Publications by authors named "Changsoo Kim"

173 Publications

Programmable Dynamics of Exchange-Biased Domain Wall via Spin-Current-Induced Antiferromagnet Switching.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Jul 15:e2100908. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Emerging Materials Science, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), 333 Techno jungang-daero, Daegu, 42988, Republic of Korea.

Magnetic domain wall (DW) motion in perpendicularly magnetized materials is drawing increased attention due to the prospect of new type of information storage devices, such as racetrack memory. To augment the functionalities of DW motion-based devices, it is essential to improve controllability over the DW motion. Other than electric current, which is known to induce unidirectional shifting of a train of DWs, an application of in-plane magnetic field also enables the control of DW dynamics by rotating the DW magnetization and consequently modulating the inherited chiral DW structure. Applying an external bias field, however, is not a viable approach for the miniaturization of the devices as the external field acts globally. Here, the programmable exchange-coupled DW motion in the antiferromagnet (AFM)/ferromagnet (FM) system is demonstrated, where the role of an external in-plane field is replaced by the exchange bias field from AFM layer, enabling the external field-free modulations of DW motions. Interestingly, the direction of the exchange bias field can also be reconfigured by simply injecting spin currents through the device, enabling electrical and programmable operations of the device. Furthermore, the result inspires a prototype DW motion-based device based on the AFM/FM heterostructure, that could be easily integrated in logic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202100908DOI Listing
July 2021

Trends of age-related non-communicable diseases in people living with HIV and comparison with uninfected controls: A nationwide population-based study in South Korea.

HIV Med 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Internal Medicine and AIDS Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Objectives: We aim to compare the trends of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and death among people living with HIV (PLWH) and uninfected controls in South Korea.

Methods: We identified PLWH from a nationwide database of all Korean citizens enrolled from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2016. A control cohort was randomly selected for PLWH by frequency matching for age and sex in a 20:1 ratio. To compare NCD trends between the groups, adjusted incidence rate ratios for outcomes across ages, calendar years and times after HIV diagnosis were calculated.

Results: We included 14 134 PLWH and 282 039 controls in this study; 58.5% of PLWH and 36.4% of the controls were diagnosed with at least one NCD. The incidence rates of cancers, chronic kidney disease, depression, osteoporosis, diabetes and dyslipidaemia were higher in PLWH than in the controls, whereas those of cardiovascular disease, heart failure, ischaemic stroke and hypertension were lower in PLWH. Relative risks (RRs) for NCDs in PLWH were higher than controls in younger age groups. Trends in the RRs of NCDs tended to increase with the calendar year for PLWH vs. controls and either stabilized or decreased with time after HIV diagnosis. The RR of death from PLWH has decreased with the calendar year, but showed a tendency to rise again after 2014 and was significant at the early stage of HIV diagnosis.

Conclusions: Although the RR of each NCD in PLWH showed variable trends compared with that in controls, NCDs in PLWH have been increasingly prevalent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hiv.13139DOI Listing
July 2021

Association Between Visceral Fat and Brain Cortical Thickness in the Elderly: A Neuroimaging Study.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 23;13:694629. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Neurology, Gil Medical Center, Gachon University College of Medicine, Incheon, South Korea.

Background: Despite emerging evidence suggesting that visceral fat may play a major role in obesity-induced neurodegeneration, little evidence exists on the association between visceral fat and brain cortical thickness in the elderly.

Purpose: We aimed to examine the association between abdominal fat and brain cortical thickness in a Korean elderly population.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included elderly individuals without dementia ( = 316). Areas of visceral fat and subcutaneous fat (cm) were estimated from computed tomography scans. Regional cortical thicknesses (mm) were obtained by analyzing brain magnetic resonance images. Given the inverted U-shaped relationship between visceral fat area and global cortical thickness (examined using a generalized additive model), visceral fat area was categorized into quintiles, with the middle quintile being the reference group. A generalized linear model was built to explore brain regions associated with visceral fat. The same approach was used for subcutaneous fat.

Results: The mean (standard deviation) age was 67.6 (5.0) years. The highest quintile (vs. the middle quintile) group of visceral fat area had reduced cortical thicknesses in the global [β = -0.04 mm, standard error (SE) = 0.02 mm, = 0.004], parietal (β = -0.04 mm, = 0.02 mm, = 0.01), temporal (β = -0.05 mm, = 0.02 mm, = 0.002), cingulate (β = -0.06 mm, = 0.02 mm, = 0.01), and insula lobes (β = -0.06 mm, = 0.03 mm, = 0.02). None of the regional cortical thicknesses significantly differed between the highest and the middle quintile groups of subcutaneous fat area.

Conclusion: The findings suggest that a high level of visceral fat, but not subcutaneous fat, is associated with a reduced cortical thickness in the elderly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.694629DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8261238PMC
June 2021

Estimation of the reproduction number of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in South Korea using heterogeneous models.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jul 7;21(1):658. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Mathematics, Yonsei University, 50, Yonsei-ro, Seoul, 03722, South Korea.

Background: The reproduction number is one of the most crucial parameters in determining disease dynamics, providing a summary measure of the transmission potential. However, estimating this value is particularly challenging owing to the characteristics of epidemic data, including non-reproducibility and incompleteness.

Methods: In this study, we propose mathematical models with different population structures; each of these models can produce data on the number of cases of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 epidemic in South Korea. These structured models incorporating the heterogeneity of age and region are used to estimate the reproduction numbers at various terminal times. Subsequently, the age- and region-specific reproduction numbers are also computed to analyze the differences illustrated in the incidence data.

