regression on the prevalence of lipohypertrophy in diabetic patients on insulin therapy.

Therapie 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Affiliated Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 210028 Nanjing, Jiangsu, P.R. China; Jiangsu Province Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 210029 Nanjing, Jiangsu, P.R. China.

Aims Of The Study: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of lipohypertrophy (LH) in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients on insulin therapy and identify factors influencing the prevalence rates through a meta-analysis and meta-regression.

Methods: Databases of PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Google Scholar were screened from inception to 20th Aug 2020. Data on prevalence was transformed using the logit transformation for pooling the proportions using the DerSimonian-Laird meta-analysis model. Random-effects meta-regression analysis was performed to assess the influence of the following moderators on the pooled prevalence: male gender, mean age, type of DM, DM duration, duration of insulin therapy, needle re-users, rotation of injection site, HbA, insulin dose, ≥8mm needle users and mean number of injections/day.

Results: Forty-five studies were included. LH was diagnosed by observation and palpation by all studies. On meta-analysis of data from 26,865 participants, the overall prevalence of LH was found to be 41.8% (95% CI: 35.9% to 47.6%). On region-wise analysis, pooled prevalence of LH in Europe was 44.6% (95% CI: 37.5% to 51.8%) in Africa was 34.8% (95% CI: 16.9% to 52.8%) and in Asia was 41.3% (95% CI: 27.2% to 55.3%). The pooled prevalence of LH in studies only on type 1 and type 2 DM patients was 39.9% (95% CI: 28.3% to 51.6%) and 45.9% (95% CI: 29.5% to 62.4%) respectively. Only insulin duration was found to significantly influence the prevalence of LH on meta-regression.

Conclusion: Our study indicates that the prevalence of LH in DM patients on insulin therapy is estimated to be 41.8%. The longer the duration of insulin therapy, the higher is the prevalence of LH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.therap.2021.04.002DOI Listing
April 2021

Study on the Appropriate Timing of Postoperative Adaptive Radiotherapy for High-Grade Glioma.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 28;13:3561-3572. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Oncology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: To investigate the appropriate timing of adaptive radiotherapy (ART) for high-grade glioma.

Methods: Ten patients with high-grade gliomas were selected and underwent CT/MRI (CT/MRI, CT/MRI, CT/MRI, and CT/MRI) scans before RT and during 10-, 20- and 30-fraction RT, and the corresponding RT plans (plan, plan, plan and plan) were made. The dose of the initial plan (plan) was projected to CT2 and CT3 using the image registration technique to obtain the projection plans (plan and plan) and by superimposing the doses to obtain the ART plans (plan and plan), respectively. The dosimetric differences in the target volume and organs at risk (OARs) were compared between the projection and adaptive plans. The tumor control probability (TCP) for the planning target volume (PTV) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for the OARs were compared between the two adaptive plans.

Results: Compared with the projection plan, the D to the PTV of ART decreased, the conformity index (CI) to the PTV increased, and the D/D to the brainstem, optic chiasm and pituitary, as well as the V, V, V and V to the normal brain decreased. The D to the pituitary and optic chiasm as well as the V, V, V and V to the normal brain in plan were lower than those in plan, while the CI to the PTV was higher than that in plan. The TCP of the PTV in plan was higher than that in plan.

Conclusion: ART can improve the precision of target volume irradiation and reduce the irradiation dose to the OARs in high-grade glioma. The time point after 10 fractions of RT is appropriate for ART.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S300094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8089024PMC
April 2021

Protein analysis of extracellular vesicles to monitor and predict therapeutic response in metastatic breast cancer.

Nat Commun 2021 05 5;12(1):2536. Epub 2021 May 5.

Beijing Engineering Research Center for BioNanotechnology, CAS Key Laboratory of Standardization and Measurement for Nanotechnology, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing, China.

Molecular profiling of circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) provides a promising noninvasive means to diagnose, monitor, and predict the course of metastatic breast cancer (MBC). However, the analysis of EV protein markers has been confounded by the presence of soluble protein counterparts in peripheral blood. Here we use a rapid, sensitive, and low-cost thermophoretic aptasensor (TAS) to profile cancer-associated protein profiles of plasma EVs without the interference of soluble proteins. We show that the EV signature (a weighted sum of eight EV protein markers) has a high accuracy (91.1 %) for discrimination of MBC, non-metastatic breast cancer (NMBC), and healthy donors (HD). For MBC patients undergoing therapies, the EV signature can accurately monitor the treatment response across the training, validation, and prospective cohorts, and serve as an independent prognostic factor for progression free survival in MBC patients. Together, this work highlights the potential clinical utility of EVs in management of MBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22913-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100127PMC
May 2021

Rapid One-Step Detection of Viral Particles Using an Aptamer-Based Thermophoretic Assay.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute of Cancer and Basic Medicine (ICBM), Chinese Academy of Sciences, The Cancer Hospital of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310018, China.

