Publications by authors named "Changming Yang"

39 Publications

Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for SARS-CoV-2 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Retrospective Study From Hubei, China.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2020 12;7:611460. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

The data on long-term outcomes of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 and treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in China are merely available. A retrospective study included 73 patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 and treated with ECMO in 21 intensive care units in Hubei, China. Data on demographic information, clinical features, laboratory tests, ECMO durations, complications, and living status were collected. The 73 ECMO-treated patients had a median age of 62 (range 33-78) years and 42 (63.6%) were males. Before ECMO initiation, patients had severe respiratory failure on mechanical ventilation with a median PO/FiO of 71.9 [interquartile range (IQR), 58.6-87.0] mmHg and a median PCO of 62 [IQR, 43-84] mmHg on arterial blood analyses. The median duration from symptom onset to invasive mechanical ventilation, and to ECMO initiation was19 [IQR, 15-25] days, and 23 [IQR, 19-31] days. Before and after ECMO initiation, the proportions of patients receiving prone position ventilation were 58.9 and 69.9%, respectively. The median duration of ECMO support was 18.5 [IQR 12-30] days. During the treatments with ECMO, major hemorrhages occurred in 31 (42.5%) patients, and oxygenators were replaced in 21 (28.8%) patients. Since ECMO initiation, the 30-day mortality and 60-day mortality were 63.0 and 80.8%, respectively. In Hubei, China, the ECMO-treated patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 were of a broad age range and with severe hypoxemia. The durations of ECMO support, accompanied with increased complications, were relatively long. The long-term mortality in these patients was considerably high.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2020.611460DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7835137PMC
January 2021

Dynamic variations of dissolved organic matter from treated wastewater effluent in the receiving water: Photo- and bio-degradation kinetics and its environmental implications.

Environ Res 2021 03 9;194:110709. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment of the Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, China. Electronic address:

Dissolved effluent organic matter (dEfOM) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is bound to encounter photo- and bio-degradation as discharged into the receiving water body. However, the comprehensive variations of dEfOM by photo- and bio-degradation are not well unveiled because of its compositional heterogeneity. In this work, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, UV-Vis and fluorescent spectra combined with fluorescence regional integration (FRI) analysis were used to investigate the changes in bulk dEfOM and its fluorescent components during photo- and bio-degradation processes in the receiving water body. Results showed that 48.49%-69.62% of the discharged dEfOM was decomposed by ultra violet (UV)-irradiation and indigenous microbes, while the others (33%-45%) were recalcitrant and stable in the receiving water body. Specifically, the photo- and bio-degradation of chromophoric, fluorescent dEfOM and its components were found to follow the single or double exponential kinetic model, and the differences in photo- and bio-degradability of each components shifted its composition. Furthermore, results of bio-degradation after UV-irradiated dEfOM indicated that there was overlapping of photo- and bio-degradable fractions in dEfOM, and photoreactions could improve the self-production of natural organic matter in the receiving water body. These results could improve the understanding the fate of discharged dEfOM in the receiving water body, and we proposed some cost-effective strategies for discharging WWTPs effluent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.110709DOI Listing
March 2021

Cumulative oxygen deficit is a novel predictor for the timing of invasive mechanical ventilation in COVID-19 patients with respiratory distress.

PeerJ 2020 27;8:e10497. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Background And Objectives: The timing of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) is controversial in COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory hypoxemia. The study aimed to develop a novel predictor called cumulative oxygen deficit (COD) for the risk stratification.

Methods: The study was conducted in four designated hospitals for treating COVID-19 patients in Jingmen, Wuhan, from January to March 2020. COD was defined to account for both the magnitude and duration of hypoxemia. A higher value of COD indicated more oxygen deficit. The predictive performance of COD was calculated in multivariable Cox regression models.

Results: A number of 111 patients including 80 in the non-IMV group and 31 in the IMV group were included. Patients with IMV had substantially lower PaO (62 (49, 89) vs. 90.5 (68, 125.25) mmHg; < 0.001), and higher COD (-6.87 (-29.36, 52.38) vs. -231.68 (-1040.78, 119.83) mmHg·day) than patients without IMV. As compared to patients with COD < 0, patients with COD > 30 mmHg·day had higher risk of fatality (HR: 3.79, 95% CI [2.57-16.93]; = 0.037), and those with COD > 50 mmHg·day were 10 times more likely to die (HR: 10.45, 95% CI [1.28-85.37]; = 0.029).

Conclusions: The study developed a novel predictor COD which considered both magnitude and duration of hypoxemia, to assist risk stratification of COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.10497DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7703393PMC
November 2020

Linkage between water soluble organic matter and bacterial community in sediment from a shallow, eutrophic lake, Lake Chaohu, China.

J Environ Sci (China) 2020 Dec 11;98:39-46. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

School of Energy and Environment, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan City 243002, China. Electronic address:

