Publications by authors named "Chantal Jouanneau"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Nanometric Chemical Speciation of Abnormal Deposits in Kidney Biopsy: Infrared-Nanospectroscopy Reveals Heterogeneities within Vancomycin Casts.

Anal Chem 2020 06 20;92(11):7388-7392. Epub 2020 May 20.

Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, Institut de Chimie Physique, UMR 8000, 91405 Orsay, France.

Infrared (IR) spectromicroscopy allows chemical mapping of a kidney biopsy. It is particularly interesting for chemical speciation of abnormal tubular deposits and calcification. In 2017, using IR spectromicroscopy, we described a new entity called vancomycin cast nephropathy. However, despite recent progresses, the IR microspectrometer spatial resolution is intrinsically limited by diffraction (a few micrometers). Combining atomic force microscopy and IR lasers (AFMIR) allows acquisition of infrared absorption spectra with a resolution and sensitivity in between 10 and 100 nm. Here we show that AFMIR can be used on standard paraffin embedded kidney biopsies. Vancomycin cast could be identified in a damaged tubule. Interestingly unlike standard IR spectromicroscopy, AFMIR revealed heterogeneity of the deposits and established that vancomycin coprecipitated with phosphate containing molecules. These findings highlight the high potential of this approach with nanometric spatial resolution which opens new perspectives for studies on drug-induced nephritis, nanocrystals, and local lipid or carbohydrates alterations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c00290DOI Listing
June 2020

Microvasculature partial endothelial mesenchymal transition in early posttransplant biopsy with acute tubular necrosis identifies poor recovery renal allografts.

Am J Transplant 2020 09 12;20(9):2400-2412. Epub 2020 Apr 12.

Sorbonne Université, Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (INSERM), Unité mixte de recherche (UMR), Paris, France.

Acute tubular necrosis (ATN), a frequent histopathological feature in the early post-renal transplant biopsy, affects long-term graft function. Appropriate markers to identify patients at risk of no or incomplete recovery after delayed graft function are lacking. In this study, we first included 41 renal transplant patients whose biopsy for cause during the first month after transplantation showed ATN lesions. Using partial microvasculature endothelial (fascin, vimentin) and tubular epithelial (vimentin) to mesenchymal transition markers, detected by immunohistochemistry, we found a significant association between partial endothelial to mesenchymal transition and poor graft function recovery (Spearman's rho = -0.55, P = .0005). Transforming growth factor-β1 was strongly expressed in these phenotypic changed endothelial cells. Extent of ATN was also correlated with short- and long-term graft dysfunction. However, the association of extensive ATN with long-term graft dysfunction (24 months posttransplant) was observed only in patients with partial endothelial to mesenchymal transition marker expression in their grafts (Spearman's rho = -0.64, P = .003), but not in those without. The association of partial endothelial to mesenchymal transition with worse renal graft outcome was confirmed on 34 other early biopsies with ATN from a second transplant center. Our results suggest that endothelial cell activation at the early phase of renal transplantation plays a detrimental role.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.15847DOI Listing
September 2020

Localization and characterization of thyroid microcalcifications: A histopathological study.

PLoS One 2019 24;14(10):e0224138. Epub 2019 Oct 24.

Sorbonne Université, INSERM, UMR_S 1155, AP-HP, Hôpital Tenon, Paris, France.

Thyroid calcification is frequent in thyroid nodules. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of calcifications in thyroid tissue samples of patients with various thyroid diseases, and to identify their composition according to their localization. Among 50 thyroid samples included, 56% were malignant (papillary carcinoma) and 44% were benign (adenoma, multinodular goiter, Graves' disease, sarcoidosis). Calcifications were found in 95% of samples using polarised light microscopy, whereas only 12% were described in initial pathological reports. Three types were individualised and analyzed by infrared spectrometry (μFTIR): colloid calcifications composed of calcium oxalate, capsular calcifications and psammoma bodies, both composed of calcium phosphate. Of notice, psammoma bodies characterized by FE-SEM were composed of concentric structure suggesting a slow process for crystal deposition. Calcium phosphates were found only in malignant samples whereas calcium oxalate was not associated with a define pathology. Proliferation assessed by KI67 staining was high (33% of positive follicles), and RUNX2, OPN, and CD44 positive staining were detected in thyrocytes with a broad variation between samples. However, thyrocyte proliferation and differentiation markers were not associated with the number of crystals. TRPV5 and CaSR expression was also detected in thyrocytes. mRNA transcripts expression was confirmed in a subgroup of 10 patients, altogether with other calcium transporters such as PMCA1 or Cav1.3. Interestingly, TRPV5 mRNA expression was significantly associated with number of colloid calcifications (rho = -0.72; p = 0.02). The high prevalence of calcium oxalate crystals within colloid gel raises intriguing issues upon follicle physiology for calcium and oxalate transport.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0224138PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6812851PMC
March 2020

Markers of graft microvascular endothelial injury may identify harmful donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies and predict kidney allograft loss.