Rapid and sensitive identification of viral pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2 is a critical step to control the pandemic disease. Viral antigen detection can compete with gold-standard PCR-based nucleic acid diagnostics in terms of better reflection of viral infectivity and reduced risk of contamination from enzymatic amplification. Here, we report the development of a one-step thermophoretic assay using an aptamer and polyethylene glycol (PEG) for direct quantitative detection of viral particles. The assay relies on aptamer binding to the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 and simultaneous accumulation of aptamer-bound viral particles in laser-induced gradients of temperature and PEG concentration. Using a pseudotyped lentivirus model, a limit of detection of ∼170 particles μL (26 fM of the spike protein) is achieved in 15 min without the need of any pretreatment. As a proof of concept, the one-step thermophoretic assay is used to detect synthetic samples by spiking viral particles into oropharyngeal swabs with an accuracy of 100%. The simplicity, speed, and cost-effectiveness of this thermophoretic assay may expand the diagnostic tools for viral pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c02929DOI Listing
May 2021

From bio-mineralization to tumorogenesis - the expanding insight of the physiological and pathological roles of Fam20C.

Biosci Rep 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

College of Stomatology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

Fam20C is a Golgi kinase phosphorylating the majority of the secreted proteins. In this decade, the roles of Fam20C has been largely disclosed in the loss-of function models. How the influence of the over-expressed Fam20C on cells or organs, and whether Fam20C was associated to tumorogensis still remain unknown. In the latest publication in Bioscience Reports, a group from the second affiliated hospital of Harbin Medical University established a correlation between the elevated Fam20C expression and the poor prognosis of multiple cancers. In addition, they also proposed the potential mechanisms how the increased Fam20C expression played a detrimental role in tumor progression by suggesting that the up-regulated Fam20C level impacted the infiltration of immune cells and the capability of cancer metastasism. To give an overview of the expanding knowledge of Fam20C involved in the physiological and pathological events, we first reviewed the history of Fam20C studies in this commentary, then, evaluated the correlation of the elevated Fam20C expression to the prognosis of multiple cancers, and finally, interpreted the perspectives that the Fam20C gain-of-function model was also critical for cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20210040DOI Listing
May 2021

Ultrasound enhances the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells wrapped in greater omentum for aristolochic acid nephropathy.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 May 3;12(1):261. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Nephrology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Chinese PLA Institute of Nephrology, State Key Laboratory of Kidney Diseases, National Clinical Research Center of Kidney Diseases, Beijing, 100853, China.

Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to promote regeneration in both subjects with acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD), but their efficacy remains limited, probably because most of the cells accumulate in the lungs, liver, and spleen after an intravenous infusion. Therefore, ultrasound-guided administration of MSCs represents a possible approach to solve this problem. The greater omentum is used to promote cell survival due to its rich vasculature. We hypothesized that ultrasound-guided administration of MSCs combined with greater omentum might be more curative than currently available approaches.

Methods: In this study, we established an aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN) model by intraperitoneally administering aristolochic acid I sodium salt (AA-I) at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight on alternate days for 4 weeks. Subsequently, a laparotomy was performed, and the left kidney from which the capsule had been removed was wrapped with the greater omentum. A dose of 2 × 10 MSCs was injected into the space between the greater omentum and the left kidney. Equal amounts of MSCs were administered under ultrasound guidance every second week for a total of 4 treatments. Mice were sacrificed 4 weeks after surgery. Serum creatinine and blood urea levels were measured to assess renal function. qPCR, Western blot, and histological analyses were conducted to further investigate the therapeutic mechanism of MSCs.