Lacustrine sediment played important roles in migration and transformation of its water soluble organic matter (WSOM), and the source and composition of WSOM would affect water trophic status and the fate of pollutants. However, we know little about the pathway of WSOM transformation and its driving bacterial communities in lacustrine sediment. In the present study, we investigated the spatial distribution patterns of sediment WSOM and its fluorescent fractions across Lake Chaohu using fluorescence spectroscopy, and explored WSOM compositional structure through our proposed calculated ratios. In addition, we also analyzed sediment bacterial community using Illumina sequencing technology, and probed the possible pathway of sediment WSOM transformation under the mediate of indigenous bacteria. Our results showed that the inflowing rivers affected the spatial distribution patterns of WSOM and its five fractions (including tyrosine-, tryptophan-, fulvic acid-, humic acid-like substances and soluble microbial productions), and sediment WSOM originated from fresh algae detritus or bacterial sources. In parallel, we also found that Proteobacteria (mainly γ-Proteobacteria and δ-Proteobacteria), Firmicutes (mainly Bacilli), Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes and Actinobacteria dominate sediment bacterial community. Furthermore, these dominant bacteria triggered sediment WSOM transformation, specifically, the humic acid-like substances could be converted into fulvic acid-like substances, and further degraded into aromatic protein-like and SMP substances. In addition, our proposed ratios (P-L:H-L, Ar-P:SMP and H-L ratio), as supplementary tool, were effective to reveal WSOM composition structure. These results figured out possible pathway of WSOM transformation, and revealed its microbial mechanism in lacustrine sediment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2020.05.023DOI Listing
December 2020

Lung Mechanics of Mechanically Ventilated Patients With COVID-19: Analytics With High-Granularity Ventilator Waveform Data.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2020 21;7:541. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Lung mechanics during invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) for both prognostic and therapeutic implications; however, the full trajectory lung mechanics has never been described for novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients requiring IMV. The study aimed to describe the full trajectory of lung mechanics of mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients. The clinical and ventilator setting that can influence patient-ventilator asynchrony (PVA) and compliance were explored. Post-extubation spirometry test was performed to assess the pulmonary function after COVID-19 induced ARDS. This was a retrospective study conducted in a tertiary care hospital. All patients with IMV due to COVID-19 induced ARDS were included. High-granularity ventilator waveforms were analyzed with deep learning algorithm to obtain PVAs. Asynchrony index (AI) was calculated as the number of asynchronous events divided by the number of ventilator cycles and wasted efforts. Mortality was recorded as the vital status on hospital discharge. A total of 3,923,450 respiratory cycles in 2,778 h were analyzed (average: 24 cycles/min) for seven patients. Higher plateau pressure (Coefficient: -0.90; 95% CI: -1.02 to -0.78) and neuromuscular blockades (Coefficient: -6.54; 95% CI: -9.92 to -3.16) were associated with lower AI. Survivors showed increasing compliance over time, whereas non-survivors showed persistently low compliance. Recruitment maneuver was not able to improve lung compliance. Patients were on supine position in 1,422 h (51%), followed by prone positioning (499 h, 18%), left positioning (453 h, 16%), and right positioning (404 h, 15%). As compared with supine positioning, prone positioning was associated with 2.31 ml/cmHO (95% CI: 1.75 to 2.86; < 0.001) increase in lung compliance. Spirometry tests showed that pulmonary functions were reduced to one third of the predicted values after extubation. The study for the first time described full trajectory of lung mechanics of patients with COVID-19. The result showed that prone positioning was associated with improved compliance; higher plateau pressure and use of neuromuscular blockades were associated with lower risk of AI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2020.00541DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7472529PMC
August 2020

Ultra-compact high efficiency and low crosstalk optical interconnection structures based on inverse designed nanophotonic elements.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 20;10(1):11993. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Multimedia Communications and Network Technology, School of Computer, Electronics and Information, Guangxi University, Nanning, 530004, China.

In this paper, we combine inverse design concept and direct binary search algorithm to demonstrate three ultra-compact high efficiency and low crosstalk on-chip integrated optical interconnection basic devices in the entire wavelength range of 1,400-1600 nm based on silicon-on-insulator platform. A 90-degree waveguide bend with a footprint of only 2.4 × 2.4 μm is designed, whose transmission efficiency up to 0.18 dB. A waveguide crossing with a footprint of only 2.4 × 2.4 μm is designed, which can provide insertion loss of less than 0.5 dB and crosstalk (CL) of lower than - 19 dB. A same direction waveguide crossing with footprint of only 2.4 × 3.6 μm is designed, which can provide the insertion loss of less than 0.56 dB and the crosstalk of lower than - 21 dB. Then, we use them to form several ultra-compact optical interconnect basic structures and performed the simulation calculation. They overall achieve high performance. This will significantly improve the integration density.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68936-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7371873PMC
July 2020

Combined toxicity of microplastics and cadmium on the zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio).

Sci Total Environ 2020 Nov 30;743:140638. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment of the Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, PR China; Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Shanghai 200092, PR China. Electronic address:

The effects of microplastics (MPs) on organisms have drawn a worldwide attention in the recent years. In this study, zebrafish embryos were employed to assess the combined effects of MPs and cadmium (Cd) on the aquatic organisms. Lethal and sublethal effects were recorded at 8, 24, 32, 48 and 96 hpe (hour post exposure, hpe). The exposure under a series concentration of MPs and/or an environmental level Cd has the negative impacts on survival and heart rate (HR). And there was a positive correlation between MPs concentration and lethal and sublethal toxicity under combined exposure. The physiological parameters showed that the mixture of two stressors had the antagonistic toxicity under low concentration of MPs (0.05, 0.1 mg/L) while the synergistic sublethal toxicity under high levels of MPs (1, 5, 10 mg/L) on zebrafish embryos. Both the scanning electron micrographs (SEM) and fluorescence microscope photos suggested an electrostatic interaction and weak physical forces generated between MPs and chorion membrane. It is inferred that the 10 μm MPs could induce the protective effect of chorion membrane and cause complex toxicities with Cd. But when it involved with other pollutants, the toxic effects and mechanism are still waiting to be figured out.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140638DOI Listing
November 2020

Developmental toxicity and transcriptome analysis of 4-epianhydrotetracycline to zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Sep 7;734:139227. Epub 2020 May 7.

Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment of the Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, PR China; Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Shanghai 200092, PR China. Electronic address:

As a primary degradation by-product of tetracycline (TC), 4-Epianhydrotetracycline (4-EATC) has been detected frequently in the aquatic environment, which may pose a potential environmental risk to aquatic organisms. Up to now, however, the toxicology study on 4-EATC to aquatic organisms is limited. In the present study, in order to better understand the toxic mechanism of 4-EATC, developmental toxicity including lethal and sublethal effects of 4-EATC and TC were investigated. The results showed that the developmental toxicity of 4-EATC to zebrafish embryos was stronger than that of TC. The 96 h LC value of 4-EATC to zebrafish embryos was 29.13 mg/L. Malformations seemed to be the most sensitive sublethal endpoint of 4-EATC exposure, and the 96 h EC value was 8.57 mg/L. Transcriptome response of 4-EATC to zebrafish embryos was determined. The results showed that 430 different expression genes (DEGs) caused by 4-EATC, and most enriched in tryptophan (TRP) metabolism pathway. Annotation of DEGs in the TRP metabolism demonstrated that expression of 4 gene products in tryptophan metabolized along the kynurenine (KYN) pathway were changed. Disorder of TRP catabolism in KYN pathway was a potential mechanism of 4-EATC toxicity to zebrafish embryos.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139227DOI Listing
September 2020

β-TrCP-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of Dlg5 regulates hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation.

Cancer Cell Int 2019 15;19:298. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

Department of Neonatology, The First People's of Hospital of Jingmen City, Jingmen, Hubei 448000 China.

Background: Discs large homolog 5 (Dlg5) is a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) adaptor family of proteins and its deregulation has been implicated in the malignancy of several cancer types. Dlg5 was down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and lower Dlg5 expression was associated with poor survival of HCC patients. However, how to regulate Dlg5 remains largely unknown.

Methods: The co-immunoprecipitation assay was used to determine the interaction between Dlg5 and β-TrCP. The in vivo ubiquitination assay was performed to determine the regulation of Dlg5 by β-TrCP. CCK-8 and colony formation assay were implemented to detect the biological effect of Dlg5 on the growth of HCC cells in vitro. The effect of Dlg5 on HCC tumor growth in vivo was studied in a tumor xenograft model in mice.

Results: Here we report that Dlg5 is regulated by the ubiquitin proteasome system and depletion of either Cullin 1 or β-TrCP led to increased levels of Dlg5. β-TrCP regulated Dlg5 protein stability by targeting it for ubiquitination and subsequent destruction in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. We further demonstrated a crucial role of Ser730 in the non-canonical phosphodegron of Dlg5 in governing β-TrCP-mediated Dlg5 degradation. Importantly, failure to degrade Dlg5 significantly inhibited HCC cells proliferation both in vitro and in vivo.

Conclusion: Collectively, our finding provides a novel molecular mechanism for the negative regulation of Dlg5 by β-TRCP in HCC cells. It further suggests that preventing Dlg5 degradation could be a possible novel strategy for clinical treatment of HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-019-1029-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6858669PMC
November 2019

GCC Consolidated Feedback to ICH on the 2019 ICH M10 Bioanalytical Method Validation Draft Guideline.

Bioanalysis 2019 Sep 30;11(18s):1-228. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

WuXi Apptec, Shanghai, China.

The 13 GCC Closed Forum for Bioanalysis was held in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA on April 5, 2019. This GCC meeting was organized to discuss the contents of the 2019 ICH M10 Bioanalytical Method Validation Draft Guideline published in February 2019 and consolidate the feedback of the GCC members. In attendance were 63 senior-level participants from eight countries representing 44 bioanalytical CRO companies/sites. This event represented a unique opportunity for CRO bioanalytical experts to share their opinions and concerns regarding the ICH M10 Bioanalytical Method Validation Draft Guideline and to build unified comments to be provided to the ICH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2019-0207DOI Listing
September 2019

Dexmedetomidine alleviated lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine-induced acute liver injury in mice.

Int Immunopharmacol 2019 Jul 24;72:367-373. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Pathology, The First People's Hospital of Jingmen, Hubei Province, China. Electronic address:

Dexmedetomidine (DEX), a highly selective α2-adrenergic receptor (α2-AR) agonist, is widely used as sedative in clinical. Its potential anti-inflammatory properties have been found in recent studies. The current study has investigated the profound effects of DEX on acute liver injury in mice. The mice were intraperitoneally injected lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and D-galactosamine (D-Gal) to induce acute liver injury, and vehicle or DEX were treated 30 min before or 2 h after LPS/D-Gal exposure. The results showed that pre-treatment with DEX inhibited the raising of plasma aminotransferases, reduced the damage of liver tissue, and improved the survival rate in mice exposed to LPS/D-Gal. Pre-treatment with DEX also inhibited the release of TNF-α and suppressed the phosphorylation of c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) in mice exposed to LPS/D-Gal. In addition, pre-treatment with DEX down-regulated the expression of cleavage of caspase-3, decreased the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and consequently, reduced hepatocyte apoptosis. Interestingly, post-treatment with DEX also resulted in beneficial outcomes. The current study indicates that administration of DEX might provide protective benefits in inflammatory liver disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2019.04.019DOI Listing
July 2019

Effect of manganese oxide-modified biochar addition on methane production and heavy metal speciation during the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

J Environ Sci (China) 2019 Feb 19;76:267-277. Epub 2018 May 19.

Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment of the Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China. Electronic address:

Low organic matter content and high heavy metal levels severely inhibit the anaerobic digestion (AD) of sewage sludge. In this study, the effect of added manganese oxide-modified biochar composite (MBC) on methane production and heavy metal fractionation during sewage sludge AD was examined. The MBC could increase the buffering capacity, enhance the methane production and degradation of intermediate acids, buffer the pH of the culture, and stabilize the sewage sludge AD process. The application of MBC positively impacted methane production and the cumulative methane yield increased up to 121.97%, as compared with the control. The MBC addition can improve metal stabilization in the digestate. An optimum MBC dose of 2.36 g was recommended, which would produce up to 121.1 L/kg volatile solids of methane. After the AD process, even though most of the metals accumulated in the residual solids, they could be transformation from the bio-available fractions to a more stable fraction. The total organic- and sulfide-bound and residual fraction content at a 3 g dose of MBC that is 0.12 g/g dry matter were 51.06% and 35.11% higher than the control, respectively. The results indicated that the application of MBC could improve the performance of AD and promote stabilization of heavy metals in sewage sludge post the AD process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2018.05.009DOI Listing
February 2019

Variations of DOM quantity and compositions along WWTPs-river-lake continuum: Implications for watershed environmental management.

Chemosphere 2019 Mar 13;218:468-476. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Island Research Center of State Oceanic Administration, Pingtan, Fujian 350400, China. Electronic address:

Wastewater effluent makes up an increasingly large percentage of surface water supplies, but the impacts of discharge of effluent organic matter (EfOM) on receiving riverine and lacustrine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is still largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated variations of DOM quantity and quality along wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs)-river-lake continuum during drought periods, and made a tentative discussion on its implications for watershed environmental management. We used dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, UV absorption coefficients and excitation-emission-matrixs (EEMs) fluorescence spectroscopy combined with fluorescence regional integration (FRI) to characterize EfOM and riverine and lacustrine DOM along WWTPs-river-Chaohu Lake continuum. Our results showed that changes in DOM quantity and quality in receiving waterbodies were related to EfOM discharged from WWTPs and external input of DOM along inflowing river. Specifically, we found that the ratio of protein-like/humic-like notably decreased (P < 0.05), and %humic-like increased (P < 0.01) along WWTPs-river-lake continuum. Furthermore, the recent autochthonous contribution index (BIX) and the humification index (HIX) values showed that these variations of DOM composition were attributed to microbial degradations in receiving waterbodies. We concluded that the changes of DOM quantity and quality along WWTPs-river-lake continuum had important implications for DOM behaviors, and offered some novel ideas for watershed environmental management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.11.037DOI Listing
March 2019

Molecular characterisation of oestrogen receptor ERα and the effects of bisphenol A on its expression during sexual development in the Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus).

Reprod Fertil Dev 2019 Jan;31(2):261-271

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, China.

The aim of this study was to characterise the molecular structure of the oestrogen receptor ERα and to evaluate the effect of bisphenol A (BPA) on ERα expression during sexual development of the Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus). The ERα cDNA of A. davidianus includes an open reading frame of 1755bp (encoding 584 amino acids), a 219-bp 5' untranslated region (UTR) and a 611-bp 3'UTR. A polyadenylation signal was not found in the 3'UTR. Amino acid sequence analysis showed high homology between ERα of A. davidianus and that of other amphibians, such as Andrias japonicas (99.66% identity) and Rana rugose (81.06% identity). In 3-year-old A. davidianus, highest ERα expression was observed in the liver and gonads. During different developmental stages in A. davidianus (from 1 to 3 years of age), ERα expression in the testes increased gradually. ERα was localised in the epithelial cells of seminiferous lobules and in interstitial cells. ERα-positive cells were more abundant in the interstitial tissue during testicular development. ERα was located in the nucleus of oocytes during ovary development. We found that the sex of 6-month-old A. davidianus larvae could not be distinguished anatomically. The sex ratio did not change after larvae were treated with 10μM BPA for 1 month. However, BPA treatment reduced bodyweight and ERα expression in the gonads in male larvae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/RD18107DOI Listing
January 2019

Bacteria in Abnormal Eggs of Chinese Giant Salamanders (Andrias davidianus) May Derive from Gut.

Zoolog Sci 2018 Aug;35(4):314-320

1 College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, P.R. China.

Abnormal embryos of Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus, CGS) were observed in an imitating ecologic breeding system at 20°C. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of bacterial infection on the early embryonic development of CGS. The ratio of abnormal embryos at 10 days after embryos incubated was 35.0% ± 2.1%, 35.6% ± 2.3% and 34.7% ± 3.4% in six breeding system farms of Hanzhong city in the years 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively. However, in the standard imitating ecology breeding mesocosm, the proportion of abnormal embryos was about 5%. Six bacteria species in the egg water of the early-dead embryos and eight bacteria species in the gut of healthy CGSs were detected and identified by PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequence homology analysis. All bacteria species in the egg water were also found in the cloaca contents. Cetobacterium somerae and Hafnia alvei, which individually can cause embryo death, were first isolated from egg water and gut of CGSs. Further, the egg jelly membrane and the egg water of embryos did not inhibit bacteria survival and the bacteria could individually lead to CGS larva death. These results suggest that bacteria in the eggs of CGS may derive from the gut and that high-velocity flow of water through nest may decrease bacterial infection of egg in the imitating ecologic culture system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2108/zs180013DOI Listing
August 2018

Effects of vegetation types on water-extracted soil organic matter (WSOM) from riparian wetland and its impacts on riverine water quality: Implications for riparian wetland management.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Jul 20;628-629:1249-1257. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

School of Energy and Environment, Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan City 243002, China.

