Publications by authors named "Chao Jiang"

694 Publications

Baidu Jieduan granules, traditional Chinese medicine, in the treatment of moderate coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): study protocol for an open-label, randomized controlled clinical trial.

Trials 2021 Jul 22;22(1):476. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1200 Cai Lun Road, Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park, Pudong New Area, Shanghai, 201203, China.

Background: Currently, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is continuously and rapidly circulating, resulting in serious and extensive effects on human health. Due to the absence of antiviral medicine for COVID-19 thus far, there is a desperate need to develop effective medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely applied in the treatment of epidemic diseases in China, with the aim of achieving clinical efficacy and decreasing the use of antibiotics and glucocorticoids. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Baidu Jieduan granules in treating COVID-19.

Methods/design: This multicentre, open-label, randomized controlled trial will be conducted in 300 patients with COVID-19. The patients will be randomly (1:1) divided into a treatment group and a control group. All patients will receive standard therapy at the same time. Patients in the experimental group will receive Baidu Jieduan granule treatment twice a day for 14 days. The outcomes will be assessed at baseline and at 3, 5, 7 and 14 days after treatment initiation. The primary outcome will be the rate of symptom (fever, fatigue and coughing) recovery. Adverse events (AEs) will be monitored throughout the trial.

Discussion: The study will provide high-quality clinical evidence to support the efficacy and safety of Baidu Jieduan granules in the treatment of moderate COVID-19, and enrich the theory and practice of TCM in treating COVID-19.

Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR2000029869 . Registered on 15 February 2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-021-05418-yDOI Listing
July 2021

Distribution characteristics of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in human urines of acrylic fiber plant and chemical plant.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

School of Environment, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution and Health, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, China.

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent and bioaccumulative substances that have many adverse effects on human bodies. This study investigated the PFASs distribution characteristics in urine samples of workers from an acrylic fiber plant and a chemical plant. It was found that perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) was the predominant PFASs both in urine samples from the chemical plant (detection frequency: 86.52%; median value: 39.01 ng/mL) and the acrylic fiber plant (detection frequency: 88.16%; median value: 44.36 ng/mL). Meanwhile, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were detected with very low frequencies and low concentrations. Furthermore, the results showed that PFASs levels in urine samples of workers from different units of the plants were quite different. PFASs concentrations of urine samples in males were higher than those in females, especially for PFBA, PFHxA, and PFDoA. The age had limited effects on the PFASs distribution in urine samples in this study, as short-chain PFASs were the dominant compounds. The correlations between PFASs concentrations in urine and gender/ages of workers were finally analyzed by Pearson correlation. The overall results may indicate that short-chain PFASs (such as: PFBA and PFBS) were becoming dominant for human exposure, especially occupational workers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15355-7DOI Listing
July 2021

Defecation delay in patients after lung tumor surgery: a prospective nested case-control study.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Jun;9(12):980

State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Defecation delay (greater than or equal to 3 days post-surgery) is a common symptom in patients after lung tumor surgery. This study investigated the incidence and relevant risk factors of defecation delay in patients after lung tumor surgery.

Methods: Between October 2019 and March 2020, a prospective nested case-control study was conducted in 80 patients who received lung tumor surgery in the Department of Thoracic Surgery at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. According to the Rome III criteria for functional constipation and the accepted definitions in the literature, patients with defecation delay time greater than or equal to 3 days post-surgery were classified as the defecation delay group, and the remaining patients were considered the control group. A questionnaire survey was conducted to explore the trait of the stool, defecation time, postoperative activity, diet, and perioperative pain score. Statistical analyses were performed to compare the risk factors affecting defecation time in the two groups.

Results: Out of 80 patients, a total of 44 patients (44/80) experienced defecation delay after the operation. Univariate analysis showed that there were significant differences between the two groups in operation methods (P<0.029), postoperative stool trait (P<0.001), difficulty in defecation (P<0.01), and perioperative pain score (P=0.0178), suggesting that change of stool characteristics and pain were possible factors causing defecation delay. Multivariate analysis also revealed significant differences between the two groups in the postoperative pain score on the first day post-surgery (P=0.03).

Conclusions: Defecation delay is a common symptom in patients after lung cancer surgery, and is related to operation method, pain score, and changes in stool characteristics. This study identified that minimally invasive surgery, postoperative pain relief treatment, and health education may play an important role in preventing delayed defecation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-2468DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8267306PMC
June 2021

Association of a composite score of relative grip strength and timed up and go test with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Jul 16;13(undefined). Epub 2021 Jul 16.

School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: We investigated association of a score incorporating relative grip strength (RGS) and timed up and go (TUG) test with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in older Chinese.

Methods: Both RGS and TUG scores were classified into tertiles (0~2 points) and summed to yield RGS-TUG score, ranging from 0 to 4 points, with higher points indicating better physical function. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to analyze association of RGS-TUG score with incident T2DM.

Results: 3,892 participants without T2DM were followed up for an average of 3.6 years with 240 developing T2DM. After adjustment, those with the lowest RGS-TUG score, versus the highest, had higher fasting glucose, two-hour post-load glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, with β (95% confidence interval (CI)) being 0.21 (0.08, 0.33), 1.06 (0.69, 1.43) and 0.16 (0.06, 0.27), respectively. In participants with BMI of ≥25 kg/m2, those with the lowest RGS-TUG score showed a higher risk of T2DM (adjusted hazard ratio 3.01, 95% CI 1.04-8.69). No association was found for BMI of 18.5~<25 kg/m2 (P for interaction < 0.05).

Conclusions: This is the first study showing lower RGS-TUG score was associated with increased glycemia and incident T2DM in older people with overweight/obesity. The underlying mechanisms warrant further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.203285DOI Listing
July 2021

Use of the alkaline comet assay for monitoring genotoxic effects of arsenic in human populations.