Results: Ultrasound-guided injection of MSCs into the greater omentum that surrounds the kidney enriched cells in the kidney region for up to 5 days. Renal function tests indicated that MSCs improved renal function to a great extent, as reflected by decreased blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels. In addition, histological analyses showed that MSCs noticeably attenuated kidney injury, as evidenced by the amelioration of tubular necrosis and peritubular interstitial fibrosis. Mitigation of renal interstitial fibrosis was further confirmed by immunohistochemistry, qPCR, and western blotting after MSC treatment. Moreover, immunofluorescence staining revealed that MSCs alleviated inflammatory responses by increasing the counts of CD206+ cells and decreasing the counts of CD68+ cells. MSC migration was initiated in response to AA-I-treated renal epithelial cells in an in vitro migration assay.

Conclusions: These findings suggested that administration of MSCs into the cavity formed by the injured kidney and the greater omentum under ultrasound guidance improved renal function, attenuated kidney injury, and mitigated renal interstitial fibrosis and inflammatory responses. Thus, this approach might be a safe and effective therapy for CKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02243-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8091698PMC
May 2021

The process of methanogenesis in paddy fields under different elevated CO concentrations.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 5;773:145629. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Agricultural Meteorology, School of Applied Meteorology, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, China.

Understanding the process of methanogenesis in paddy fields under the scenarios of future climate change is of great significance for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and regulating the soil carbon cycle. Methyl Coenzyme M Reductase subunit A (mcrA) of methanogens is a rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes the final step of CH production. However, the mechanism of methanogenesis change in the paddy fields under different elevated CO concentrations (e[CO]) is rarely explored in earlier studies. In this research, we explored how the methanogens affect CH flux in paddy fields under various (e[CO]). CH flux and CH production potential (MPP), and mcrA gene abundance were quantitatively analyzed under C (ambient CO concentration), C (C + 160 ppm CO), and C (C + 200 ppm CO) treatments. Additionally, the community composition and structure of methanogens were also compared with Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The results showed that C treatment significantly increased CH flux and MPP at the tillering stage. E[CO] had a positive effect on the abundance of methanogens, but the effect was insignificant. We detected four known dominant orders of methanogenesis in this study, such as Methanosarcinales, Methanobacteriales, Methanocellales, and Methanomicrobiales. Although e[CO] did not significantly change the overall community structure and diversity of methanogens, C treatment significantly reduced the relative abundance of two uncultured genera compared to C treatment. A linear regression model of DOC, methanogenic abundance, and MPP can explain 67.2% of the variation of CH flux under e[CO]. Overall, our results demonstrated that CH flux in paddy fields under e[CO] was mainly controlled by soil unstable C substrate and the abundance and activity of methanogens in rhizosphere soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145629DOI Listing
June 2021

Detecting Amyloid-β Accumulation via Immunofluorescent Staining in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

J Vis Exp 2021 Apr 19(170). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Anesthesiology, Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Anesthesia and Analgesia Application Technology and NMPA Key Laboratory for Research and Evaluation of Narcotic and Psychotropic Drugs, Xuzhou Medical University;

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that contributes to 60-70% dementia around the world. One of the hallmarks of AD undoubtedly lies on accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the brain. Aβ is produced from the proteolytic cleavage of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β-secretase and γ-secretase. In pathological circumstances, the increased β-cleavage of APP leads to overproduction of Aβ, which aggregates into Aβ plaques. Since Aβ plaques are a characteristic of AD pathology, detecting the amount of Aβ is very important in AD research. In this protocol, we introduce the immunofluorescent staining method to visualize Aβ deposition. The mouse model used in our experiments is 5×FAD, which carries five mutations found in human familial AD. The neuropathological and behavioral deficits of 5xFAD mice are well-documented, which makes it a good animal model to study Aβ pathology. We will introduce the procedure including transcardial perfusion, cryosectioning, immunofluorescent staining and quantification to detect Aβ accumulation in 5×FAD mice. With this protocol, researchers can investigate Aβ pathology in an AD mouse model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/62254DOI Listing
April 2021

Periosteal Tissue Engineering: Current Developments and Perspectives.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 May 3:e2100215. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Stomatology, The Ningbo Hospital of Zhejiang University, and Ningbo First Hospital, 59 Liuting street, Ningbo, Zhejiang, 315000, China.