Am J Transplant 2019 09 8;19(9):2434-2445. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Sorbonne University, Inserm UMR_S1155, AP-HP, Hôpital Tenon, F-75020, Paris, France.

Graft microvasculature is a major target of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) and endothelial damage is direct evidence of antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). Using immunohistochemistry, we analyzed the expression of three microvascular endothelial activation markers (fascin, vimentin, and hsp47), suggestive of endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) in 351 graft biopsies from 248 kidney recipients, with concomitant screening of circulating antihuman leukocyte antigen (HLA) DSA at the time of the biopsy. The factors associated with EndMT marker expression were DSA and the presence of microvascular inflammation (MI). EndMT expressing grafts had significantly more allograft loss compared to EndMT negative grafts (P < .0001). The expression of EndMT markers positively correlated with anti-HLA DSA class II mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) levels and especially identified DQ and DR antibodies as being more closely associated with microvascular injury. Moreover, only DSA linked to positive EndMT score affected allograft survival, regardless of DSA MFI levels or presence of C4d deposition. Thus, EndMT markers could represent a clinically relevant tool for early identification of ongoing endothelial injury, harmful DSA, and patients at high risk for allograft failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.15340DOI Listing
September 2019

Flyscan opportunities in medicine: the case of quantum rattle based on gold quantum dots.

J Synchrotron Radiat 2017 Sep 7;24(Pt 5):991-999. Epub 2017 Aug 7.

Laboratoire Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris, UMR UPMC College de France - CNRS 7574, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris 6), 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris, France.

The new rapid scan method, Flyscan mode, implemented on the DiffAbs beamline at Synchrotron SOLEIL, allows fast micro-X-ray fluorescence data acquisition. It paves the way for applications in the biomedical field where a large amount of data is needed to generate meaningful information for the clinician. This study presents a complete set of data acquired after injection of gold-cluster-enriched mesoporous silica nanospheres, used as potential theranostic vectors, into rats. While classical X-ray fluorescence investigations (using step-by-step acquisitions) are based on a limited number of samples (approximately one per day at the DiffAbs beamline), the Flyscan mode has enabled gathering information on the interaction of nanometer-scale vectors in different organs such as liver, spleen and kidney at the micrometer scale, for five rats, in only a single five-day synchrotron shift. Moreover, numerous X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectra, which are beam-time-consuming taking into account the low concentration of these theranostic vectors, were collected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S1600577517009572DOI Listing
September 2017

Vancomycin-Associated Cast Nephropathy.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2017 Jun 12;28(6):1723-1728. Epub 2017 Jan 12.

Urgences Néphrologiques et Transplantation rénale, Hôpital Tenon, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France;

Vancomycin is a widely prescribed antibiotic, but the exact nature of vancomycin-associated nephrotoxicity is unclear, in particular when considering the frequent coadministration of aminoglycosides. We describe here the initial case of a 56-year-old woman with normal renal function developing unexplained ARF without hypovolemia after administration of vancomycin without coadministration of aminoglycosides. Studying the patient's renal biopsy specimen, we ascertained that obstructive tubular casts composed of noncrystal nanospheric vancomycin aggregates entangled with uromodulin explained the vancomycin-associated ARF. We developed in parallel a new immunohistologic staining technique to detect vancomycin in renal tissue and confirmed retrospectively that deleterious vancomycin-associated casts existed in eight additional patients with acute tubular necrosis in the absence of hypovolemia. Concomitant high vancomycin trough plasma levels had been observed in each patient. We also reproduced experimentally the toxic and obstructive nature of vancomycin-associated cast nephropathy in mice, which we detected using different imaging techniques. In conclusion, the interaction of uromodulin with nanospheric vancomycin aggregates represents a new mode of tubular cast formation, revealing the hitherto unsuspected mechanism of vancomycin-associated renal injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2016080867DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5461798PMC
June 2017

Plasma heme-induced renal toxicity is related to a capillary rarefaction.

Sci Rep 2017 01 10;7:40156. Epub 2017 Jan 10.

Sorbonne Universités UPMC Univ Paris 06, Paris, France.