Results: Incorporation of the age-structure or region-structure allows for robust estimation of parameters, while the basic SIR model provides estimated values beyond the reasonable range with severe fluctuation. The estimated duration of infectious period using age-structured model is around 3.8 and the reproduction number was estimated to be 1.6. The estimated duration of infectious period using region-structured model is around 2.1 and the reproduction number was estimated to be 1.4. The estimated age- and region-specific reproduction numbers are consistent with cumulative incidence for corresponding groups.

Conclusions: Numerical results reveal that the introduction of heterogeneity into the population to represent the general characteristics of dynamics is essential for the robust estimation of parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06121-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8265026PMC
July 2021

Role of Primary Care and Challenges for Public-Private Cooperation during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic: An Expert Delphi Study in South Korea.

Yonsei Med J 2021 Jul;62(7):660-669

Department of Family Medicine, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the role of primary care facilities and their support measures in response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to identify challenges to achieving public-private cooperation in South Korea.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-four leading experts were selected and recruited to participate in this iterative web-based Delphi study. An open-ended questionnaire was administered to collect the expert panel's views in the first round. In the second round, the panel was asked to rate on a 5-point Likert scale their agreement with individual items gleaned from qualitative content analysis of views expressed in the first round. The participants were offered the opportunity to reevaluate and correct their initial responses in subsequent rounds. Responses in the second and following rounds were analyzed using quantitative descriptive statistics.

Results: The first and second rounds were completed by 54.2% (n=13/24) and 58.3% (n=14/24) of the selected panel, respectively, while 10 out of these 14 participants completed the third round. The panel cited in-person essential medical services, telehealth for fever/respiratory symptoms, surveillance for influenzae-like illness, and minimization of spread to staff as important and appropriate roles of primary care, which are urgent and feasible during a pandemic. Regarding conditions/support for these roles, the panel indicated that institutional support and funding for separate areas, workforce, and telehealth, along with public-private collaborative governance, are urgent, but not feasible.

Conclusion: This study provides guidance on strategies for continuing the required roles of primary care and highlights a need to strengthen public-private partnerships during pandemic events in Korea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3349/ymj.2021.62.7.660DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8236345PMC
July 2021

The effect of body fatness on regional brain imaging markers and cognitive function in healthy elderly mediated by impaired glucose metabolism.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Aug 11;140:488-495. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea; Department of Public Health, Yonsei University Graduate School, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea; Institute of Human Complexity and Systems Science, Yonsei University, Incheon, 21983, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Brain atrophy is related to vascular risk factors and can increase cognitive dysfunction risk. This community-based, cross-sectional study investigated whether glucose metabolic disorders due to body fatness are linked to regional changes in brain structure and a decline in neuropsychological function in cognitively healthy older adults. From 2016 to 2019, 429 participants underwent measurements for cortical thickness and subcortical volume using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging and for cognitive function using the neuropsychological screening battery. The effects of body fatness mediated by impaired glucose metabolism on neuroimaging markers and cognitive function was investigated using partial least square structural equation modeling. Total grey matter volume (β = -0.020; bias-corrected (BC) 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.047 to -0.006), frontal (β = -0.029; BC 95% CI = -0.063 to -0.005) and temporal (β = -0.022; BC 95% CI = -0.051 to -0.004) lobe cortical thickness, and hippocampal volume (β = -0.029; BC 95% CI = -0.058 to -0.008) were indirectly related to body fatness. Further, frontal/temporal lobe thinning was associated with recognition memory (β = -0.005; BC 95% CI = -0.012 to -0.001/β = -0.005; BC 95% CI = -0.013 to -0.001) and delayed recall for visual information (β = -0.005; BC 95% CI = -0.013 to -0.001/β = -0.005; BC 95% CI = -0.013 to -0.001). Additionally, the smaller the hippocampal volume, the lower the score in recognition memory (β = -0.005; BC 95% CI = -0.012 to -0.001), delayed recall for visual information (β = -0.005; BC 95% CI = -0.012 to -0.001), and verbal learning (β = -0.008; BC 95% CI = -0.017 to -0.002). Our findings indicate that impaired glucose metabolism caused by excess body fatness affects memory decline as well as regional grey matter atrophy in elderly individuals with no neurological disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2021.06.011DOI Listing
August 2021

Economic damage cost of premature death due to fine particulate matter in Seoul, Korea.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Institute for Environmental Research, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722, Korea.

Analyzing the economic value of the damage to human health caused by environmental risks has become an essential research focus, given the increasing necessity for effective decision-making. Since logical and rational analyses such as cost-benefit and cost-utility analyses will likely gain importance in future policymaking, the evaluation of economic costs becomes necessary. Among the various types of air pollutants, fine particulate matter (PM) is reported as closely related to mortality. To reduce result uncertainty by improving the methodology of risk assessment or the economic evaluation of fine PM, risk control measures are required for high-priority areas. This study addresses this issue by estimating the relative risk of PM while calculating the economic loss cost arising from acute death due to fine PM exposure in Seoul, Korea. The value of statistical life of one person's willingness to pay for mortality risk reduction is calculated to estimate the economic loss cost at each current level of exposure. The estimated economic loss cost due to all-cause mortality during 2016-2018 totaled approximately USD 1307.9 million per year; the costs of loss from respiratory and cardiovascular mortalities were USD 128.1 million per year and USD 426.9 million, respectively. Based on these results, this study concludes that the standards for PM are more effective than the ones established for PM in terms of economic value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14362-yDOI Listing
May 2021

Determination of pharmaceuticals in solid samples in municipal wastewater treatment plants by online SPE LC-MS/MS using QuEChERS extraction.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Apr 17;193(5):279. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Environmental Infrastructure Research, National Institute of Environmental Research, 42 Hwangyeong-ro, Seo-gu, Incheon, 22689, South Korea.