Mutat Res 2021 Jul 1;867:503368. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

School of Medicine & Holistic Integrative Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 210023, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

The alkaline comet assay has been widely used to determine genotoxicity in human populations exposed to arsenic. The sample sizes of earlier studies were usually small, and inconsistent results were found. Meta-analyses can merge the results of multiple studies of the same type and increase the credibility of the conclusion by increasing the sample size. Thus, to investigate the monitoring effect of alkaline comet assay on genotoxicity for arsenic exposed population, meta-analyses were performed. Thirteen studies were found to meet the inclusion criteria and were included in this study; of them, twelve articles were of medium quality (15-20 points), only one study was of high quality (21-27 points). Meta-analyses showed that the overall estimates of Mean Ratio (MR, defined as the mean value of the response in the exposed group divided by that in the reference group) were 2.81(95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.93-4.10); 2.37(95 % CI, 1.73-3.26), and 1.69(95 %CI, 1.29-2.20) for comet tail length, % tail DNA, and tail moment, respectively. This shows that the level of DNA damage in arsenic exposed population is significantly higher than that in control populations. A meta-analysis of the correlation coefficients showed that the overall estimate was 0.52 (95 %CI, 0.48∼0.56, P<0.05) with all correlation coefficients included, but it changed to 0.24 (95 %CI, 0.17∼0.28, P<0.05) when two abnormal correlation coefficients were excluded, suggesting there was a positive correlation between arsenic load in vivo and DNA damage, but the overall estimate value of coefficients was unstable. Therefore, we conclude that the alkaline comet assay can be used as an effective genotoxic biomonitoring tool for arsenic-exposed populations. However, more and higher-quality studies are still needed to verify its actual application value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2021.503368DOI Listing
July 2021

Incidence and risk factors of post-operative cognitive decline after ablation for atrial fibrillation.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2021 Jul 14;21(1):341. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Cardiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, No. 2 Anzhen Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100029, China.

Background: Catheter ablation is widely used in atrial fibrillation (AF) management. In this study, we are aimed to investigate the incidence of postprocedural cognitive decline in a larger population undergoing AF ablation under local anesthesia, and to evaluate the associated risk factors.

Methods: This study included 287 patients with normal cognitive functions, with 190 ablated AF patients (study group) and 97 AF patients who are awaiting ablation (practice group). We assessed the neuropsychological function of each patient for twice (study group: 24 h prior to ablation and 48 h post ablation; practice group: on the day of inclusion and 72 h later but before ablation). The reliable change index was used to analyze the neuropsychological testing scores and to identify postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) at 48 h post procedure. Patients in the study group accepting a 6-month follow up were given an extra cognitive assessment.

Results: Among the ablated AF patients, 13.7% (26/190) had POCD at 48 h after the ablation procedure. Multivariable analysis revealed that, a minimum intraoperative activated clotting time (ACT) < 300 s (OR 3.82, 95% CI 1.48-9.96, P = 0.006) and not taking oral anticoagulants within one month prior to ablation(OR 10.35, 95% CI 3.54-30.27, P < 0.001) were significantly related to POCD at 48 h post-ablation. In 172 patients of the study group accepting a 6-month follow up, there were 23 patients with POCD at 48 h post-ablation and 149 patients without POCD. The global cognitive scores were decreased in 48 h post-operation tests (0 ± 1 vs - 0.15 ± 1.10, P < 0.001) and improved significantly at 6 months post-operation (0 ± 1 vs 0.43 ± 0.92, P < 0.001). In the 23 patients with POCD at 48 h after the procedure, global cognitive performance at 6 months was not significantly different compared with that at baseline (- 0.05 ± 1.25 vs - 0.19 ± 1.33, P = 0.32), while 13 of them had higher scores than baseline level.

Conclusions: Incident of POCD after ablation procedures is high in the short term. Inadequate periprocedural anticoagulation are possible risk factors. However, most POCD are reversible at 6 months, and a general improvement was observed in cognitive function at 6 months after ablation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-021-02139-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8278748PMC
July 2021

Matching sensor ontologies through siamese neural networks without using reference alignment.

PeerJ Comput Sci 2021 18;7:e602. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Intelligent Information Processing Research Center, Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou, Fujian, China.

Sensors have been growingly used in a variety of applications. The lack of semantic information of obtained sensor data will bring about the heterogeneity problem of sensor data in semantic, schema, and syntax levels. To solve the heterogeneity problem of sensor data, it is necessary to carry out the sensor ontology matching process to determine correspondences among heterogeneous sensor concepts. In this paper, we propose a Siamese Neural Network based Ontology Matching technique (SNN-OM) to align the sensor ontologies, which does not require the utilization of reference alignment to train the network model. In particular, a representative concepts extraction method is presented to enhance the model's performance and reduce the time of the training process, and an alignment refining method is proposed to enhance the alignments' quality by removing the logically conflict correspondences. The experimental results show that SNN-OM is capable of efficiently determining high-quality sensor ontology alignments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj-cs.602DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8237319PMC
June 2021

Association of fish consumption with risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality: an 11-year follow-up of the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study.

Eur J Clin Nutr 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Whether fish consumption is associated with all-cause, cardiovascular (CVD), ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke mortality remains inconclusive. We examined the association of fish consumption with all-cause, cardiovascular (CVD), ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke mortality in older men and women in south China.

Methods: A total of 18,215 participants including men and women without CVD at baseline (2003-2006) from Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (GBCS) were included and followed up till December 2017. Deaths were identified through record linkage with the Death Registry. Information on fish consumption was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire.