Severe hypertension can lead to malignant hypertension (MH) with renal thrombotic microangiopathy and hemolysis. The role of plasma heme release in this setting is unknown. We aimed at evaluating the effect of a mild plasma heme increase by hemin administration in angiotensin II (AngII)-mediated hypertensive rats. Prevalence of MH and blood pressure values were similar in AngII and AngII + hemin groups. MH rats displayed a decreased renal blood flow (RBF), increased renal vascular resistances (RVR), and increased aorta and interlobar arteries remodeling with a severe renal microcirculation assessed by peritubular capillaries (PTC) rarefaction. Hemin-treated rats with or without AngII displayed also a decreased RBF and increased RVR explained only by PCT rarefaction. In AngII rats, RBF was similar to controls (with increased RVR). PTC density appeared strongly correlated to tubular damage score (rho = -0.65, p < 0.0001) and also renal Heme Oygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA (rho = -0.67, p < 0.0001). HO-1 was expressed in PTC and renal tubules in MH rats, but only in PTC in other groups. In conclusion, though increased plasma heme does not play a role in triggering or aggravating MH, heme release appears as a relevant toxic mediator leading to renal impairment, primarily through PTC endothelial dysfunction rather than direct tubular toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep40156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5223203PMC
January 2017

Stress Response Gene Nupr1 Alleviates Cyclosporin A Nephrotoxicity In Vivo.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2017 02 22;28(2):545-556. Epub 2016 Jul 22.

Mixed Research Unit 1155, Pierre et Marie Curie University - University Paris 06, Sorbonne Universités, Paris, France.

Acute tubular damage is a major cause of renal failure, especially at the early phase of kidney transplant when ischemia-reperfusion injury and cyclosporin A toxicity may coexist. The mechanisms of the latter are largely unknown. Using an mRNA microarray on microdissected tubules from a rat model of cyclosporin A toxicity to describe the related epithelial-specific transcriptional signature in vivo, we found that cyclosporin A induces pathways dependent on the transcription factor ATF4 and identified nuclear protein transcriptional regulator 1 (Nupr1), a stress response gene induced by ATF4, as the gene most strongly upregulated. Upon cyclosporin A treatment, Nupr1-deficient mice exhibited worse renal tubular lesions than wild-type mice. In primary cultures treated with cyclosporin A, renal tubular cells isolated from Nupr1-deficient mice exhibited more apoptosis and ATP depletion than cells from wild-type mice. Furthermore, cyclosporin A decreased protein synthesis and abolished proliferation in wild-type tubular cells, but only reduced proliferation in Nupr1-deficient cells. Compared with controls, mouse models of ischemia-reperfusion injury, urinary obstruction, and hypertension exhibited upregulated expression of renal NUPR1, and cyclosporin A induced Nupr1 expression in cultured human tubular epithelial cells. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis revealed strong expression of NUPR1 in the nuclei of renal proximal tubules of injured human kidney allografts, but not in those of stable allografts. Taken together, these results suggest that epithelial expression of NUPR1 has a protective role in response to injury after renal transplant and, presumably, in other forms of acute tubular damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2015080936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5280006PMC
February 2017

Spectrum and Prognosis of Noninfectious Renal Mixed Cryoglobulinemic GN.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2016 Apr 10;27(4):1213-24. Epub 2015 Aug 10.

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Unité Mixte de Recherche_S 1155, Paris, France; Nephrology and Dialysis, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, Tenon Hospital, Paris, France; Sorbonne Universités, Tenon Hospital, Paris, France

Noninfectious mixed cryoglobulinemic GN (MCGN) has been poorly investigated. We analyzed presentation and outcome of 80 patients with biopsy-proven MCGN, which were identified in the retrospective French CryoVas survey. MCGN was related to primary Sjögren's syndrome in 22.5% of patients and to lymphoproliferative disorders in 28.7% of patients, and was defined as essential in 48.8% of patients. At presentation, hematuria, proteinuria ≥1 g/d, hypertension, and renal failure were observed in 97.4%, 84.8%, 85.3%, and 82.3% of cases, respectively. Mean±eGFR was 39.5±20.4 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) Membranoproliferative GN was the predominant histologic pattern, observed in 89.6% of cases. Renal interstitium inflammatory infiltrates were observed in 50% of cases. First-line treatment consisted of steroids alone (27.6%) or in association with rituximab (21.1%), alkylating agents (36.8%) or a combination of cyclophosphamide and rituximab (10.5%). After a mean follow-up of 49.9±45.5 months, 42.7% of patients relapsed with a renal flare in 75% of cases. At last follow-up, mean eGFR was 50.2±26.1 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)with 9% of patients having reached ESRD; 59% and 50% of patients achieved complete clinical and renal remission, respectively. A rituximab+steroids regimen prevented relapses more effectively than steroids alone or a cyclophosphamide+steroids combination did, but was associated with a higher rate of early death when used as first-line therapy. Severe infections and new-onset B-cell lymphoma occurred in 29.1% and 8.9% of cases, respectively; 24% of patients died. In conclusion, noninfectious MCGN has a poor long-term outcome with severe infections as the main cause of death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2015020114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4814186PMC
April 2016

Markers of Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition: Evidence for Antibody-Endothelium Interaction during Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Kidney Recipients.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2016 Jan 20;27(1):324-32. Epub 2015 May 20.