Periosteum, a highly vascularized bilayer connective tissue membrane plays an indispensable role in the repair and regeneration of bone defects. It is involved in blood supply and delivery of progenitor cells and bioactive molecules in the defect area. However, sources of natural periosteum are limited, therefore, there is a need to develop tissue-engineered periosteum (TEP) mimicking the composition, structure, and function of natural periosteum. This review explores TEP construction strategies from the following perspectives: i) different materials for constructing TEP scaffolds; ii) mechanical properties and surface topography in TEP; iii) cell-based strategies for TEP construction; and iv) TEP combined with growth factors. In addition, current challenges and future perspectives for development of TEP are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.202100215DOI Listing
May 2021

Valorization of Enzymatic Hydrolysis Residues from Corncob into Lignin-Containing Cellulose Nanofibrils and Lignin Nanoparticles.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 16;9:677963. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Key Laboratory of Biofuels, Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China.

As a kind of biomass waste, enzymatic hydrolysis residues (EHRs) are conventionally burned or just discarded, resulting in environmental pollution and low economic benefits. In this study, EHRs of corncob residues (CCR) were used to produce high lignin-containing cellulose nanofibrils (LCNFs) and lignin nanoparticles (LNPs) through a facile approach. The LCNFs and LNPs with controllable chemical compositions and properties were produced by tuning the enzymolysis time of CCR and the followed homogenization. The morphology, thermal stability, chemical and crystalline structure, and dispersibility of the resultant LCNFs and LNPs were further comprehensively investigated. This work not only promotes the production of lignocellulose-based nanomaterials but also provides a promising utilization pathway for EHRs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2021.677963DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8085415PMC
April 2021

Research Progress of Circular RNA in Gastrointestinal Tumors.

Front Oncol 2021 15;11:665246. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, The Affiliated People's Hospital, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China.

circular RNA (circRNA) is a closed ring structure formed by cyclic covalent bonds connecting the 5'-end and 3'-end of pre-mRNA. circRNA is widely distributed in eukaryotic cells. Recent studies have shown that circRNA is involved in the pathogenesis and development of multiple types of diseases, including tumors. circRNA is specifically expressed in tissues. And the stability of circRNA is higher than that of linear RNA, which can play biological roles through sponge adsorption of miRNA, interaction with RNA binding protein, regulation of gene transcription, the mRNA and protein translation brake, and translation of protein and peptides. These characteristics render circRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic targets of tumors. Gastrointestinal tumors are common malignancies worldwide, which seriously threaten human health. In this review, we summarize the generation and biological characteristics of circRNA, molecular regulation mechanism and related effects of circRNA in gastrointestinal tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.665246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8082141PMC
April 2021

Effects of Polystyrene Microplastics on Growth and Toxin Production of .

Toxins (Basel) 2021 04 20;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China.

Microplastics (MP) widely distributed in aquatic environments have adverse effects on aquatic organisms. Currently, the impact of MP on toxigenic red tide microalgae is poorly understood. In this study, the strain of ATHK, typically producing paralytic shellfish toxins (PST), was selected as the target. Effects of 1 and 0.1 μm polystyrene MP with three concentration gradients (5 mg L, 25 mg L and 100 mg L) on the growth, chlorophyll (Chl ), photosynthetic activity (F/F) and PST production of ATHK were explored. Results showed that the high concentration (100 mg L) of 1 μm and 0.1 μm MP significantly inhibited the growth of ATHK, and the inhibition depended on the size and concentration of MP. Contents of Chl showed an increase with various degrees after MP exposure in all cases. The photosynthesis indicator F/F of ATHK was significantly inhibited in the first 11 days, then gradually returned to the level of control group at day 13, and finally was gradually inhibited in the 1 μm MP treatments, and promotion or inhibition to some degree also occurred at different periods after exposure to 0.1 μm MP. Overall, both particle sizes of MP at 5 and 25 mg L had no significant effect on cell toxin quota, and the high concentration 100 mg L significantly promoted the PST biosynthesis on the day 7, 11 and 15. No significant difference occurred in the cell toxin quota and the total toxin content in all treatments at the end of the experiment (day 21). All MP treatments did not change the toxin profiles of ATHK, nor did the relative molar percentage of main PST components. The growth of ATHK, Chl content, F/F and toxin production were not affected by MP shading. This is the first report on the effects of MP on the PST-producing microalgae, which will improve the understanding of the adverse impact of MP on the growth and toxin production of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins13040293DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8074784PMC
April 2021

Effects of Loving-Kindness Meditation on Doctors' Mindfulness, Empathy, and Communication Skills.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 12;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei 10507, Taiwan.