Results: During an average follow-up of 11.4 (standard deviation = 2.1) years, 2,697 deaths occurred, including 917 total CVD, 397 IHD and 374 stroke deaths. After adjusting for potential confounders, compared with fish consumption of 0-3 servings/week (i.e., 0-21 g/day, one serving = 50 g), consumption of 4-6 servings/week (29-43 g/day) showed significantly lower risks of all-cause and CVD mortality (hazards ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85 (0.76, 0.95) and 0.77 (0.64, 0.93), respectively), but the reduced risk of IHD mortality (HR (95% CI): 0.80 (0.60, 1.07)) was not significant. Consumption of 7-10 servings/week or higher showed no association with all-cause, CVD, IHD, and stroke mortality.

Conclusions: Moderate fish consumption of 4-6 servings/week (29-43 g/day) was associated with lower all-cause and CVD mortality risk. Our findings support the current general advice on regular fish consumption also in middle-aged and older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41430-021-00968-5DOI Listing
July 2021

Short-Term Near Stereoacuity Improvements Following Favorable Surgical Alignment in Exotropic and Esotropic Patients.

Semin Ophthalmol 2021 Jul 5:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Science, Eye & ENT Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Purpose: Surgical treatment for strabismus is to promote binocular vision, and the study is to evaluate the effect of surgical realignment on near stereopsis in exotropic and esotropic patients.

Methods: The records of patients who underwent strabismus surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Visual acuity, ocular deviations, fusion control, ocular motility, strabismus subtype and duration, surgery procedures, and stereopsis at before and at one month after surgery were collected. RMANOVA was performed to analyze stereopsis improvement by surgery. A logistic analysis was used to investigate the factors for stereopsis improvement.

Results: 143 exotropic and 40 esotropic patients were enrolled. The stereopsis was not significantly improved in patients with exotropia ( > .05), but not in esotropic patients ( < .01). Small degree of near deviation (β = 0.01), without vertical surgery (β = 0.11), and the high pre-surgery Titmus (β = -0.44) were related factors for stereopsis improvement in exotropia patients; male (β = 0.21) and the high pre-surgery Titmus (β = -0.36) were related factors for stereopsis improvement in esotropia patients.

Conclusion: The loss of stereopsis was significantly restored by surgery in esotropia patients and the extent of stereopsis recovery by surgery depends on the deviation at near distance, vertical surgery, and pre-surgery stereopsis in exotropes and on sex and pre-surgery Titmus in esotropes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08820538.2021.1946093DOI Listing
July 2021

Comparative anatomical and transcriptomic analyses of the color variation of leaves in .

PeerJ 2021 22;9:e11586. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Color variation in plant tissues is a common phenomenon accompanied with a series of biological changes. In this study, a special-phenotype (GS) with color variation of leaf was firstly reported, and DNA barcode sequences showed GS samples could not be discriminated clearly with the normal sample (NS), which suggested that the variety was not the cause of the GS formation. To reveal the characteristics of GS compared to NS, the anatomical and transcriptome sequencing studies were carried out. In microscopic observation, the leaves of golden-vein-leaf sample (LGS) and normal-vein-leaf sample (LNS) showed significant differences including the area of the included phloem in midrib and the thickness parameters of palisade and spongy tissues; the stems of golden-vein-leaf sample (SGS) and normal-vein-leaf sample (SNS) were also different in many aspects such as the area of vessels and included phloem. In addition, the structure of chloroplast was more complete in the midrib of LNS than that of LGS, and some particles suspected as virus were found through transmission electron microscope as well. Genes upregulated in LGS in contrast with LNS were mainly enriched in photosynthesis. As for stems, most of the genes upregulated in SGS compared to SNS were involved in translation and metabolism processes. The pathways about photosynthesis and chlorophyll metabolism as well as some important transcription factors may explain the molecular mechanism of the unique phenotypes of leaves and the genes related to suberin biosynthesis may result in the difference of stems. In addition, the genes about defense response especially biotic stress associated with numerous pathogenesis-related (PR) genes upregulated in LGS compared to LNS indicated that the pathogen may be the internal factor. Taken together, our results reveal the macro- and micro-phenotype variations as well as gene expression profiles between GS and NS, which could provide valuable clues for elucidating the mechanism of the color variation of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8231315PMC
June 2021

Palladium-Catalyzed C-H Silylation of Aliphatic Ketones Using an Aminooxyamide Auxiliary.

Org Lett 2021 Jul 29;23(14):5359-5362. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210094, China.

A palladium-catalyzed β-C(sp)-H silylation of aliphatic ketones with disilanes to afford β-silyl ketones is reported. The aminooxyamide auxiliary is critical for the C-H activation and silylation. The reaction tolerates a number of functional groups and shows good selectivity in silylating β-C(sp)-H bonds in the company of C(sp)-H bonds and acidic α-C(sp)-H bonds. The reaction is scalable, and the aminooxyamide auxiliary is readily removed to give β-silyl ketones, which could serve as useful building blocks for organic synthesis. Late-stage diversification using this protocol is demonstrated in the silylation of santonin with good yield.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c01678DOI Listing
July 2021

Patchouli Alcohol Modulates the Pregnancy X Receptor/Toll-like Receptor 4/Nuclear Factor Kappa B Axis to Suppress Osteoclastogenesis.