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR)_S1155, Paris, France; Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Tenon Hospital, Renal Intensive Care Unit and Kidney Transplantation, Paris, France; Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC) Université Paris 06, UMR_S1155, Paris, France;

Antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) is a leading cause of allograft loss. Treatment efficacy depends on accurate diagnosis at an early stage. However, sensitive and reliable markers of antibody-endothelium interaction during ABMR are not available for routine use. Using immunohistochemistry, we retrospectively studied the diagnostic value of three markers of endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT), fascin1, vimentin, and heat shock protein 47, for ABMR in 53 renal transplant biopsy specimens, including 20 ABMR specimens, 24 cell-mediated rejection specimens, and nine normal grafts. We validated our results in an independent set of 74 unselected biopsy specimens. Endothelial cells of the peritubular capillaries in grafts with ABMR expressed fascin1, vimentin, and heat shock protein 47 strongly, whereas those from normal renal grafts did not. The level of EndMT marker expression was significantly associated with current ABMR criteria, including capillaritis, glomerulitis, peritubular capillary C4d deposition, and donor-specific antibodies. These markers allowed us to identify C4d-negative ABMR and to predict late occurrence of disease. EndMT markers were more specific than capillaritis for the diagnosis and prognosis of ABMR and predicted late (up to 4 years after biopsy) renal graft dysfunction and proteinuria. In the independent set of 74 renal graft biopsy specimens, the EndMT markers for the diagnosis of ABMR had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 85%. Fascin1 expression in peritubular capillaries was also induced in a rat model of ABMR. In conclusion, EndMT markers are a sensitive and reliable diagnostic tool for detecting endothelial activation during ABMR and predicting late loss of allograft function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2014070679DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4696562PMC
January 2016

Genetic background-dependent thrombotic microangiopathy is related to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 signaling during anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis in mice.

Am J Pathol 2014 Sep 6;184(9):2438-49. Epub 2014 Jul 6.

INSERM Unité UMR-S 1155, Rare and Common Kidney Diseases, Matrix Remodeling and Tissue Repair, Hôpital Tenon, Paris, France; UMR-S 1155, Rare and Common Kidney Diseases, Matrix Remodeling and Tissue Repair, the Sorbonne Universités, UPMC University Paris, Paris, France; Emergency Nephrological and Renal Transplantation, the APHP, Hôpital Tenon, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Because genetic background plays a pivotal role in humans and in various experimental models, we carefully monitored its impact on glomerular pathological characteristics during experimental anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis (anti-GBM-GN), using two leading mouse strains, 129S2/SvPas (129Sv) and C57bl/6J (B6J). These mice exhibited different severities of renal failure, hypertension, and glomerular lesions, according to their genetic background. In addition to the classic glomerular proliferative lesions, glomerular thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) was found as a common genetic background-dependent histopathological hallmark of anti-GBM-GN, combined with hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. Glomerular expression profiling, using microarrays and Western blot analysis in B6J TMA-resistant and 129Sv TMA-prone mice, demonstrated major differences in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF receptor (VEGFR) 2 pathways, despite similar Vegfa expression levels. Further analysis revealed a lower basal glomerular endothelial Vegfr2 expression level in 129Sv TMA-prone mice compared with B6J TMA-resistant mice. This difference was even more pronounced during anti-GBM-GN, explaining why an exogenous VEGFA supply failed to rescue any 129Sv TMA lesions. Conversely, the systemic blocking of Vegfr2 amplified TMA lesions only in B6J mice. Herein, we specified the role that genetic background plays in determining, in particular, the level of Vegfr2 expression. We also demonstrated that glomerular Vegfr2-dependent TMA lesions are an underevaluated common hallmark of anti-GBM-GN in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2014.05.020DOI Listing
September 2014

Expression of the transcriptional regulator snail1 in kidney transplants displaying epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition features.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2014 Nov 15;29(11):2136-44. Epub 2013 Sep 15.

INSERM U702, Hôpital Tenon, Paris, France Anatomo-Pathologie, APHP, Hôpital Tenon, Paris, France Urgences Néphrologiques et Transplantation Rénale, APHP, Hôpital Tenon, Paris, France.