Background: In the context of increasing doctor-patient tensions in China, the objective of this study was to explore and examine the effects of loving-kindness meditation (LKM) on doctors' mindfulness, empathy, and communication skills.

Methods: A total of 106 doctors were recruited from a hospital in China, and randomly divided into an LKM training group (n = 53) and waiting control group (n = 53). The LKM training group received 8 weeks of LKM training intervention, whereas the control group received no intervention. Three major variables (mindfulness, empathy, and communication skills) were measured before (pre-test) and after (post-test) the LKM training intervention.

Results: The empathy and communication skills of the LKM group were significantly improved compared with those of the control group, but the level of mindfulness did not significantly change.

Conclusions: The results suggested that LKM may contribute to improving physicians' empathy and communication skills. However, the mechanisms that underlie the effects of the LKM on mindfulness, empathy, and communication skills and other psychological constructs needs further elucidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8069630PMC
April 2021

A 1T2C FeCAP-Based In-Situ Bitwise X(N)OR Logic Operation with Two-Step Write-Back Circuit for Accelerating Compute-In-Memory.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Apr 1;12(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China.

Ferroelectric capacitors (FeCAPs) with high process compatibility, high reliability, ultra-low programming current and fast operation speed are promising candidates to traditional volatile and nonvolatile memory. In addition, they have great potential in the fields of storage, computing, and memory logic. Nevertheless, effective methods to realize logic and memory in FeCAP devices are still lacking. This study proposes a 1T2C FeCAP-based in situ bitwise X(N)OR logic based on a charge-sharing function. First, using the 1T2C structure and a two-step write-back circuit, the nondestructive reading is realized with less complexity than the previous work. Second, a method of two-line activation is used during the operation of X(N)OR. The verification results show that the speed, area and power consumption of the proposed 1T2C FeCAP-based bitwise logic operations are significantly improved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi12040385DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8065609PMC
April 2021

Synchronized research on endothelial dysfunction and microcirculation structure in dorsal skin of rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Med Biol Eng Comput 2021 May 29;59(5):1151-1166. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

The aim of this study was to explore changes in the microvascular tone as measured by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and the microcirculation structure of the dorsal skin of rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The diabetic rat model was induced by a diet of high-sugar and high-lipid fodder combined with the injection of streptozotocin into the abdominal cavity. Depending on the interval between the development of diabetes and the experiments, the diabetic rats were subdivided into three groups. The evaluation of microvascular tone was based on the amplitude responses of the LDF signal fluctuations in the appropriate frequency range in the dorsal skin of the rats during a thermal test (at 42 °C). The nitric oxide (NO) level in plasma was also used as a marker of endothelial dysfunction. Changes in the microcirculation structure in the diabetic rats were estimated by measuring the microvascular density in the choke vessels of the dorsal skin of the rats. The experimental results with respect to red blood cell (RBC)-related parameters showed decreased hematocrit and hemoglobin levels and increased standard deviation of the width of the RBC distribution in three diabetic rats. The increasing fluctuation amplitudes diminished in the endothelial frequency range in response to the thermal test and this was accompanied by abnormal NO levels in plasma of the diabetic groups as compared with healthy rats. A significant reduction in the microvascular density of the choke vessels of the dorsal skin was found only in the diabetic group at the most advanced stage of diabetes in this experiment. Thus, we suggest that endothelial dysfunction occurs in diabetic rats and changes in the microcirculation structure of the dorsal skin occur in a later stage of diabetes development. A. Photograph of measurement method by using a LDF probe and heating device in the dorsal skin of the rat. B. Dorsal skin LDF signals of a healthy rat during the thermal stimuli test. (a) Blood flow signal record for the test. Wavelet filtration of blood flow signal in (b) myogenic range, (c) neurogenic range, and (d) endothelial range.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11517-021-02363-5DOI Listing
May 2021

The combination of KMnO with HMO for cyclic adsorption of heavy metal ions and regeneration of adsorbents.