In this study, a pretreatment method based on the QuEChERS method has been applied for simultaneously extracting 27 residual pharmaceuticals from wastewater solids. The extracted compounds have been analyzed using online solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled to liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A recovery test was conducted according to the absorbent type, and buffers were added in the sample extraction step. The highest recovery efficiency could be observed when NaSO was used as an absorbent and NaEDTA was injected during the extraction process; the recovery efficiencies of the proposed method for the target compounds ranged from 61.3 to 137.2%, and the repeatability was 6.8%. These recovery and repeatability data showed that the proposed method could reliably analyze the 27 target residual pharmaceuticals. The concentrations of the target compounds were all below the limits of quantification: 830 ng g for the target compounds in suspended solids, 2353 ng g in activated sludge, and 1929 ng g in waste sludge. The analytical method established in this study can be applied to quantify residual pharmaceuticals in solid samples and to investigate their behaviors in a municipal wastewater treatment plant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-021-09069-zDOI Listing
April 2021

New assessment for residential greenness and the association with cortical thickness in cognitively healthy adults.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 1;778:146129. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Cancer Control and Population Health, Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, National Cancer Center, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Recent evidence suggests that neurological health could be improved with the intervention of local green space. A few studies adopted cortical thickness, as an effective biomarker for neurodegenerative disorder, to investigate the association with residential greenness. However, they relied on limited data sources, definitions or applications to assess residential greenness. Our cross-sectional study assessed individual residential greenness using an alternative measure, which provides a more realistic definition of local impact and application based on the type of area, and investigated the association with cortical thickness.

Methods: The study population included 2542 subjects who participated in the medical check-up program at the Health Promotion Center of the Samsung Medical Center in Seoul, Korea, from 2008 to 2014. The cortical thickness was calculated by each of the four and global lobes from brain MRI. For greenness, we used the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) that detects canopy structural variation by adjusting background noise based on satellite imagery data. To assess individual exposure to residential greenness, we computed the maximum annual EVI before the date of a medical check-up and averaged it within 750 m from subjects' homes to represent an average walking distance. Finally, we assessed the association with cortical thickness by urban and non-urban populations using multiple linear regression adjusting for individual characteristics.

Results: The average global cortical thickness and EVI were 3.05 mm (standard deviation = 0.1 mm) and 0.31 (0.1), respectively. An interquartile range increase in EVI was associated with 11 μm (95% confidence interval = 3-20) and 9 μm (1-16) increases in cortical thickness of the parietal and occipital regions among the urban population. We did not find associations in non-urban subjects.

Conclusions: Our findings confirm the association between residential greenness and neurological health using alternative exposure assessments, indicating that high exposure to residential greenness can prevent neurological disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146129DOI Listing
July 2021

Risk assessment of particulate matter by considering time-activity-pattern and major microenvironments for preschool children living in Seoul, South Korea.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 13;28(28):37506-37519. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Institute for Environmental Research, Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul, 120-752, Republic of Korea.

Preschool children aged 3-6 years are vulnerable to exposed to particulate matter ("PM10" and "PM2.5"). It is required in evaluating the risk based on dose of preschool children. Microenvironments which preschool children mainly visited were classified. Inhalation type was adapted in each microenvironment in consideration of intensity of activity. The exposure scenario was described as preschool children had been living in Seoul, South Korea, and dose was calculated by considering time-activity-pattern with major microenvironments and inhalation type of preschool children for 24 h. Monte-Carlo simulation technique is used to estimate dose of particulate matter in probabilistic distribution by age and sex. The contribution of exposure by microenvironments and inhalation type was calculated. Risk assessment was performed based on WHO interim target-3 24-h concentration in order to estimate. Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the effective variable of dose. As a result of the study, the dose of PM was higher for boys than girls and tended to decrease with age. The overall contributions of PM doses by microenvironments were daycare center, home, other facilities, transit, and outdoors, respectively, although differed between daycare center and home priority by age and sex. Especially, the contribution of daycare center and home was very high, accounting over 85% of the total. The overall contributions of PM doses by inhalation type were "run," "stable," "sleep," and "walk inhalation," respectively. The results of hazard quotient showed that "PM10" exceeded the WHO interim target-3 24-h concentration standard by about 10% and "PM2.5" exceeded about half. Through sensitivity analysis, PM concentration was confirmed as a major influence variable for doses. This study was able to affirm the overall exposure status of "PM10" and "PM2.5" for preschool children, and this is expected to be used in regulation and public health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13106-2DOI Listing
July 2021

Protective effect of controlled blood pressure on risk of dementia in low-risk, grade 1 hypertension.

J Hypertens 2021 Aug;39(8):1662-1669

Division of Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital and Integrative Research Center for Cerebrovascular and Cardiovascular Diseases, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul.

Objective: High blood pressure (BP) increases the risk of dementia; however, few studies have reported on the risk of dementia in patients with low-risk, early-grade hypertension. We investigated the protective effect of controlled BP on risk of dementia in treated, low-risk, grade 1 hypertensive patients from the entire National Health Insurance Service National Health Examinee cohort.

Methods: We selected grade 1 hypertension (140-159/90-99 mmHg) patients with low risk, diagnosed in 2005-2006. All patients (N = 128 665) were classified into controlled (average BP < 140/90 mmHg during the follow-up) and uncontrolled (average BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg) BP groups and followed up until 2015. The risk of dementia was estimated using Cox proportional hazard model after adjustments for propensity score.