Background: The epithelial response to injury is stereotypical and reminiscent of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs), such as those observed during embryogenesis and tumour metastasis. In the context of solid organ transplantation, EMT-like features are often acquired by epithelial cells and are predictive of graft fibrosis. Here, we studied the possible involvement of several major transcriptional regulators, including snail1, phospho-Smad 2/3 and zeb1, in EMT induction in human renal grafts.

Methods: We used immunohistochemistry to detect the presence of these EMT transcriptional regulators along with that of two validated EMT markers (intra-cytoplasmic translocation of β-catenin, de novo expression of vimentin), in 103 renal graft biopsy samples taken for routine surveillance or for a clinical indication.

Results: We observed the nuclear accumulation of snail1 and phospho-smad2/3 in tubular cells displaying EMT. The level of snail1 was significantly correlated with the scores of EMT markers (β-catenin: ρ = 0.94, P < 0.0001; vimentin: ρ = 0.93, P < 0.0001) and with deteriorated graft function and proteinuria at the time of biopsy. Furthermore, intense staining for both snail1 and vimentin in tubular cells (≥10% of tubules) was predictive of graft dysfunction 21 months post-biopsy, independently of the other known risk factor for long-term graft dysfunction. In contrast, in both normal and diseased graft, zeb1 expression was detected exclusively in the endothelial cells of glomeruli and peritubular capillaries.

Conclusion: This study suggests that snail1 is closely related to the fibrogenic, EMT-like response of the tubular epithelium in human renal grafts and predictive of graft function loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gft279DOI Listing
November 2014

Epithelial phenotypic changes are associated with a tubular active fibrogenic process in human renal grafts.

Hum Pathol 2013 Jul 17;44(7):1251-61. Epub 2013 Jan 17.

AP-HP, Hôpital Tenon, Urgences Néphrologiques & Transplantation Rénale, F-75020, Paris, France; INSERM, UMR S 702, F-75020, Paris, France.

Some recently published works contest the epithelial origin of myofibroblasts, which are the major extracellular matrix producers. However, our previous studies showed that, in tubular cells, some phenotypic changes reminiscent of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition constitute an interesting early marker that predicts the progression of fibrosis in renal grafts. We hypothesized that activated epithelial cells could directly contribute to fibrogenesis, although they remain within the tubules. Using immunohistochemistry, we studied the association between epithelial phenotypic changes (de novo expression of vimentin and intracellular translocation of β-catenin) and the production of profibrotic molecules (connective tissue growth factor, HSP47, and laminin), in tubular epithelial cells from 93 renal grafts biopsied of 77 patients. We observed the de novo production of connective tissue growth factor, HSP47, and laminin in the tubular epithelial cells displaying epithelial phenotypic changes. The score of vimentin was significantly correlated with those of connective tissue growth factor (r = 0.785, P < .0001), HSP47 (r = 0.887, P < .0001), and laminin (r = 0.836, P < .0001). The level of tubular expression of mesenchymal cell markers and profibrogenic molecules, but not graft histologic lesions according to Banff acute or chronic scores, was correlated with graft dysfunction and proteinuria at the time of biopsy (r = -0.611, P < .0001 for vimentin with estimated glomerular filtration rate) (r = 0.42, P = .0006 for vimentin with proteinuria). Our results demonstrate that the epithelial phenotypic switch is associated with an active fibrogenic process in tubular epithelial cells and with graft injury indicators. Perpetuation of this tissue injury-repair response may drive fibrogenesis in renal grafts. This "repair response" represents an interesting marker for renal graft surveillance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2012.10.010DOI Listing
July 2013

Genetic inhibition of discoidin domain receptor 1 protects mice against crescentic glomerulonephritis.

FASEB J 2012 Oct 2;26(10):4079-91. Epub 2012 Jul 2.

INSERM UMR S 702, Service de Néphrologie et Dialyses, Hôpital Tenon, Assistance Publique–Hôpitaux de Paris, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), Paris 6 University, 75020 Paris, France.

This study investigated the role of discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), a collagen receptor that displays tyrosine-kinase activity, in the development of glomerulonephritis. Crescentic glomerulonephritis was induced in DDR1-deficient mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates as controls, by injection of alloimmune sheep nephrotoxic serum (NTS). Histological, functional and transcriptomic studies were performed. Glomerulonephritis produced a 17-fold increase of DDR1 expression, predominantly in glomeruli. DDR1 deletion protected NTS-treated mice against glomerular disease (proteinuria/creatininuria 5.5±1.1 vs. 13.2±0.8 g/mmol in WT, crescents 12±2 vs. 24±2% of glomeruli, urea 16±2 vs. 28±5 mM), hypertension (123±11 vs. 157±8 mmHg), and premature death (70 vs. 10% survival) (all P<0.05). Reciprocal stimulation between DDR1 and interleukin-1b expression in vivo and in cultured podocytes suggested a positive feed-back loop between DDR1 and inflammation. In NTS-treated WT mice, administration of DDR1-specific antisense oligodeoxynucleotides decreased DDR1 expression (-56%) and protected renal function and structure, including nephrin expression (4.2±1.4 vs. 0.9±0.4 arbitrary units, P<0.05), compared to control mice receiving scrambled oligodeoxynucleotides. The therapeutic potential of this approach was reinforced by the observation of increased DDR1 expression in glomeruli of patients with lupus nephritis and Goodpasture's syndrome. These results prompt further interest in DDR1 blockade strategies, especially in the treatment of glomerulonephritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.11-194902DOI Listing
October 2012