Riparian wetlands play important roles in the enhancement of water quality by controlling nonpoint source pollution and protecting aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, we surveyed and identified vegetation types in riparian wetlands, evaluated how vegetation types influence spatial patterns of water-extracted soil organic matter (WSOM) from riparian wetland, and probed the impacts of riparian fluorescent WSOM on fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) and water trophic states in river ecosystems. We used absorption and excitation-emission-matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy to characterize the optical properties of riparian WSOM and riverine DOM from Chongming Island, China, the largest alluvial plain island in the world. Our results showed that fifty-eight spermatophytes in riparian wetland were clustered into five vegetation types, including warm coniferous forest (WCF), deciduous broad leaf forest (DBF), evergreen broad leaf forest (EBF), aquatic plants (AP) and herbaceous plants (HP). Absorption spectra revealed the effects of vegetation types on riparian chromophoric WSOM quantity. Although no difference in water-extracted soil organic carbon (WSOC) contents was observed, deciduous broad leaf forest (DBF) and evergreen broad leaf forest (EBF) fed more fluorescent WSOM quantity than did the other vegetation (AP, HP and WCF), and deciduous broad leaf forest (DBF) and aquatic plants (AP) provided more humic-like (RC.1 and RC.2) and fulvic-like (RC.3) substances into riparian wetland (P<0.05 or P<0.01). In addition, we noted that humic-like and protein-like substances (RC.4) transported from riparian wetland into a river water body, and riverine terrestrial-originated components (FC.1 and FC.2) were significantly related to the four riparian fluorescent WSOM components (P<0.05). Furthermore, the riverine trophic state was significantly higher when the fluvial DOM and its component quantity increased (P<0.05). We concluded that riparian wetland can control the quantity and quality of riparian WSOM and reshaped riverine DOM compositions and riverine water quality with important management implications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.02.061DOI Listing
July 2018

Identification of mannose receptor and CD163 as novel biomarkers for colorectal cancer.

Cancer Biomark 2018 Feb;21(3):689-700

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Jingmen First People's Hospital, Jingmen 448000, Hubei, China.

The aim of present study was to investigate the clinical significances of mannose receptor (MR) and CD163 in colorectal cancer (CRC). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were utilized for this analysis. Preoperative serum MR and CD163 levels ranged from 0.153 to 0.804 μg/ml (median = 0.359 μg/ml) and from 0.319 to 1.314 μg/ml (median = 0.685 μg/ml) in CRC patients respectively. Strikingly, preoperative serum levels of MR and CD163 were significantly increased in CRC patients than in healthy individuals (P< 0.0001). ROC analyses suggested that the optimum diagnostic cut-offs for serum MR and CD163 were 0.3485 μg/ml (AUC 0.7205, sensitivity 54.82%, and specificity 80.46%) and 0.6111 μg/ml (AUC 0.7463, sensitivity 62.65%, and specificity 80.46%) respectively. Detection of serum MR and CD163 together obviously enhanced the diagnostic accuracy (AUC 0.7968, sensitivity 69.28%, and specificity 77.01%). Then, preoperative serum MR and CD163 levels correlated significantly with serum CEA, CA19-9 and CA72-4 concentrations in CRC patients (P< 0.05). High MR and CD163 expression in serum was associated significantly with shorter overall survival (P< 0.05) and demonstrated as adversely prognostic factors (P< 0.05). Further, expression of MR and CD163 in CRC tissues was significantly higher than that in para-cancer tissues (P< 0.001). High expression of MR and CD163 in CRC tissues also correlated significantly with shorter overall survival (P< 0.05). MR and CD163 expression in serum or CRC tissues all correlated positively with the degree of lymphatic metastasis (P< 0.0001). In conclusion, MR and CD163 may be novel biomarkers for CRC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/CBM-170796DOI Listing
February 2018

UCHL1 expression and localization on testicular development and spermatogenesis of Chinese giant salamanders.

Oncotarget 2017 Oct 15;8(49):86043-86055. Epub 2017 Sep 15.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.

Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1), which is extensively expressed in vertebrates, is a deubiquitinating enzymes that inhibits the degradation of proteins by reversing ubiquitination modification. Herein, a 1087-bp sequence encoding UCHL1 was identified from the Chinese giant salamander (CGS; ). The coding sequences (CDS) of encoded a putative poly peptide of 222 amino acids. The CGS UCHL1 isoforms were more related to their human and mouse counterparts. The phylogenic tree of vertebrate UCHL1 indicated that CGS UCHL1 has the closest relationship with human UCHL1 (up to 73.99 %). Before the gonads of male CGSs matured, the peak level of UCHL1 expression in testes appeared in 3-year-old CGSs according to RT-qPCR and western blot. In adult testes, the level of UCHL1 protein was lower in the breeding period than in the post-breeding period, whereas the level of UCHL1 protein in interstitial fluid of adult CGS testes was higher during the breeding period than during the post-breeding period. In testicular seminiferous lobules in the developmental stage of CGSs, immunohistochemistry displayed three kinds of localizing patterns of UCHL1, including nuclear localization at half year old, cytoplasmic localization from one year to three years old, and extracellular localization in adult. In testicular seminiferous lobules of adult CGS, the different developmental germ cells were separated by cysts containing UCHL1 protein, but UCHL1 did not localize on the mature sperm. The results showed that extracellular UCHL1 loaded on exosomes, as a component of the homogeneous germ cell cysts, could regulate the synchronous development of sperm in testes of adult CGS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.20910DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5689666PMC
October 2017

Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory benefits of the ribonucleoside analogue 5-azacitidine in mice with acetaminophen-induced toxic hepatitis.