Results: Average BP was 131/81 mmHg in the controlled group (N = 49 408) and 144/87 mmHg in the uncontrolled group (N = 99 257). Overall dementia incidence rates in controlled and uncontrolled groups were 4.9 and 8.1 per 1000 person-year, respectively. The controlled group showed lower risk of overall dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and vascular dementia than the uncontrolled group. The controlled group had a low risk of vascular dementia at all ages, especially in the younger group (age <60). The optimal BP level associated with the lowest risk of dementia was 130 to less than 140 mmHg for SBP and 70 to less than 80 mmHg for DBP.

Conclusion: We concluded that among even low-risk and grade 1 hypertension patients, controlled BP significantly reduced the risk of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002820DOI Listing
August 2021

Disease progression modelling from preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) to AD dementia.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 18;11(1):4168. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 81 Irwon-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, 06351, South Korea.

To characterize the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD) over a longer time interval, we aimed to construct a disease course model for the entire span of the disease using two separate cohorts ranging from preclinical AD to AD dementia. We modelled the progression course of 436 patients with AD continuum and investigated the effects of apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE ε4) and sex on disease progression. To develop a model of progression from preclinical AD to AD dementia, we estimated Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale 13 (ADAS-cog 13) scores. When calculated as the median of ADAS-cog 13 scores for each cohort, the estimated time from preclinical AD to MCI due to AD was 7.8 years and preclinical AD to AD dementia was 15.2 years. ADAS-cog 13 scores deteriorated most rapidly in women APOE ε4 carriers and most slowly in men APOE ε4 non-carriers (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that disease progression modelling from preclinical AD to AD dementia may help clinicians to estimate where patients are in the disease course and provide information on variation in the disease course by sex and APOE ε4 status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83585-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7893024PMC
February 2021

Modelling the impact of rapid diagnostic tests on malaria in South Korea: a cost-benefit analysis.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 02;6(2)

Department of Internal Medicine, AIDS Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea

Background: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are widely used for diagnosing malaria, especially in resource-limited countries. However, the impact of RDTs on malaria incidence and national medical costs has not been evaluated. We assessed the impact of RDT implementation on malaria incidence and overall medical expenditures in South Korea and performed a cost-benefit analysis from the payer's perspective.

Methods: We developed a dynamic compartmental model for malaria transmission in South Korea using delay differential equations. Long latency and seasonality were incorporated into the model, which was calibrated to civilian malaria incidences during 2014-2018. We then estimated averted malaria cases and total medical costs from two diagnostic scenarios: microscopy only and both microscopy and RDTs. Medical costs were extracted based on data from a hospital in an at-risk area for malaria and were validated using Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service data. We conducted a cost-benefit analysis of RDTs using the incremental benefit:cost ratio (IBCR) considering only medical costs and performed a probabilistic sensitivity analysis to reflect the uncertainties of model parameters, costs and benefits.

Results: The results showed that 55.3% of new malaria cases were averted, and $696 214 in medical costs was saved over 10 years after RDT introduction. The estimated IBCR was 2.5, indicating that RDT implementation was beneficial, compared with microscopy alone. The IBCR was sensitive to the diagnosis time reduction, infectious period and short latency period, and provided beneficial results in a benefit over $10.6 or RDT cost under $39.7.

Conclusions: The model simulation suggested that RDTs could significantly reduce malaria incidence and medical costs. Moreover, cost-benefit analysis demonstrated that the introduction of RDTs was beneficial over microscopy alone. These results support the need for widespread adoption of RDTs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2020-004292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7888375PMC
February 2021

High Level of Real Urban Air Pollution Promotes Cardiac Arrhythmia in Healthy Mice.

Korean Circ J 2021 Feb;51(2):157-170

Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background And Objectives: Ambient particulate matter (PM) in real urban air pollution (RUA) is an environmental health risk factor associated with increased cardiac events. This study investigated the threshold level to induce arrhythmia, as well as arrhythmogenic mechanism of RUA that mainly consisted of PM <2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter close to ultrafine particles.

Methods: RUA was artificially produced by a lately developed pyrolysis based RUA generator. C57BL/6 mice were divided into 4 groups: a control group (control, n=12) and three groups with exposure to RUA with the concentration of 200 μg/m³ (n=12), 400 μg/m³ (n=12), and 800 μg/m³ (n=12). Mice were exposed to RUA at each concentration for 8 hr/day and 5 day/week to mimic ordinary human activity during 3 weeks.

Results: The QRS and QTc intervals, as well as intracellular Ca duration, apicobasal action potential duration (APD) gradient, fibrosis, and inflammation of left ventricle of mouse hearts were increased dose-dependently with the increase of RUA concentration, and significantly increased at RUA concentration of 400 μg/m³ compared to control (all p<0.001). In mice exposed to RUA concentration of 800 μg/m³, spontaneous ventricular arrhythmia was observed in 42%, with significant increase of inflammatory markers, phosphorylated Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), and phospholamban (PLB) compared to control.

Conclusions: RUA could induce electrophysiological changes such as APD and QT prolongation, fibrosis, and inflammation dose-dependently, with significant increase of ventricular arrhythmia at the concentration of 400 μg/m³. RUA concentration of 800 μg/m³ increased phosphorylation of CaMKII and PLB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4070/kcj.2020.0255DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7853890PMC
February 2021

Mortality and morbidity in children with asthma: A nationwide study in Korea.