Ureteral obstruction promotes proliferation and differentiation of the renal urothelium into a bladder-like phenotype.

Kidney Int 2012 Aug;82(4):428-35

UPMC et Inserm UMR_S 702, Remodelage et Réparation du Tissu Rénal, Paris, France.

The renal urothelium, the monolayered epithelium that covers the papilla, is the direct target of increased pressure during obstruction, yet most studies have mainly focused on tubules, fibroblasts, and inflammatory cells. We studied this epithelium in a unilateral ureteral obstruction mouse mode land found that it was disrupted and had broken tight junctions, enlarged intercellular space, with loss of apicaluroplakins, and marginal lumen desquamation. Shortly after obstruction these urothelial cells proliferated, peaking at day 2. By day 14, the renal urothelium was transformed into a multilayered barrier with newly synthesized uroplakins including the de novo induction of uroplakin II. This proliferation was found to be fibroblast growth factor (FGF)dependent. Renal urothelial cells constitutively express the FGF receptor 2, and obstruction activated the receptor by phosphorylation. Treatment with FGF receptor 2-antisense or vitamin A (an inhibitor of the MAP kinase in the FGFR2 pathway) decreased renal urothelial cell proliferation. Among known FGF receptor 2 ligands, only FGF7 was upregulated.Infusion of FGF7 into control mice caused the formation of a multilayered structure at 7 days, resembling the urothelium 14 days following obstruction. Thus, the pressure/stretching of renal monolayered urothelial cells is a very efficient trigger for proliferation, causing the formation of a bladder-like multistratified barrier with enhanced apical uroplakin plaques. Presumably, this ensures efficient barrier protection and repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2012.110DOI Listing
August 2012

Thrombospondin-1 plays a profibrotic and pro-inflammatory role during ureteric obstruction.

Kidney Int 2012 Jun 14;81(12):1226-38. Epub 2012 Mar 14.

INSERM UNIT 702, Paris, France.

Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is an endogenous activator of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and an anti-angiogenic factor, which may prevent kidney repair. Here we investigated whether TSP-1 is involved in the development of chronic kidney disease using rats with unilateral ureteral obstruction, a well-known model to study renal fibrosis. Obstruction of 10 days duration induced inflammation, tubular cell atrophy, dilation, apoptosis, and proliferation, leading to interstitial fibrosis. TSP-1 expression was increased in parallel to that of collagen III and TGF-β. Relief of the obstruction at day 10 produced a gradual improvement in renal structure and function, the reappearance of peritubular capillaries, and restoration of renal VEGF content over a 7- to 15-day post-relief period. TSP-1 expression decreased in parallel with that of TGF-β1 and collagen III. Mice in which the TSP-1 gene was knocked out displayed less inflammation and had better preservation of renal tissue and the peritubular capillary network compared to wild-type mice. Additional studies showed that the inflammatory effect of TSP-1 was mediated, at least in part, by monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and activation of the Th17 pathway. Thus, TSP-1 is an important profibrotic and inflammatory mediator of renal disease. Blockade of its action may be a treatment against the development of chronic kidney disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2012.21DOI Listing
June 2012

Vitronectin dictates intraglomerular fibrinolysis in immune-mediated glomerulonephritis.

FASEB J 2011 Oct 15;25(10):3543-53. Epub 2011 Jul 15.

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Unité Mixte de Recherche S 702, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Hôpital Tenon, Paris, France.