Front Pharmacol 2021 8;12:684976. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

The incidence of osteoporosis, which is primarily characterized by plethoric osteoclast (OC) formation and severe bone loss, has increased in recent years. Millions of people worldwide, especially postmenopausal women, suffer from osteoporosis. The drugs commonly used to treat osteoporosis still exist many disadvantages, but natural extracts provide options for the treatment of osteoporosis. Therefore, the identification of cost-effective natural compounds is important. Patchouli alcohol (PA), a natural compound extracted from that exerts anti-inflammatory effects, is used as a treatment for gastroenteritis. However, no research on the use of Patchouli alcohol in osteoporosis has been reported. We found that PA dose-dependently inhibited the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-induced formation and function of OCs without cytotoxicity. Furthermore, these inhibitory effects were reflected in the significant effect of PA on the NF-κB signaling pathway, as PA suppressed the transcription factors NFATc1 and c-Fos. We also determined that PA activated expression of the nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR) and promoted the PXR/Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) axis to inhibit the nuclear import of NF-κB (p50 and p65). Additionally, PA exerted therapeutic effects against osteoporosis in ovariectomized (OVX) mice, supporting the use of PA as a treatment for osteoporosis in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.684976DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8227438PMC
June 2021

Dissociated prismatic loop punching by bubble growth in FCC metals.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 18;11(1):12839. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 Fremont Ave, Idaho Falls, ID, 83402, USA.

Materials performance can be significantly degraded due to bubble generation. In this work, the bubble growth process is elaborated in Cu by atomistic modeling to bridge the gap of experimental observations. Upon continuous He implantation, bubble growth is accommodated first by nucleation of dislocation network from bubble surface, then formation of dissociated prismatic dislocation loop (DPDL), and final DPDL emission in [Formula: see text] directions. As the DPDL is found capable of collecting He atoms, this process is likely to assist the formation of self-organized bubble superlattice, which has been reported from experiments. Moreover, the pressurized bubble in solid state manifests the shape of an imperfect octahedron, built by Cu [Formula: see text] surfaces, consistent with experiments. These atomistic details integrating experimental work fill the gap of mechanistic understanding of athermal bubble growth in Cu. Importantly, by associating with nanoindentation testings, DPDL punching by bubble growth arguably applies to various FCC (face-centered cubic) metals such as Au, Ag, Ni, and Al.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92219-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8213783PMC
June 2021

Effect of inferior oblique muscle belly transposition on versions and vertical alignment in primary position.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Eye Institute and Department of Ophthalmology, Eye & ENT Hospital, Fudan University, 83 Fenyang Road, Shanghai, 200031, China.

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of inferior oblique muscle belly transposition (IOBT) on vertical deviation (VD) in primary position and inferior oblique overaction (IOOA).

Methods: Twenty-eight patients who underwent unilateral IOBT for mild hypertropia (≤ 10) due to unilateral IOOA were included. Surgical results regarding the correction of hypertropia, IOOA, and fovea disc angle (FDA) were analyzed and compared between groups A (VD ≤ 5) and B (5 < VD ≤ 10).

Results: IOBT showed an overall reduction of 5.86 (± 2.24) of primary position VD, a mean correction of 1.00 (± 0.27) of IOOA, and an average change of 1.83° (± 3.02°) of FDA. The surgical success rate of IOBT for VD correction and IOOA elimination in all patients was 68% and 71%, respectively. The correction of VD was correlated with preoperative VD significantly (r = 0.86, p < 0.001). Consistently, IOBT demonstrated comparable efficacy in reduction of VD between group A and group B (p = 0.507). Furthermore, the two groups were comparable in the success rates for correcting VD and IOOA (both p > 0.05). None of the patients developed consecutive hypotropia, postoperative contralateral IOOA, or anti-elevation syndrome postoperatively.

Conclusions: IOBT achieved satisfactory outcomes in patients with mild primary position VD (≤ 10) that is associated with unilateral IOOA, without any risk of overcorrection of VD and contralateral IOOA for a follow-up period of up to 12 months. This procedure is considered effective and safe alternative for weakening the IO in patients with appropriate surgical indications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00417-021-05240-xDOI Listing
June 2021

Oxymatrine Attenuates Osteoclastogenesis via Modulation of ROS-Mediated SREBP2 Signaling and Counteracts Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 31;9:684007. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Orthopaedics, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Osteoporosis, mainly caused by osteoclast-induced bone resorption, has become a major health problem in post-menopausal women and the elderly. Growing evidence indicates that inhibiting osteoclastogenesis is an efficient approach to develop alternative therapeutic agents for treating osteoporosis. In this study, we identified the potential regulating role of Oxymatrine (OMT), a quinazine alkaloid extracted from with various therapeutic effects in many diseases, on osteoclastogenesis for the first time. We found that OMT attenuated RANKL-induced osteoclast formation in both time- and dose-dependent manners. Further, OMT significantly suppressed RANKL-induced sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2) activation and the expression of the nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATc1). Moreover, OMT inhibited the generation of RANKL-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the upregulation of ROS could rescue the inhibition of SREBP2 by OMT. More importantly, ovariectomy (OVX) mouse model showed that OMT could effectively improve ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteopenia by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis . In conclusion, our data demonstrated that OMT impaired ROS mediated SREBP2 activity and downstream NFATc1 expression during osteoclastogenesis, suppressed OVX-induced osteopenia , which suggested that OMT could be a promising compound for medical treatment against osteoporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.684007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8202524PMC
May 2021

Novel peripheral blood cell ratios: Effective 3-month post-mechanical thrombectomy prognostic biomarkers for acute ischemic stroke patients.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 Jul 5;89:56-64. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225001, China. Electronic address:

Background: Red blood cell distribution width to platelet ratio (RPR), Monocyte to high-density lipoprotein ratio (MHR), and Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) are novel inflammatory biomarkers in laboratory tests, which are associated with clinical outcomes in malignancy, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. This study aimed to determine their predictive value for the prognosis of acute ischemic stroke after mechanical thrombectomy (MT).

Methods: A total of 286 patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) admitted to a tertiary stroke center in China between January 2018 and February 2020 were treated by MT. Demographic characteristics, risk factors, clinical data, laboratory parameters, and clinical outcomes were recorded. The clinical outcome was disability or death at discharge or 90 days (defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of 3-6). The relationship between RPR, MHR, and NLR and functional outcomes was investigated by binary Logistic regression analysis, and further assessed by receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze the survival rate of prognosis factors.