Respir Med 2021 Jan 7;177:106306. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Paediatrics, Severance Hospital, Institute of Allergy, Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Objective: Childhood mortality due to asthma remains problematic; however, asthma-related mortality in Korean children has not been previously described. This study aimed to estimate asthma mortality and morbidity and determine to what extent asthma contributes to childhood mortality in Korea.

Methods: Data from 9 to 12 million children (aged < 18 years) per year recorded for each year between 2002 and 2015 were retrieved from the Korea National Health Insurance claims database. Patients with asthma during the year preceding death were investigated. Causes of death were analysed using data obtained from the Korean Statistical Information Service database. Cause-specific mortality was examined, and the mortality rate of children with asthma was compared to that of the general paediatric population with respect to the cause of death and age. Hospital use by patients with asthma, including intensive care unit admission and hospitalisation, was analysed.

Results: Asthma mortality decreased from 0.09 per 100,000 children in 2003 to 0.02 per 100,000 children in 2014, with an average mortality of 0.06 per 100,000 children. Mortality due to respiratory diseases was four times more common in patients with asthma than in the general population of children aged >5 years, despite decreases in asthma-related mortality. Asthma-related hospitalisations and intensive care interventions tended to decrease throughout the study period.

Conclusions: Asthma mortality declined in children between 2003 and 2015 in Korea. Children with asthma are at a higher risk of death from respiratory diseases than the general population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rmed.2021.106306DOI Listing
January 2021

Stabilization of acid-rich bio-oil by catalytic mild hydrotreating.

Environ Pollut 2021 Mar 30;272:116180. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Clean Energy Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 02792, Republic of Korea; Division of Energy & Environment Technology, KIST School, Korea University of Science and Technology, Seoul, 02792, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Although liquid products derived from the pyrolysis of biomass are promising for the production of petroleum-like hydrocarbon fuels, the catalytic burden of hydrodeoxygenation must be reduced to achieve feasible upgrading processes. Herein, mild hydrotreating of an acid-rich biomass pyrolysis oil (bio-oil) with an unusually high total acid number (588 mg KOH/g bio-oil) was performed to stabilize the low-quality bio-oil. Ru-added TiO-supported transition metal catalysts stabilized the bio-oil by reducing its acidity more compared to what could be achieved by Ru-free catalysts; this process also leads to lower loss of organic compounds compared to when using a Ru/TiO catalyst. Based on the performance of transition metal catalysts, including Ni, Co, and Cu, supported on TiO, tungstate-zirconia, or SiO, supported bimetallic catalysts were prepared by adding Ru to the TiO-supported metal catalysts. The bimetallic catalysts Ru/Ni/TiO and Ru/Co/TiO exhibited good decarboxylation activity for the removal of carboxylic acids and a higher yield of organic compounds compared to that provided by Ru, which can be deemed appropriate for feedstocks when hydrodeoxygenation needs to suppress the loss of organic reactants. Using these catalysts, the carboxylic acid concentration was reduced to 319-323 mg KOH/g bio-oil with organic yields of 62-63 wt% at reaction temperatures 150-170 °C lower than the temperature required for direct conversion of carboxylic acids to alcohols or deoxygenates. The improved catalytic hydrotreating activity of Ru-added transition metals can be attributed to the high acid site densities of these catalysts along with their improved hydrogenation activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.116180DOI Listing
March 2021

Long-Term Ambient Air Pollution Exposures and Brain Imaging Markers in Korean Adults: The Environmental Pollution-Induced Neurological EFfects (EPINEF) Study.

Environ Health Perspect 2020 11 20;128(11):117006. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Institute of Human Complexity and Systems Science, Yonsei University, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

Background: Only a limited number of neuroimaging studies have explored the effects of ambient air pollution in adults. The prior studies have investigated only cortical volume, and they have reported mixed findings, particularly for gray matter. Furthermore, the association between nitrogen dioxide () and neuroimaging markers has been little studied in adults.

Objectives: We investigated the association between long-term exposure to air pollutants (, particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters of (PM10) and (PM2.5), and neuroimaging markers.

Methods: The study included 427 men and 530 women dwelling in four cities in the Republic of Korea. Long-term concentrations of PM10, , and PM2.5 at residential addresses were estimated. Neuroimaging markers (cortical thickness and subcortical volume) were obtained from brain magnetic resonance images. A generalized linear model was used, adjusting for potential confounders.

Results: A increase in PM10 was associated with reduced thicknesses in the frontal [ (95% CI: , )] and temporal lobes [ (95% CI: , )]. A increase in PM2.5 was associated with a thinner temporal cortex [ (95% CI: , )]. A 10-ppb increase in was associated with reduced thicknesses in the global [ (95% CI: , 0.00)], frontal [ (95% CI: , )], parietal [ (95% CI: , )], temporal [ (95% CI: , )], and insular lobes [ (95% CI: , 0.00)]. The air pollutants were also associated with increased thicknesses in the occipital and cingulate lobes. Subcortical structures associated with the air pollutants included the thalamus, caudate, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens.

Discussion: The findings suggest that long-term exposure to high ambient air pollution may lead to cortical thinning and reduced subcortical volume in adults. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP7133.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP7133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7678746PMC
November 2020

Application of Genomic Big Data in Plant Breeding:Past, Present, and Future.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Oct 28;9(11). Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Crop Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

Plant breeding has a long history of developing new varieties that have ensured the food security of the human population. During this long journey together with humanity, plant breeders have successfully integrated the latest innovations in science and technologies to accelerate the increase in crop production and quality. For the past two decades, since the completion of human genome sequencing, genomic tools and sequencing technologies have advanced remarkably, and adopting these innovations has enabled us to cost down and/or speed up the plant breeding process. Currently, with the growing mass of genomic data and digitalized biological data, interdisciplinary approaches using new technologies could lead to a new paradigm of plant breeding. In this review, we summarize the overall history and advances of plant breeding, which have been aided by plant genomic research. We highlight the key advances in the field of plant genomics that have impacted plant breeding over the past decades and introduce the current status of innovative approaches such as genomic selection, which could overcome limitations of conventional breeding and enhance the rate of genetic gain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9111454DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7694055PMC
October 2020

Prediction of Dhurrin Metabolism by Transcriptome and Metabolome Analyses in .