Int Immunopharmacol 2017 Jul 6;48:91-95. Epub 2017 May 6.

Departments of Pathophysiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China. Electronic address:

Toxic hepatitis induced by overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) is one of the major life-threatening problems, oxidative stress and inflammatory injury are the essential underlying mechanisms. 5-Azacytidine (5-AZA) is a ribonucleoside analogue which has been approved for the treatment of patients with acute myeloid leukemia and myelodyplastic syndrome, but recent studies also found that 5-AZA might have anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory benefits in non-tumor disorders. In the present study, the potential effects of 5-AZA on APAP-induced toxic hepatitis were investigated in a mouse model in vivo. The results indicated that treatment with 5-AZA suppressed the elevation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in plasma, alleviated APAP-induced histological abnormalities in liver, improved the survival rate of the experimental animals. These effects were associated with restored level of GSH and suppressed elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver. In addition, treatment with 5-AZA suppressed APAP-induced production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and nitric oxide (NO), 5-AZA also reversed the upregulation of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the liver of APAP-exposed mice. The above data indicated that 5-AZA could provide beneficial effects in APAP-induce toxic hepatitis, these effects might attribute to its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory actions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2017.05.001DOI Listing
July 2017

Autophagy and apoptosis induced by Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus) iridovirus (CGSIV).

Vet Microbiol 2016 Nov 21;195:87-95. Epub 2016 Sep 21.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, China. Electronic address:

The outbreak of Chinese Giant Salamander (Andrias davidianus, CGS) Iridovirus (CGSIV) caused massive death of CGSs. However, some CGSs with low level of CGSIV usually could survive. In our study, major capsid protein (MCP) DNA replicates of CGSIV in shedding skin were employed to assess the relative content of CGSIV in the living CGSs by qPCR. Furthermore, the examinations of autophagy and apoptosis in CGSs in vivo and in the primary renal cells in vitro were performed, respectively. The results showed that the relative contents of CGSIV in the shedding skin could reflect those in liver, spleen, and kidney of the CGSs. In these tissues of the CGSs with low-level replicates of CGSIV, there were not obviously macroscopic lesions. But the irregularly-shaped vesicles perhaps involving in autophagosome were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The LC3B protein displayed uneven distribution by Immunohistochemistry and the level mRNA of Atg5 was higher in these tissues than that in the tissues of healthy CGSs using qRT-PCR. Meanwhile, the apoptosis also appeared in these tissues by TUNEL staining and higher level mRNA of type I IFN were detected in these tissues using qRT-PCR. Further, both the expression level of LC3B II protein and Atg5 mRNA increased significantly at 2h after the virus infected the primary renal cells from the health CGSs in vitro. In addition, apoptosis and type I IFN mRNA began to increase significantly at 4h after the virus infected the renal cells. It was suggested that autophagy may be a pivotal role for survival of CGSIV in the CGSs during early infection and the rapid proliferation of CGSIV could be inhibited by innate immune response and apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.09.011DOI Listing
November 2016

Aggregation kinetics of inorganic colloids in eutrophic shallow lakes: Influence of cyanobacterial extracellular polymeric substances and electrolyte cations.

Water Res 2016 Dec 8;106:344-351. Epub 2016 Oct 8.

State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China.

The stability/aggregation propensity of inorganic colloids in eutrophic shallow lakes is of great essence in governing the water transparency and contaminant behavior. In this study, time-resolved dynamic light scattering was employed to investigate the aggregation kinetics of AlO inorganic colloids over a wide range of cyanobacterial extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) concentrations in the absence and presence of electrolyte cations. The results showed that EPS adsorption alone greatly decreased the hydrodynamic diameters of colloidal particles, whose stability behavior followed closely the predictions of the classical DLVO theory. Electrolyte cations, however, can induce the aggregation of colloidal particles, and divalent Ca were found to be more efficient in destabilizing the colloids than monovalent Na, as indicated by the considerably lower critical coagulation concentrations (2.5 mM for Ca vs. 170 mM for Na). Further addition of Ca, i.e., >2.5 mM, caused an extremely high aggregation degree and rate. High resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that this enhanced aggregation should be attributed to the gel-like bridging between colloidal particles, which were verified to be the amorphous EPS-Ca complexes. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy coupled with elemental mapping provided additional evidence that the bridging interaction of EPS with Ca was the predominant mechanism for the aggregation enhancement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2016.10.023DOI Listing
December 2016

Effect of energy grass on methane production and heavy metal fractionation during anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.

Waste Manag 2016 Dec 4;58:316-323. Epub 2016 Oct 4.

Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment of the Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China. Electronic address:

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the most widely used processes to stabilize waste sewage sludge and produce biogas as renewable energy. The relatively low organic matter content and high heavy metal concentrations in sewage sludge have severely restricted the application and development of AD technology in China. In this study, the effect of energy grass (Pennisetum alopecuroides) addition on methane production and heavy metal fractionation during the AD of sewage sludge was evaluated. Methane production was enhanced by 11.2% by the addition of P. alopecuroides. The addition of P. alopecuroides significantly reduced the percentages of the water-soluble and exchangeable fractions of the target heavy metals in the sewage sludge after AD, and the dominant species were concentrated in Fe-Mn oxide-bound and organic- and sulfide-bound fractions of the digested sludge. The addition of P. alopecuroides at a dosage of 0.3kg significantly (P<0.05) decreased the mobility factors (MFs) of the target heavy metals after AD. In particular, the MFs of Cr and Ni were 61% and 32% lower, respectively, relative to the control. The increase in the added dose did not necessarily lead to further decreases in the MFs of the heavy metals. These results demonstrate that an appropriate addition of energy grass could enhance AD, decrease the mobility of heavy metals and promote heavy metal stabilization in sewage sludge during AD, which is beneficial for the subsequent land application of sewage sludge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2016.09.040DOI Listing
December 2016

Efficacy and safety of landiolol for prevention of atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Int J Clin Exp Med 2015 15;8(7):10265-73. Epub 2015 Jul 15.