Results: A total of 286 patients with AIS underwent MT (median age, 70.00; Interquartile range [IQR], 63.00-77.00; 41.6% female). Patients with unfavorable outcome showed higher RPR, MHR, and NLR than those with favorable outcome (RPR, [8.63; IQR, 6.30-10.78] vs [6.17; IQR, 5.11-7.35], P < 0.001; MHR, [0.40; IQR, 0.31-0.53] vs [0.34; IQR, 0.27-0.47], P = 0.005; NLR, [5.28; IQR, 3.63-8.02] vs [3.44; IQR, 2.63-4.63], P < 0.001). In multivariate and ROC curve analysis, higher RPR (>8.565) (odds ratio [OR], 1.671; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.127-2.479; P = 0.011) and higher MHR (>0.368) (OR, 9.374; 95% CI, 1.160-75.767; P = 0.036), higher NLR (>4.030) (OR, 1.957; 95% CI, 1.382-2.770; P < 0.001) were independently associated with unfavorable outcome. The combined predictive value of the three indexes was higher than that of a single index. Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis showed that the 90-day survival rate (82.1% vs 66.2%) was significantly different between the low RPR group and the high RPR group (χ = 4.960, P = 0.026).

Conclusion: Higher RPR, MHR, and NLR might be independent risk factors for predicting 3-month poor prognosis in patients with AIS who underwent MT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2021.04.013DOI Listing
July 2021

A new discovery of STAT4 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with hepatocellular carcinoma risk in Chinese Han population: a case-control study.

Biosci Rep 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Xi'an Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common fatal malignant tumor worldwide. STAT4 is HCC susceptibility gene identified by genome-wide association study. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between four candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in STAT4 genes and HCC risk in Chinese Han population.

Methods: A case-control study was conducted to assess the association between STAT4 SNPs and HCC risk in 1011 Chinese Han population. Agena MassARRAY was used to genotype SNPs. The association between SNPs and HCC susceptibility under different genetic models was evaluated by logistic regression analysis. Multifactorial dimension reduction (MDR) analyzed the interaction of 'SNP-SNP' in HCC risk. The difference of clinical characteristics between different genotypes was completed by ANOVA.

Results: The results showed that STAT4 rs11889341 was significantly associated with HCC risk under multiple genetic models (homozygote: OR = 0.60, p = 0.033; recessive: OR = 0.63, p = 0.028; log-additive: OR = 0.83, p = 0.032). The results of subgroup analysis showed that STAT4 rs11889341 is significantly associated with HCC risk with participants who were > 55 years, male or smoking. Both STAT4 rs7574865 and rs10174238 were significantly associated with HCC risk among participants who were > 55 years old, smoking or drinking. STAT4 haplotype (Trs11889341Trs7574865) could reduce the risk of HCC. In addition, rs11889341 and rs7574865 were significantly associated with the level of serum ferritin.

Conclusion: STAT4 rs11889341, rs7574865 or rs10174238 is potentially associated with HCC risk in Chinese Han population. In particular, rs11889341 showed outstanding association with HCC risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20210124DOI Listing
June 2021

Differential expression and alternative splicing of transcripts in orbital adipose/connective tissue of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2021 Jun 2:15353702211017292. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Eye Institute and Department of Ophthalmology, Eye & ENT Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031, China.

Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy is a typical autoimmune disease of orbital tissues. Alternative splicing significantly influences many diseases progression, including cancer, age-related macular degeneration, and multiple sclerosis, by modulating the expression of transcripts. However, its role in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy is still unclear. In this study, differential expression transcripts and differential alternative splicing genes in orbital adipose/connective tissues of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy patients were detected using RNA sequencing, Cuffdiff, and replicate multivariate analysis of transcript splicing. Three thousand ninety six differential expression transcripts and 2355 differential alternative splicing genes were screened out, while functional enrichment analysis indicated that differential expression transcript and differential alternative splicing genes were associated with immune modulation, extracellular matrix remodeling, and adipogenesis. The expression of the , , , and gene transcripts was verified by qRT-PCR. In conclusion, prevalent alternative splicing is involved in the disease development in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. More attention should be paid to the mechanism of alternative splicing to explore more potential therapeutic targets in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15353702211017292DOI Listing
June 2021

Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Their Methylated Derivatives in Sewage Sludge from Northeastern China: Occurrence, Profiles and Toxicity Evaluation.

Molecules 2021 May 6;26(9). Epub 2021 May 6.

International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT), Harbin 150090, China.

This paper assesses the occurrence, distribution, source, and toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and their methylated form (Me-PAHs) in sewage sludge from 10 WWTPs in Northeastern China was noted. The concentrations of ∑PAHs, ∑Me-PAHs ranged from 567 to 5040 and 48.1 to 479 ng.g-1dw, which is greater than the safety limit for sludge in agriculture in China. High and low molecular weight 4 and 2-ring PAHs and Me-PAHs in sludge were prevalent. The flux of sludge PAHs and Me-PAHs released from ten WWTPs, in Heilongjiang province, was calculated to be over 100 kg/year. Principal component analysis (PCA), diagnostic ratios and positive matrix factorization (PMF) determined a similar mixed pyrogenic and petrogenic source of sewage sludge. The average values of Benzo[a]pyrene was below the safe value of 600 ng.g-1 dependent on an incremental lifetime cancer risk ILCR of 10. Sludge is an important source for the transfer of pollutants into the environment, such as PAHs and Me-PAHs. Consequently, greater consideration should be given to its widespread occurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26092739DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8124507PMC
May 2021

Distance-Based Biosensor for Ultrasensitive Detection of Uracil-DNA Glycosylase Using Membrane Filtration of DNA Hydrogel.