Plants (Basel) 2020 Oct 19;9(10). Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Department of Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

Sorghum ( (L.)) Moench is an important food for humans and feed for livestock. Sorghum contains dhurrin which can be degraded into toxic hydrogen cyanide. Here, we report the expression patterns of 14 candidate genes related to dhurrin ((S)-4-Hydroxymandelnitrile--D-glucopyranoside) metabolism and the effects of the gene expression on specific metabolite content in selected sorghum accessions. Dhurrin-related metabolism is vigorous in the early stages of development of sorghum. The dhurrin contents of most accessions tested were in the range of approximately 6-22 μg mg fresh leaf tissue throughout growth. The -hydroxybenzaldehyde (pHB) contents were high at seedling stages, but almost nonexistent at adult stages. The contents of -hydroxyphenylacetic acid (pHPAAc) were relatively low throughout growth compared to those of dhurrin or pHB. Generally, the expression of the candidate genes was higher at seedling stage than at other stages and decreased gradually as plants grew. In addition, we identified significant SNPs, and six of them were potentially associated with non-synonymous changes in . Our results may provide the basis for choosing breeding materials to regulate cyanide contents in sorghum varieties to prevent HCN toxicity of livestock or to promote drought tolerance or pathogen resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9101390DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7589853PMC
October 2020

Observation of Thermal Spin-Orbit Torque in W/CoFeB/MgO Structures.

Nano Lett 2020 Nov 15;20(11):7803-7810. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34141, Republic of Korea.

Coupling of spin and heat currents enables the spin Nernst effect, the thermal generation of spin currents in nonmagnets that have strong spin-orbit interaction. Analogous to the spin Hall effect that electrically generates spin currents and associated electrical spin-orbit torques (SOTs), the spin Nernst effect can exert thermal SOTs on an adjacent magnetic layer and control the magnetization direction. Here, the thermal SOT caused by the spin Nernst effect is experimentally demonstrated in W/CoFeB/MgO structures. It is found that an in-plane temperature gradient across the sample generates a magnetic torque and modulates the switching field of the perpendicularly magnetized CoFeB. The W thickness dependence suggests that the torque originates mainly from thermal spin currents induced in W. Moreover, the thermal SOT reduces the critical current for SOT-induced magnetization switching, demonstrating that it can be utilized to control the magnetization in spintronic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c01702DOI Listing
November 2020

PINK1 alleviates thermal hypersensitivity in a paclitaxel-induced Drosophila model of peripheral neuropathy.

PLoS One 2020 17;15(9):e0239126. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Peripheral Neuropathy Research Center, Dong-A University, Busan, Republic of Korea.

Paclitaxel is a representative anticancer drug that induces chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), a common side effect that limits many anticancer chemotherapies. Although PINK1, a key mediator of mitochondrial quality control, has been shown to protect neuronal cells from various toxic treatments, the role of PINK1 in CIPN has not been investigated. Here, we examined the effect of PINK1 expression on CIPN using a recently established paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy model in Drosophila larvae. We found that the class IV dendritic arborization (C4da) sensory neuron-specific expression of PINK1 significantly ameliorated the paclitaxel-induced thermal hyperalgesia phenotype. In contrast, knockdown of PINK1 resulted in an increase in thermal hypersensitivity, suggesting a critical role for PINK1 in sensory neuron-mediated thermal nociceptive sensitivity. Interestingly, analysis of the C4da neuron morphology suggests that PINK1 expression alleviates paclitaxel-induced thermal hypersensitivity by means other than preventing alterations in sensory dendrites in C4da neurons. We found that paclitaxel induces mitochondrial dysfunction in C4da neurons and that PINK1 expression suppressed the paclitaxel-induced increase in mitophagy in C4da neurons. These results suggest that PINK1 mitigates paclitaxel-induced sensory dendrite alterations and restores mitochondrial homeostasis in C4da neurons and that improvement in mitochondrial quality control could be a promising strategy for the treatment of CIPN.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0239126PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7498067PMC
November 2020

Cost-effectiveness analysis of pre-exposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV in men who have sex with men in South Korea: a mathematical modelling study.

Sci Rep 2020 09 3;10(1):14609. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Department of Internal Medicine and AIDS Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

In February 2018, the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in Korea approved tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) co-formulate for use in pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This study aimed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of PrEP in men who have sex with men (MSM), a major risk group emerging in Korea. A dynamic compartmental model was developed for HIV transmission and progression in MSM aged 15-64 years. With a combined model including economic analysis, we estimated averted HIV infections, changes in HIV prevalence, discounted costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). PrEP was evaluated in both the general MSM and high-risk MSM populations and was assumed to reduce infection risk by 80%. Implementing PrEP in all MSM would avert 75.2% HIV infections and facilitate a gain of 37,372 QALYs at a cost of $274,822 per QALY gained over 20 years relative to the status quo. Initiating PrEP in high-risk MSM with an average of eight partners per year (around 20% of MSM) would improve the cost-effectiveness, averting 78.0% HIV infections and add 29,242 QALYs at a cost of $51,597 per QALY gained, which is within the willingness-to-pay threshold for Korea of $56,000/QALY gained. This result was highly sensitive to annual PrEP costs, quality-of-life for people who are on PrEP, and initial HIV prevalence. Initiating PrEP in a larger proportion of MSM in Korea would prevent more HIV infections, but at an increasing cost per QALY gained. Focusing PrEP on higher risk MSM and any reduction in PrEP cost would improve cost-effectiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-71565-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7471951PMC
September 2020

Publisher Correction: Distinct handedness of spin wave across the compensation temperatures of ferrimagnets.