Department of Pathophysiology, Chongqing Medical University Chongqing, China.

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a quite common complication during the postoperative period after cardiac surgery. Increasing studies have reported that landiolol may be effective in prevention of AF after cardiac surgery. Its efficacy and safety are seldom explored; hence we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the efficacy and safety of landiolol in prevention of AF after cardiac surgery. Databases of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from inception through to December 2014 for RCTs that explored the efficacy and safety of landiolol on the prevention of AF after cardiac surgery. Pooled results were expressed as risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Nine eligible RCTs involving 807 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Compared with the control group, landiolol was associated with a significant reduction of AF after cardiac surgery (RR=0.41; 95% CI 0.32-0.52; P<0.001), and the administration of landiolol seems more effective in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) (RR=0.36; 95% CI 0.25-0.52; P<0.001). Compared with placebo, no difference was detected in the incidence of major complications (RR=0.77; 95% CI 0.34-1.72; P=0.52). Landiolol is effective in prevention of AF after cardiac surgery and without increasing the risk of major complications.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4565201PMC
September 2015

Optical Characteristics and Chemical Composition of Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) from Riparian Soil by Using Excitation-Emission Matrix (EEM) Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry.

Appl Spectrosc 2015 May;69(5):623-34

Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment of the Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China.

Understanding the quantity and quality of soil dissolved organic matter (DOM) in riparian buffer zones is critical for explaining the biogeochemical processes of soil DOM in river ecosystems. Here, we investigated the dissolved organic carbon, fluorescent DOM (FDOM), and DOM molecules from riparian soils on Chongming Island in eastern China. Simultaneously, the soil DOM was extensively characterized in terms of the total aromaticity index (TAI) and several optical indices. The excitation (Ex)-emission (Em) matrix parallel factor analysis results showed that two humic-like components were present (Ex/Em = 283(364)/454 nm; 337/410 nm), a fulvic-like component (Ex/Em = 241/426 nm) and a microbial degradation component (Ex/Em = 295/382 nm). The humic-like and fulvic-like substances were the main components in the riparian soil FDOM, accounting for ~90% of the FDOM. Mass spectrometry provided more detailed information for the soil DOM molecules. Six chemical fractions, amino acids, carbonyl compounds, fatty acids, lipids, proteins and sugars, were identified using liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Lipids, proteins, and carbonyl compounds were dominant in the soil DOM, accounting for >85% of the detected molecules (m/z < 1000). Significant differences were observed between the quantities of the six soil DOM chemical fractions at the different sampling locations. Discriminant molecules verified the hypothesis that the chemical soil DOM fractions varied with the land use of the adjacent watersheds. The TAI for the soil DOM could provide more reliable information regarding the biogeochemical processes of DOM. The carbonyl compounds and lipid fractions controlled this index. Overall, the optical indices and TAI values can improve our understanding of soil DOM quality; however, the optical indices did not provide quantitative evidence regarding the sources or properties of the soil DOM. The observations from this study provided detailed information regarding the soil DOM quality and the presence of specific molecules and improved our understanding of the biogeochemical processes of DOM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1366/13-07407RDOI Listing
May 2015

5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside alleviated carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatitis in mice.

Int Immunopharmacol 2015 Apr 21;25(2):393-9. Epub 2015 Feb 21.

Department of Pathophysiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China. Electronic address:

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is one of the principal cellular energy sensors participating in maintenance of energy balance but recent evidences also suggested that AMPK might be involved in the regulation of inflammation. In the present study, the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) was used to investigate the potential roles of AMPK in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute hepatitis. The experimental data indicated that treatment with AICAR significantly decreased the elevation of plasma aminotransferases and alleviated hepatic histological abnormalities in CCl4-exposed mice. Treatment with AICAR also inhibited the increase of myeloperoxidase (MPO), the induction of TNF-α, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitric oxide and the upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), MMP-3 and MMP-9 in mice exposed to CCl4. These effects were associated with suppressed nuclear accumulation of NF-κB p65. These results indicated that the AMPK activator AICAR effectively suppressed the inflammatory responses and alleviated liver damage induced by CCl4, implying that AMPK activation might be beneficial for ameliorating inflammation-based liver damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2015.02.018DOI Listing
April 2015

The chemical composition and source identification of soil dissolved organic matter in riparian buffer zones from Chongming Island, China.

Chemosphere 2014 Sep 22;111:505-12. Epub 2014 May 22.

Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment of the Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China. Electronic address:

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) that is derived from the soil of riparian buffer zones has a complex chemical composition, and it plays an important role in the transport and transformation of pollutants. To identify the source of DOM and to better understand its chemical and structural properties, we collected 33 soil samples from zones with fluctuating water levels along the major rivers on Chongming Island, evaluated the DOM contents in riparian soil, analyzed the chemical composition and functional groups and traced DOM origins by using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS) combined with clustering analysis. All sampling sites were divided into four groups by principal component analysis (PCA) on the basis of the DOM molecules. The results showed that there was no significant difference in the DOM contents between every two groups; however, the DOM fractions differed significantly among the different site groups in the following order: Σ lipids and Σ proteins>Σ sugars and Σ fatty acids>Σ amino acids, Σ indoles and Σ alkaloids. DOM in the riparian buffer zones originated from riparian plants, domestic sewage and agricultural activities, and the hydrophobic and amphiphilic fractions accounting for over 60% of the identified molecules were the dominant fractions. Our study has confirmed the heterogeneous properties of DOM, and it is of vital importance to isolate and characterize the various DOM fractions at the molecular level for a better understanding of the behavior and roles of DOM in the natural environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.04.056DOI Listing
September 2014

Mild salinization stimulated glyphosate degradation and microbial activities in a riparian soil from Chongming Island, China.

J Environ Biol 2013 Apr;34(2 Spec No):367-73

An incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of simulated saltwater treatment with different percentages of artificial seawater on degradation dynamics of herbicide glyphosate and microbial activities in a riparian soil in Chongming Island, China. The results showed that 10% seawater treatment showed significantly enhancing effects on degradation efficiency of glyphosate with the lowest residual concentration among all the treatments. However, glyphosate degradation was markedly decreased in the riparian soil with 20% and 50% seawater treatments. The half-lives for 20% and 50% seawater treatments were prolonged by 12.1 and 39.0%, respectively, as compared to control. Microbial investigation indicated that 10% seawater treatment significantly stimulated microbial activities in the glyphosate-spiked riparian soil throughout the incubation period. At 42 day of incubation experiment, flourescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis rate, microbial adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and basal soil respiration (BSR) in the glyphosate-spiked riparian soil with 10% seawater were 59.2, 42.5 and 31.8% higher than those with no saltwater treatment, respectively. In contrast, saltwater treatment with 50% seawater significantly inhibited microbial activities. Especially, FDA hydrolysis rate, microbial ATP and BSR were decreased by 66.4, 58.6 and 66.8%, respectively, as compared to control. The results indicate that levels of simulated saltwater can exert variable effects on herbicide degradation dynamics and microbial parameters in the riparian soil.
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April 2013

Influence of rhizosphere microbial ecophysiological parameters from different plant species on butachlor degradation in a riparian soil.

J Environ Qual 2012 May-Jun;41(3):716-23

State Key Lab. of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongli Univ., Shanghai, China.

Biogeochemical processes in riparian zones regulate contaminant movement to receiving waters and often mitigate the impact of upland sources of contaminants on water quality. However, little research has been reported on the microbial process and degradation potential of herbicide in a riparian soil. Field sampling and incubation experiments were conducted to investigate differences in microbial parameters and butachlor degradation in the riparian soil from four plant communities in Chongming Island, China. The results suggested that the rhizosphere soil had significantly higher total organic C and water-soluble organic C relative to the nonrhizosphere soil. Differences in rhizosphere microbial community size and physiological parameters among vegetation types were significant. The rhizosphere soil from the mixed community of Phragmites australis and Acorus calamus had the highest microbial biomass and biochemical activity, followed by A. calamus, P. australis and Zizania aquatica. Microbial ATP, dehydrogenase activity (DHA), and basal soil respiration (BSR) in the rhizosphere of the mixed community of P. australis and A. calamus were 58, 72, and 62% higher, respectively, than in the pure P. australis community. Compared with the rhizosphere soil of the pure plant communities, the mixed community of P. australis and A. calamus displayed a significantly greater degradation rate of butachlor in the rhizosphere soil. Residual butachlor concentrations in rhizosphere soil of the mixed community of P. australis and A. calamus and were 48, 63, and 68% lower than three pure plant communities, respectively. Butachlor degradation rates were positively correlated to microbial ATP, DHA, and BSR, indicating that these microbial parameters may be useful in assessing butachlor degradation potential in the riparian soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/jeq2011.0223DOI Listing
June 2012

Responses of butachlor degradation and microbial properties in a riparian soil to the cultivation of three different plants.

J Environ Sci (China) 2011 ;23(9):1437-44

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China.

A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the biodegradation dynamics and related microbial ecophysiological responses to butachlor addition in a riparian soil planted with different plants such as Phragmites australis, Zizania aquatica, and Acorus calamus. The results showed that there were significant differences in microbial degradation dynamics of butachlor in the rhizosphere soils among the three riparian plants. A. calamus displays a significantly higher degradation efficiency of butachlor in the rhizosphere soils, as compared with Z. aquatica and P. australis. Half-life time of butachlor degradation in the rhizospheric soils of P. australis, Z. aquatica, and A. calamus were 7.5, 9.8 and 5.4 days, respectively. Residual butachlor concentration in A. calamus rhizosphere soil was 35.2% and 21.7% lower than that in Z. aquatica and P. australis rhizosphere soils, respectively, indicating that A. calamus showed a greater improvement effect on biodegradation of butachlor in rhizosphere soils than the other two riparian plant. In general, microbial biomass and biochemical activities in rhizosphere soils were depressed by butachlor addition, despite the riparian plant types. However, rhizospheric soil microbial ecophysiological responses to butachlor addition significantly (P < 0.05) differed between riparian plant species. Compared to Z. aquatica and P. australis, A. calamus showed significantly larger microbial number, higher enzyme activities and soil respiration rates in the rhizosphere soils. The results indicated that A. calamus have a better alleviative effect on inhibition of microbial growth due to butachlor addition and can be used as a suitable riparian plant for detoxifying and remediating butachlor contamination from agricultural nonpoint pollution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1001-0742(10)60604-3DOI Listing
April 2012