ACS Sens 2021 06 28;6(6):2395-2402. Epub 2021 May 28.

Beijing Key Laboratory for Bioengineering and Sensing Technology, Daxing Research Institute, School of Chemistry and Biological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China.

In the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) repair pathways, DNA repair enzymes have great significance for genomic integrity. As one important initiator of the base-excision repair pathway, the aberrant activity of uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) is closely associated with many diseases. Herein, we developed a simple distance-based device for visual detection of UDG activity using a load-free DNA hydrogel. The DNA hydrogel consists of polyacrylamide-DNA chains being bridged by a single-stranded DNA crosslinker containing a responsive uracil base site. UDG can recognize and remove the uracil, resulting in the cleavage effect of the DNA crosslinker strand with the assistance of endonuclease IV (Endo IV). Plugging one end of the capillary tube, the DNA hydrogel acting as a filter membrane separator would control molecules to flow into the tube. The integrity of the DNA hydrogel networks is affected by the excision of UDG. Therefore, taking full advantage of membrane filtration of the DNA hydrogel, the activity of UDG can be quantitatively detected via reading the distance of the red indicator solution in the capillary tube. Without any instruments and complicated procedures, this method realizes high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of UDG as low as 0.02 mU/mL and can even measure UDG in complex cell samples. Additionally, this method is simple, universal, and can be used to screen inhibitors, which shows great potential for point-of-care testing, clinical diagnosis, and drug discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssensors.1c00624DOI Listing
June 2021

A simple and easily implemented risk model to predict 1-year ischemic stroke and systemic embolism in Chinese patients with atrial fibrillation.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Cardiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Big Data-Based Precision Medicine for Cardiovascular Diseases, Beijing 100029, China Ping An Health Technology, Beijing 100035, China Heart Health Research Center, Beijing 100029, China Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, China.

Background: Accurate prediction of ischemic stroke is required for deciding anticoagulation use in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Even though only 6% to 8% of AF patients die from stroke, about 90% are indicated for anticoagulants according to the current AF management guidelines. Therefore, we aimed to develop an accurate and easy-to-use new risk model for 1-year thromboembolic events (TEs) in Chinese AF patients.

Methods: From the prospective China Atrial Fibrillation Registry cohort study, we identified 6601 AF patients who were not treated with anticoagulation or ablation at baseline. We selected the most important variables by the extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) algorithm and developed a simplified risk model for predicting 1-year TEs. The novel risk score was internally validated using bootstrapping with 1000 replicates and compared with the CHA2DS2-VA score (excluding female sex from the CHA2DS2-VASc score).

Results: Up to the follow-up of 1 year, 163 TEs (ischemic stroke or systemic embolism) occurred. Using the XGBoost algorithm, we selected the three most important variables (congestive heart failure or left ventricular dysfunction, age, and prior stroke, abbreviated as CAS model) to predict 1-year TE risk. We trained a multivariate Cox regression model and assigned point scores proportional to model coefficients. The CAS scheme classified 30.8% (2033/6601) of the patients as low risk for TE (CAS score = 0), with a corresponding 1-year TE risk of 0.81% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.41%-1.19%). In our cohort, the C-statistic of CAS model was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.65-0.73), higher than that of CHA2DS2-VA score (0.66, 95% CI: 0.62-0.70, Z = 2.01, P = 0.045). The overall net reclassification improvement from CHA2DS2-VA categories (low = 0/high ≥1) to CAS categories (low = 0/high ≥1) was 12.2% (95% CI: 8.7%-15.7%).

Conclusion: In Chinese AF patients, a novel and simple CAS risk model better predicted 1-year TEs than the widely-used CHA2DS2-VA risk score and identified a large proportion of patients with low risk of TEs, which could potentially improve anticoagulation decision-making.

Trial Registration: www.chictr.org.cn (Unique identifier No. ChiCTR-OCH-13003729).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000001515DOI Listing
May 2021

Effectiveness of ethanol infusion into the vein of Marshall combined with a fixed anatomical ablation strategy (the "upgraded 2C3L" approach) for catheter ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation.

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2021 Jul 9;32(7):1849-1856. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Cardiology, National Clinical Research Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Introduction: Linear ablation in addition to pulmonary vein antrum isolation (PVAI) has failed to improve the success rate for persistent atrial fibrillation (PeAF), due to incomplete block of ablation lines, especially in the mitral isthmus (MI).

Methods And Results: The study enrolled 191 patients (66 in group 1 and 125 in group 2). In group 1, ethanol infusion into the vein of Marshall was first performed, followed by radiofrequency (RF) applications targeting bilateral PVAI and bidirectional block in the roofline, cavotricuspid isthmus, and MI. In group 2, PVAI and the three linear ablations were completed using only RF energy. MI block was achieved in 63 (95.5%) and 101 (80.8%) patients in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p = .006). Patients in group 1 had shorter ablation time for left pulmonary vein antrum (8.15 vs. 12.59 min, p < .001) and MI (7.0 vs. 11.8 min, p < .001) and required less cardioversion (50 [78.5%] vs. 113 [90.4%], p = .007). During the 12-month follow-up, 58 (87.9%) patients were free from atrial fibrillation/atrial tachycardia in group 1 compared with 81 (64.8%) in group 2 (p < .001). In multivariate cox regression, the "upgraded 2C3L" procedure is associated with a lower recurrence rate (hazard ratio = 0.27, 95% confidence interval = 0.12-0.59).