Nat Mater 2020 Oct;19(10):1124

Quantum Spin Team, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41563-020-00813-3DOI Listing
October 2020

Estimating the disease burden of lung cancer attributable to residential radon exposure in Korea during 2006-2015: A socio-economic approach.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Dec 11;749:141573. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Institute of Human Complexity and Systems Science, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Institute for Environmental Research, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Estimating the lung cancer disease burden can provide evidence for public health practitioners, researchers, and policymakers. This study uses claim data from lung cancer patients for 2006-2015 from the Korean National Health Insurance Service to estimate the lung cancer burdens attributable to residential radon in Korea using disability-adjusted life years (DALY) and patients' annual economic burden with societal perspectives using the cost-of-illness (COI) method. The number of patients increased during our study period (from 35,866 to 59,168). The disease burden and that attributable to residential radon, respectively, increased from 517.57 to 695.74 and 64.62 (95%; CIs 61.33-67.69) to 86.99 (95%; CIs 82.7-91.1) DALYs per 100,000 patients. The percentage of years lost due to disability among the DALY doubled from 8% to 17%. The cost for all the patients was US$2.33 billion, with US$292 (95%; CIs 278-306) million attributable to residential radon. During the last decade, the lung cancer disease burden increased by 1.34 times, with a doubled percentage of non-fatal burden and average annual growth rate of 9.5% of the total cost. Hence, the burden and cost of lung cancer in Korean provinces have been steadily increasing. The findings could be used as input data for future cost-effectiveness analysis of policies regarding radon reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141573DOI Listing
December 2020

Association between exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and brain cortical thinning: The Environmental Pollution-Induced Neurological EFfects (EPINEF) study.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Oct 9;737:140097. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Institute of Human Complexity and Systems Science, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Institute for Environmental Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Although some studies have suggested that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) induces neurodevelopmental disturbances in children and neurodegeneration in animals, the neurotoxic effect of PAH exposure is unclear in adults. The aim was to examine the associations of PAH exposure with brain structure and neuropsychological function in adults without known neurological diseases.

Methods: This study included 421 men and 528 women dwelling in four cities in the Republic of Korea. Urinary concentrations of four PAH metabolites (1-hydroxypyrene, 2-naphthol, 1-hydroxyphenanthrene, and 2-hydroxyfluorene) were obtained. Participants underwent brain 3 T magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological tests. Cortical thickness and volume were estimated using the region-of-interest method. Separate generalized linear models were constructed for each sex, adjusting for age, years of education, cohabitation status, income, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and vascular risk factors.

Results: The mean (standard deviation) age was 68.3 (6.6) years in men and 66.4 (6.1) years in women. In men, those in quartile 4 (versus quartile 1, the lowest) of urinary 2-naphthol concentration had cortical thinning in the global (β = -0.03, P = .02), parietal (β = -0.04, P = .01), temporal (β = -0.06, P < .001), and insular lobes (β = -0.05, P = .02). Higher quartiles of urinary 2-naphthol concentration were associated with cortical thinning in the global (P = .01), parietal (P = .004), temporal (P < .001), and insular lobes (P = .01). In women, those in quartile 4 (versus quartile 1) of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration had cortical thinning in the frontal (β = -0.03, P = .006) and parietal lobes (β = -0.03, P = .003). Higher quartiles of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration were associated with cortical thinning in the frontal (P = .006) and parietal lobes (P = .001). In both sexes, verbal learning and memory scores significantly declined with an increase in quartile of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration.

Conclusions: PAH exposure was associated with cortical thinning and decline in verbal learning and memory function in cognitively healthy adults. This suggests PAHs as an environmental risk factor for neurodegeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140097DOI Listing
October 2020

Mechanisms ensuring robust repression of the Drosophila female germline stem cell maintenance factor Nanos via posttranscriptional regulation.

FASEB J 2020 09 12;34(9):11421-11430. Epub 2020 Jul 12.

School of Biological Sciences and Technology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, South Korea.

During oogenesis in the Drosophila ovary, numerous translational regulators promote the self-renewal or differentiation of stem cells. An intriguing question is how these regulators combine to execute translational regulation. Here, we study mechanisms for the posttranscriptional regulation of nos, a critical stem cell self-renewal factor in the Drosophila ovary; specifically, regulators that promote differentiation of the stem cell daughter. Previous studies showed that Bam, Bgcn, Mei-P26, and Sxl form a complex and repress nos expression through the nos 3'UTR. To further elucidate mechanistic processes of Nos translational regulation, we reconstituted nos repression in cultured Drosophila cells. We identify Ago1 and Brat as new members, and show that Ago1 acts through miRNA binding sites in the proximal region of the nos 3'UTR, whereas Sxl acts via an Sxl binding sequence in the distal region. Combining these findings with published reports, we propose that additional factors Bam, Bgcn, Mei-P26, and Brat are recruited to nos mRNAs through interaction with Ago1 and Sxl. These findings elucidate mechanisms of nos regulation by diverse translational repressors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202000656RDOI Listing
September 2020

Distinct handedness of spin wave across the compensation temperatures of ferrimagnets.