During human glomerulonephritis, the severity of injuries correlates with glomerular fibrin deposits, which are tightly regulated by the intraglomerular fibrinolytic system. Here, we evaluated the role of vitronectin (VTN; also known as complement S protein), the principal cofactor of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), in a mouse model of acute glomerulonephritis. We found that in mice subjected to nephrotoxic serum, the absence of VTN resulted in a lower glomerular PAI-1 activity and a higher glomerular fibrinolytic activity. Challenged VTN(-/-) mice displayed significantly less fibrin deposits, proteinuria, and renal failure than their wild-type counterparts. Notably, this protective effect afforded by VTN deficiency was still observed after a C3 depletion. Finally, the injection of VTN(+/+) serum in VTN(-/-) mice induced the glomerular deposition of VTN, increased PAI-1 deposition, decreased glomerular fibrinolytic activity, and aggravated glomerular injury. As in mice, abundant glomerular VTN deposits were also observed in patients with severe glomerulonephritis. Here, we show that plasma-exchange therapy, admittedly beneficial in this clinical context, induces a significant depletion in circulating VTN, which might modulate PAI-1 activity locally and accelerate the clearance of fibrin deposits in the glomeruli. Collectively, these results demonstrate that VTN exerts a deleterious role independently from complement, by directing PAI-dependent fibrinolysis in the glomerular compartment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.11-180752DOI Listing
October 2011

Tubular nuclear accumulation of Snail and epithelial phenotypic changes in human myeloma cast nephropathy.

Hum Pathol 2011 Aug 11;42(8):1142-8. Epub 2011 Feb 11.

AP-HP, Hôpital Tenon, Urgences Néphrologiques & Transplantation Rénale, F-75020 Paris, France.

The transcription factor Snail is an important repressor of E-cadherin gene expression. It plays a key role in the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, an essential process important not only in embryonic development and tumor progression but also in organ fibrogenesis. We studied the expression of Snail by immunohistochemistry, along with several epithelial phenotypic changes suggestive of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, in 14 patients with multiple myeloma cast nephropathy. This nephropathy is characterized by a rapid progression toward fibrosis. As controls, we used normal kidneys and kidneys from patients displaying an idiopathic nephrotic syndrome, a syndrome unassociated with renal fibrosis. We discovered that, in all patients with multiple myeloma nephropathy, a drastic accumulation of Snail is seen in the nuclei from tubular epithelial cells showing epithelial phenotypic changes. In contrast, normal and idiopathic nephrotic syndrome kidneys did not exhibit either of these markers. Snail, a major player in the process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, is highly expressed by tubular epithelial cells during multiple myeloma nephropathy. It is, therefore, a potential target to prevent multiple myeloma kidneys from fibrosing. Intranuclear accumulation of Snail is a characteristic in phenotypically altered tubular cells from multiple myeloma kidneys. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition pathway could, therefore, be involved in the rapid renal fibrogenesis observed in this setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2010.11.006DOI Listing
August 2011

Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) induces chronic kidney disease through a mechanism involving collagen and TGF-β1 synthesis.

J Pathol 2011 Jan 15;223(1):37-45. Epub 2010 Sep 15.

INSERM UNIT 702, Paris, F-75020, France.

Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, is accumulated in plasma during chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is considered an independent mortality and cardiovascular risk factor in CKD patients. To test the involvement of ADMA in CKD progression, we investigated the effects of chronic ADMA administration on renal structure and compared these effects with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) treatment, a widely used exogenous inhibitor of NOS that induces CKD. Three groups of uninephrectomized mice were studied: ADMA (60 mg/kg per day), L-NAME (60 mg/kg per day), and isotonic saline (control) were infused through osmotic mini-pumps for 8 weeks. ADMA and L-NAME induced hypertension (PAS 167 ± 16 and 168 ± 10 versus 100 ± 4 mmHg, p < 0.01, respectively). High level of ADMA was associated with increased renal oxidative stress. ADMA treatment induced glomerular and vascular fibrosis as evidenced by the elevated deposits of collagen I, III, and fibronectin (p < 0.01). A similar profile was observed in the L-NAME group. Mice treated with ADMA had reduced peritubular capillaries versus controls (p < 0.01). Collagen I mRNA expression and renal TGF-β1 concentrations were higher in the ADMA and L-NAME groups. Increased level of TGF-β1 was associated with a significant rise of HIF-1α and endothelin-1 expression. These results demonstrate for the first time that elevated concentrations of ADMA are associated with the development of renal fibrosis. These data suggest that in pathophysiological conditions of endothelial dysfunction, the exaggerated endogenous synthesis of ADMA could contribute to CKD progression by favouring hypertension, extracellular matrix synthesis, and rarefaction of peritubular capillaries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/path.2769DOI Listing
January 2011

Tissue transglutaminase contributes to interstitial renal fibrosis by favoring accumulation of fibrillar collagen through TGF-beta activation and cell infiltration.

Am J Pathol 2008 Sep 7;173(3):631-42. Epub 2008 Aug 7.

INSERM UMR, Paris, France.