Conclusion: Compared with the conventional "2C3L" approach, the "upgraded 2C3L" approach has higher effectiveness for ablation of PeAF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jce.15108DOI Listing
July 2021

Nutrient trade-offs mediated by ectomycorrhizal strategies in plants: Evidence from an species in subalpine forests.

Ecol Evol 2021 May 16;11(10):5281-5294. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

School of Ecology and Nature Conservation Beijing Forestry University Beijing China.

Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbiosis is an evolutionary biological trait of higher plants for effective nutrient uptakes. However, little is known that how the formation and morphological differentiations of ECM roots mediate the nutrients of below- and aboveground plant tissues and the balance among nutrient elements across environmental gradients. Here, we investigated the effects of ECM foraging strategies on root and foliar N and P concentrations and N:P ratio under variations of climate and soil conditions.The ECM symbionts preferentially mediated P uptake under both N and P limitations. The uptake efficiency of N and P was primarily associated with the ECM root traits, for example, ECM root tip density, superficial area of ECM root tips, and the ratio of living to dead root tips, and was affected by the ECM proliferations and morphological differentiations. The tissue N and P concentrations were positively associated with the abundance of the contact exploration type and negatively with that of the short-distance exploration type.Our findings indicate that the nutritional status of both below- and aboveground plant tissues can be strongly affected by ECM symbiosis in natural environments. Variations in the ECM strategies in response to varying environmental conditions significantly influence plant nutrient uptakes and trade-offs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.7417DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8131813PMC
May 2021

ADCY2 rs10059539 C>T polymorphism confers a decreased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in Chinese Han women.

Eur J Cancer Prev 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

The Second Affiliated Hospital The College of Basic medicine, Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine, Xianyang The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

Objective: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) poses a serious threat to human health. ADCY2 gene polymorphisms may be related to HCC susceptibility. Therefore, we investigated whether ADCY2 gene polymorphisms are correlated to the risk of HCC in a Chinese Han population.

Methods: In a case-control study, we examined the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ADCY2 and HCC risk. In 434 HCC cases and 442 healthy controls, we used the Agena MassARRAY platform to select and genotype four tag SNPs in ADCY2. We used logistic regression after adjusting for age and sex to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: The results showed that ADCY2 rs10059539 polymorphism was associated with a reduced susceptibility to HCC in women under the dominant model (TC/TT vs. CC; OR = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.13-0.83; P = 0.018) and the log-additive model (OR = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.13-0.83; P = 0.018).

Conclusions: Our results support the hypothesis that ADCY2 gene polymorphisms influence the genetic susceptibility to HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000638DOI Listing
May 2021

Absolute protein assay for the simultaneous quantification of two epoxide hydrolases in rats by mass spectrometry-based targeted proteomics.

J Sep Sci 2021 Jul 12;44(14):2754-2763. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, P. R. China.

Epoxide hydrolases catalyze the hydrolysis of both exogenous and endogenous epoxides to the corresponding vicinal diols by adding water. Microsomal and soluble epoxide hydrolase are two main mammalian enzymes that have been intensely characterized. The purpose of this investigation was to develop and validate a proteomics assay allowing the simultaneous quantification of microsomal and soluble epoxide hydrolase in rats. Protein quantification was realized through targeted proteomics using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of trypsin-specific surrogate peptides after digestion. Stable isotope-labeled peptides were used as the internal standards. The chromatography of the surrogate peptides was performed on an Agilent SB C column (100 mm × 4.6 mm, 1.8 µm) with gradient elution. Acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid and 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution were used as mobile phases. A multiple reaction monitoring method in a positive ionization mode was used for the simultaneous detection of the peptides. The method was validated concerning the specificity, linearity, within-day and between-day accuracy and precision, matrix effect, stability, and digestion efficiency. The developed assay was successfully used to quantify the protein levels of microsomal and soluble epoxide hydrolase in rat liver, kidney, and heart S9 samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.202100066DOI Listing
July 2021

Urinary involvement in Erdheim-Chester disease: computed tomography imaging findings.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100730, China.

Purpose: To describe the urological manifestations of Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) and their computed tomography (CT) findings.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 48 patients diagnosed with ECD at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 2014 to January 2020. Twenty-four patients exhibited urological manifestations. Their CT findings, including appearances of the involved area (e.g., perirenal space, renal sinus, ureters, renal arteries, and adrenal glands), occurrence rate of ECD involvement in each area, signal enhancement pattern after CT contrast agent administration, disease progression, and causes of hydronephrosis were discussed.

Results: In 24 patients with evidence of ECD urological involvement, the most common manifestation was perirenal infiltration, appearing as "hairy kidney" on unenhanced CT scans and moderate signal enhancement on enhanced CT scans (17/24, 70.8%). Other manifestations included renal sinus infiltration (16/24, 66.7%), proximal ureter involvement (14, 58.3%), renal artery sheath (10, 41.7%), hydronephrosis (14, 58.3%), and adrenal glands involvement (8, 33.3%). The histiocytic infiltrate was mostly bilateral, starting from the perirenal space and spreading to the renal sinus and ureters. Hydronephrosis was usually associated with infiltration of ureters.

Conclusion: Kidneys are the most common visceral organs affected by ECD. CT scanning is not only advantageous in early diagnosis, but also critical for designing the treatment regime for patients with ECD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00261-021-03106-8DOI Listing
May 2021

CircSLC7A2 protects against osteoarthritis through inhibition of the miR-4498/TIMP3 axis.

Cell Prolif 2021 Jun 7;54(6):e13047. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Objectives: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are noncoding RNAs that compete against other endogenous RNA species, such as microRNAs, and have been implicated in many diseases. In this study, we investigated the role of a new circRNA (circSLC7A2) in osteoarthritis (OA).