Water Sci Technol 2021 Apr;83(8):1987-2000

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, China E-mail:

In this experiment, three kinds of hydrous manganese dioxide (HMO) with different Zeta potentials were synthesized, and combined with KMnO for deep removal of Pb, Cd and Ni. The competitive adsorption of three heavy metal ions was also investigated. The results indicated that the stronger the acidity, the higher the Zeta potential (-54.3) of the synthesized HMO. After regenerating HMO with acidic KMnO as eluent, the removal rates of Pb, Cd and Ni could still reach 79.25%, 80.13% and 60.43% after five cycles of adsorption. The promoting mechanism of KMnO's effect on HMO was analyzed by SEM, TEM, EDS, FTIR, XRD, XPS, BET, and UV-vis. After absorbing heavy metal ions, HMO will release part of Mn (II), and the released Mn (II) reacts with KMnO to form a small amount of highly active in-situ HMO. The 'HMO + KMnO' system can not only improve the removal rate of heavy metal ions by HMO, and reduce the amount of adsorbent, but also remove the released Mn (II). Because of its reproducibility, efficiency and simplicity, the research on water purification materials and technologies is of significance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2021.108DOI Listing
April 2021

Preparation and mechanism research of Bio-inspired dopamine decorated Expanded Graphite/Silicone Rubber composite with high thermal conductivity and excellent insulation.

Nanotechnology 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, CHINA.

This study looked at the process of designing and synthesised expanded graphite (EG) and modifying it with bio-inspired dopamine (DOPA). This is a process used to improve the thermal conductivity and dielectric properties of methyl vinyl silicone rubber (VMQ). The results demonstrated that the EG-DOPA-VMQ composites acquired an exceptional thermal conductivity of 1.015 W/mK at the loading of 10 wt%, approximately 480% higher than that of pure silicone rubber (0.175 W/mK). This enhancement is mainly attributed to the improved dispersion capability of EG-DOPA and the robust interfacial interaction between EG-DOPA-VMQ interfaces; specifically, this is the result when compared with pristine EG. Moreover, throughout this process, the composites maintained an excellent insulating property with a resistance of ≈ 1012 Ω·cm; this particular result was due to the DOPA deposited on EG surfaces because they acted as an insulating layer, inhibiting the electron transfer in composites. Overall, this work demonstrated that it could present a promising strategy for synchronized manufacturing of polymer composites with high thermal conductivity and insulating capability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/abfb9dDOI Listing
April 2021

Upregulated hsa_circRNA_100269 inhibits the growth and metastasis of gastric cancer through inactivating PI3K/Akt axis.

PLoS One 2021 26;16(4):e0250603. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Developmental Biology, Jinzhou Medical University, Jinzhou, Liaoning, P.R. China.

The pathogenesis of GC involves the complex networking of multiple signaling pathways; however, the detailed mechanisms of tumorigenesis of GC remains largely unknown. Therefore, it is necessary to explore novel diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers for GC. In this study, the levels of hsa_circRNA_100269 in gastric cancer (GC) samples and cells were examined, and its effects on the biological functions of GC cells were elucidated. The levels of hsa_circRNA_100269 in specimens/cell lines were examined using RT-qPCR. Cell models with hsa_circRNA_100269 overexpression or knockdown were generated using lentiviral vectors. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay; cell migratory/invasive activity was evaluated using wound healing/Transwell assay. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry; expression of associated markers involved in cell apoptosis, EMT and the PI3K/Akt signaling were determined by RT-qPCR/immunoblotting. In vivo study was also performed using hsa_circRNA_100269 knockout mice. Our findings revealed downregulation of hsa_circRNA_100269 in GC tissues compared to non-cancerous control. Additionally, the levels of PI3K were remarkably elevated in GC tissues, where hsa_circRNA_100269 and PI3K was negatively correlated. Moreover, the expression of hsa_circRNA_100269 was associated with histology grade and occurrence of metastasis in GC patients. In addition, hsa_circRNA_100269 was downregulated in GC cells compared to normal gastric epithelial cells. Overexpressed hsa_circRNA_100269 notably inhibited the proliferation, migration, invasion and EMT of GC cells, whereas cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase was promoted and cell apoptosis was enhanced. Moreover, the PI3K/Akt signaling was involved in hsa_circRNA_100269-regulated GC cell proliferation, migration, invasion, EMT and apoptosis. Knockdown of hsa_circRNA_100269 also remarkably induced tumor growth in mouse model. In summary, our findings indicated that the levels of hsa_circRNA_100269 were reduced in GC. Furthermore, hsa_circRNA_100269 could suppress the development of GC by inactivating the PI3K/Akt pathway. More importantly, hsa_circRNA_100269/PI3K/Akt axis may be a novel therapeutic candidate for GC treatment.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0250603PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8075232PMC
April 2021