Renal fibrosis is defined by the exaggerated accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins. Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) modifies the stability of extracellular matrix proteins and renders the extracellular matrix resistant to degradation. In addition, TG2 also activates transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). We investigated the involvement of TG2 in the development of renal fibrosis using mice with a knockout of the TG2 gene (KO). These mice were studied at baseline and 12 days after unilateral ureteral obstruction, which induced a significant increase in interstitial TG2 expression in wild-type mice (P < 0.001). Interstitial fibrosis was evident in both groups, but total and fibrillar collagen was considerably lower in KO mice as compared with wild-type (P < 0.001). Similarly, mRNA and protein expression of collagen I were significantly lower in KO animals (P < 0.05). A statistically significant reduction in renal inflammation and fewer myofibroblasts were observed in KO mice (P < 0.01). Free active TGF-beta was decreased in KO mice (P < 0.05), although total (active + latent) TFG-beta concentration did not differ between groups. These results show that mice deficient in TG2 are protected against the development of fibrotic lesions in obstructive nephropathy. This protection results from reduced macrophage and myofibroblast infiltration, as well as from a decreased rate of collagen I synthesis because of decreased TGF-beta activation. Our results suggest that inhibition of TG2 may provide a new and important therapeutic target against the progression of renal fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2353/ajpath.2008.080025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2527082PMC
September 2008

Glomerular permeability is altered by loss of P0, a myelin protein expressed in glomerular epithelial cells.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2005 Nov 14;16(11):3350-6. Epub 2005 Sep 14.

Department of Nephrology, INSERM Unit 702, Tenon Hospital (AP-HP), University Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France.

The myelin protein 0 (MPZ or P0) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that represents the most abundant myelin component. Mutations in the P0 gene are associated with one form of autosomal dominant demyelinating peripheral neuropathy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B (CMT1B). Because CMT1 may be associated with renal involvement, mostly focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, we hypothesized that P0 could be expressed in the kidney. P0 mRNA was detected by reverse transcriptase-PCR in the human and mouse renal cortex. P0 transcripts were identified by in situ hybridization at different stages of the mouse kidney development, especially in embryonic structures that give rise to the glomerulus. P0 protein was also detected by Western blot in human and rat glomerular extracts and in a human podocyte cell line using a monoclonal anti-P0 antibody. Immunofluorescence studies on human kidney sections showed that the podocytes were intensely labeled. Immunogold electron microscopy disclosed a predominant staining of the membranes of intracellular vesicles in podocytes. P0 was also detected in the podocyte cell membrane, including at the foot processes. P0(-/-) mice exhibited mild growth retardation and demyelinating neuropathy similar to the one observed in patients with CMT1B. They also presented mild albuminuria, without significant ultrastructural change of the glomerular basement membrane or the podocytes. These results demonstrate that P0, the major myelin protein, is also expressed during nephrogenesis and in mature kidney, mostly in podocytes. They suggest that P0 gene mutations might be involved in renal diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2005050509DOI Listing
November 2005

Long-term renal effects of low-dose cyclosporine in uveitis-treated patients: follow-up study.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2002 Dec;13(12):2962-8

Department of Nephrology, Pitié-Salpétrière Hospital, 83 Boulevard de l'Hôpital, 75013 Paris, France.

Cyclosporine (CsA), a widely used immunosuppressive drug, is an effective treatment of sight-threatening posterior idiopathic uveitis. CsA's main side effect is nephrotoxicity. The aim of this single-center prospective cohort study (conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Paris, France) was to assess the long-term renal tolerance of a low-dose CsA treatment in patients with previously healthy kidneys on clinical, biologic, and pathologic criteria. Forty-one patients treated with 4.3 +/- 1.6 mg/kg body wt per day CsA for 44.9 +/- 3.6 mo were included. Mean follow-up was 55.4 +/- 0.2 mo. BP, CsA trough level, and renal function were prospectively monitored together with blood urea, creatinine clearance, GFR, and effective renal plasma flow. Eleven patients underwent serial kidney biopsies before and after 2 yr of a 4 +/- 0.9 mg/kg daily CsA treatment. Sustained low-dose CsA treatment induced a significant increase in plasma creatinine (P < 0.0001), a significant decrease in creatinine clearance (P < 0.0001), and isotopic GFR (P < 0.0001) over time. The highest dose induced more severe alterations in any of the renal parameters than the lowest dose. Prevalence of hypertension was particularly high. Histopathologic data showed significant interstitial fibrosis (P < 0.003) and tubular atrophy (P < 0.003) after 2 yr. Low-dose long-term CsA treatment induces significant renal impairment and a high incidence of hypertension. Our study suggests that lowering daily dosage may prevent CsA-induced nephrotoxicity if a daily dose of < or =3 mg/kg is used. Whether once established it is reversible is still prospective, although the occurrence of interstitial fibrosis in the kidney would argue against reversibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.asn.0000034945.61533.26DOI Listing
December 2002