Materials And Methods: The relative expression of circSLC7A2 was significantly lower in OA tissues than it was in matched controls, as shown by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Western blotting, RT-qPCR and immunofluorescence experiments were employed to evaluate the roles of circSLC7A2, miR-4498 and TIMP3. The in vivo role and mechanism of circSLC7A2 were also conformed in a mouse model.

Results: circSLC7A2 was decreased in OA model and the circularization of circSLC7A2 was regulated by FUS. Loss of circSLC7A2 reduced the sponge of miR-4498 and further inhibited the expression of TIMP3, subsequently leading to an inflammatory response. We further determined that miR-4498 inhibitor reversed circSLC7A2-knockdown-induced OA phenotypes. Intra-articular injection of circSLC7A2 alleviated in vivo OA progression in a mouse model of anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT).

Conclusions: The circSLC7A2/miR-4498/TIMP3 axis of chondrocytes catabolism and anabolism plays a critical role in OA development. Our results suggest that circSLC7A2 may serve as a new therapeutic target for osteoarthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cpr.13047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8168424PMC
June 2021

An Antioxidant Sesquiterpene Inhibits Osteoclastogenesis Via Blocking IPMK/TRAF6 and Counteracts OVX-Induced Osteoporosis in Mice.

J Bone Miner Res 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Excessive bone resorption induced by increased osteoclast activity in postmenopausal women often causes osteoporosis. Although the pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis has been extensively developed, a safer and more effective treatment is still needed. Here, we found that curcumenol (CUL), an antioxidant sesquiterpene isolated from Curcuma zedoaria, impaired receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro, whereas the osteoblastogenesis of MC3T3-E1 cells was not affected. We further demonstrated that CUL treatment during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis promotes proteasomal degradation of TRAF6 by increasing its K48-linked polyubiquitination, leading to suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and NF-κB pathways and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also showed that inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK) binds with TRAF6 to reduce its K48-linked polyubiquitination under RANKL stimulation. Concurrently, IPMK deficiency inhibits osteoclast differentiation. The binding between IPMK and TRAF6 blocked by CUL treatment was found in our study. Finally, we confirmed that CUL treatment prevented ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss in mice. In summary, our study demonstrates that CUL could impair the stability of TRAF6 enhanced by IPMK and suppress excessive osteoclast activity in estrogen-deficient mice to treat osteoporosis. © 2021 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2021 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.4328DOI Listing
May 2021

Diatomite-enhanced coagulation for algal removal in polluted raw water: performance optimization and pilot-scale study.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Institute of Environment Pollution Control and Treatment, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China.

Algae blooms have seriously threatened the health of aquatic ecosystems and the safety of drinking water. In this study, diatomite-enhanced coagulation technology was developed to improve the removal of algae and other pollutants. The dosage and ratio of diatomite and aluminum salts were optimized to 40mg/L and 1:1 which achieved algal removal efficiency of 98.8±0.65%. The effect of environmental factors was studied and it shows that cell density, pH, and temperature had a significant impact on algal removal. The mechanism of diatomite-enhanced coagulation was speculated to be adsorption bridging and sweep flocculation. Pilot-scale equipment was set up to verify the performance of diatomite-enhanced coagulation in engineering applications on algae polluted raw water. Results showed a better removal efficiency of algae, NH-N, NO-N, and COD and lower operation cost than the actual operation in the Waterwork Corporation were achieved with good application prospects and promotion value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14104-0DOI Listing
May 2021

Assessment of neovascularization of carotid artery atherosclerotic plaques using superb microvascular imaging: a comparison with contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging and histology.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 May;11(5):1958-1969

Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing, China.

Background: This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of superb microvascular imaging (SMI), a novel non-contrast-enhanced ultrasound technique, in characterizing neovessels within carotid atherosclerotic plaques through comparison with contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and histology.

Methods: Patients with carotid plaque were recruited and underwent SMI and CEUS ultrasound imaging of the carotid arteries. The maximum plaque thickness, length, and stenosis of each plaque were measured. Grade of the neovessels was determined by SMI and CEUS, respectively. Grade 0 was defined as no blood flow signal/microbubbles within plaques; grade 1 was defined as moderate blood flow signals/microbubbles confined to the shoulder and/or adventitial side of the plaque; and grade 2 was defined as extensive intraplaque signals/microbubbles. Patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (stenosis ≥50%) or asymptomatic carotid stenosis (stenosis ≥70%) underwent endarterectomy, and plaque specimens were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis of CD31 expression. The neovessels were quantified by histology. The agreement of SMI with CEUS and histology in characterizing neovessels was analyzed using weighted Kappa statistic and Spearman's correlation analyses.

Results: Seventy-eight patients (mean age: 67.3±8.9 years old, 63 males) were recruited. Of these patients, 52 (66.7%) had a unilateral plaque and 26 (33.3%) had bilateral plaques in the carotid arteries. For the 104 carotid plaques detected, the mean plaque thickness and length were 4.3±1.1 and 18.8±6.6 mm, respectively. The prevalence of <50%, 50-69%, and ≥70% stenosis was 43.3%, 24.0%, and 32.7%, respectively. Excellent agreement was found between SMI and CEUS (κ=0.825 at the plaque level; κ=0.820 at the patient level) in evaluating the neovessel grade within the carotid plaques. Of the 25 patients who underwent carotid endarterectomy, a strong correlation (r=0.660, P<0.001) was found between SMI and histology in the evaluation of intraplaque neovessels. SMI had excellent scan-rescan (κ=0.857), intra-reader (κ=0.810), and inter-reader (κ=0.754) agreement in the assessment of intraplaque neovessels.

Conclusions: The SMI technique is capable of reliably characterizing neovessels within carotid atherosclerotic plaques and demonstrates good to excellent agreement with histology and CEUS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims-20-933DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047364PMC
May 2021
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