Nat Mater 2020 Sep 29;19(9):980-985. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Quantum Spin Team, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

Antiferromagnetic spin waves have been predicted to offer substantial functionalities for magnonic applications due to the existence of two distinct polarizations, the right-handed and left-handed modes, as well as their ultrafast dynamics. However, experimental investigations have been hampered by the field-immunity of antiferromagnets. Ferrimagnets have been shown to be an alternative platform to study antiferromagnetic spin dynamics. Here we investigate thermally excited spin waves in ferrimagnets across the magnetization compensation and angular momentum compensation temperatures using Brillouin light scattering. Our results show that right-handed and left-handed modes intersect at the angular momentum compensation temperature where pure antiferromagnetic spin waves are expected. A field-induced shift of the mode-crossing point from the angular momentum compensation temperature and the gyromagnetic reversal reveal hitherto unrecognized properties of ferrimagnetic dynamics. We also provide a theoretical understanding of our experimental results. Our work demonstrates important aspects of the physics of ferrimagnetic spin waves and opens up the attractive possibility of ferrimagnet-based magnonic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41563-020-0722-8DOI Listing
September 2020

Marriage as a social tie in the relation of depressive symptoms attributable to air pollution exposure among the elderly.

J Affect Disord 2020 07 1;272:125-131. Epub 2020 May 1.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Institute of Human Complexity and Systems Science, Yonsei University, Incheon, Republic of Korea; Institute for Environmental Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Air pollution is a risk factor for depression or depressive symptoms. However, few studies have examined an effect modifier as a protective factor against depressive symptoms associated with air pollution, including social support. Notably, less is known about a married relationship in the association between exposure to air pollution and depressive symptoms among the elderly.

Methods: This study included 2122 marrieds and 607 non-marrieds, recruited in 2014-2017 from different regions of South Korea. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Korean version of the Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form (SGDS-K). After adjustment for potential confounders using propensity score of being assigned to the marrieds, we examined the extent of whether the effects of exposure to air pollutants (PM, PM, and NO) on depressive symptoms were different between marrieds and non-marrieds. Subgroup analyses by gender and residence area were also performed.

Results: Marrieds than non-marrieds were less likely to have depressive symptoms and had smaller SGDS-K associated with increased exposure to PM and PM concentrations, respectively. After stratification of subjects by gender and residence area, the interaction term appeared to be significant among men and the non-metropolitan group, indicating the protective effect of married relationships on depressive symptoms attributable to air pollution exposure in them.

Limitations: Although we adjusted the propensity score, our findings might be confounded by the contextual effect associated with married relationships.

Conclusions: A married relationship, as a social tie, may attenuate the effect of exposure to air pollution on depressive symptoms among the elderly. Nonetheless, additional research is worthwhile to explore the extent of other social relationships in the association between air pollution exposure and depressive symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.04.059DOI Listing
July 2020

The Dementias Platform UK (DPUK) Data Portal.

Eur J Epidemiol 2020 Jun 23;35(6):601-611. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

The Dementias Platform UK Data Portal is a data repository facilitating access to data for 3 370 929 individuals in 42 cohorts. The Data Portal is an end-to-end data management solution providing a secure, fully auditable, remote access environment for the analysis of cohort data. All projects utilising the data are by default collaborations with the cohort research teams generating the data. The Data Portal uses UK Secure eResearch Platform infrastructure to provide three core utilities: data discovery, access, and analysis. These are delivered using a 7 layered architecture comprising: data ingestion, data curation, platform interoperability, data discovery, access brokerage, data analysis and knowledge preservation. Automated, streamlined, and standardised procedures reduce the administrative burden for all stakeholders, particularly for requests involving multiple independent datasets, where a single request may be forwarded to multiple data controllers. Researchers are provided with their own secure 'lab' using VMware which is accessed using two factor authentication. Over the last 2 years, 160 project proposals involving 579 individual cohort data access requests were received. These were received from 268 applicants spanning 72 institutions (56 academic, 13 commercial, 3 government) in 16 countries with 84 requests involving multiple cohorts. Projects are varied including multi-modal, machine learning, and Mendelian randomisation analyses. Data access is usually free at point of use although a small number of cohorts require a data access fee.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-020-00633-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320955PMC
June 2020

Analysis of accessibility to emergency rooms by dynamic population from mobile phone data: Geography of social inequity in South Korea.

PLoS One 2020 8;15(4):e0231079. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea.

Accessibility of emergency medical care is one of the crucial factors in evaluating national primary medical care systems. While many studies have focused on this issue, there was a fundamental limit to the measurement of accessibility of emergency rooms, because the commonly used census-based population data are difficult to provide realistic information in terms of time and space. In this study, we evaluated the geographical accessibility of emergency rooms in South Korea by using dynamic population counts from mobile phone data. Such population counts were more accurate and up-to-date because they are obtained by aggregating the number of mobile phone users in a 50-by-50 m grid of a locational field, weighted by stay time. Considering both supply and demand of emergency rooms, the 2-step floating catchment analysis was implemented. As a result, urban areas, including the capital city Seoul, showed lower accessibility to emergency rooms, whereas rural areas recorded higher accessibility. This result was contrary to the results analyzed by us based on census-based population data: higher accessibility in urban areas and lower in rural. This implies that using solely census data for accessibility analysis could lead to certain errors, and adopting mobile-based population data would represent the real-world situations for solving problems of social inequity in primary medical care.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0231079PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7141655PMC
July 2020
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