Publications by authors named "Changming Liu"

81 Publications

Effect of Cold Storage on the Quality of (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a Larval Parasitoid of (Diptera: Tephritidae).

Insects 2021 Jun 16;12(6). Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Institute of Beneficial Insects, Plant Protection College, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China.

(Silvestri) is the dominant parasitoid against (Hendel) in fruit-producing regions of southern China. Prior to a large-scale release, it is important to generate a sufficient stockpile of whilst considering how best to maintain their quality and performance; cold storage is an ideal method to achieve these aims. In this study, the impacts of temperature and storage duration on the developmental parameters of pupae at different age intervals were assessed. Then, four of the cold storage protocols were chosen for further evaluating their impacts on the quality parameters of post-storage adults. Results showed that the emergence rate of was significantly affected by storage temperature, storage duration, and pupal age interval and their interactions. However, when late-age pupae developed at a temperature of 13 °C for 10 or 15 d, no undesirable impacts on dry weight, flight ability, longevity, reproduction parameters of post-storage adults, emergence rate, or the female proportion of progeny were recorded. Our findings demonstrate that cold storage has the potential for enhancing the flexibility and effectiveness of the large-scale production and application of
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects12060558DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8234199PMC
June 2021

Host-Seeking Behavior of Aphidius gifuensis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Modulated by Chemical Cues Within a Tritrophic Context.

J Insect Sci 2021 May;21(3)

Biological Control Research Institute, College of Plant Protection, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, PR China.

Aphidius gifuensis Ashmaed is a generalist endoparasitoid that parasitizes a variety of aphid species. In China, it is widely used as a biological control agent to protect vegetables and tobaccos in open fields; control efficiency is largely dependent on its host-seeking ability. In this study, a six-choice olfactometer was used to investigate the olfactory responses of A. gifuensis to tobacco plants that had suffered damage (either varying degrees of mechanical damage or from aphid-feeding at different time intervals) and tobacco volatiles with different dosages. Furthermore, the regularity of A. gifuensis females' response toward an aphid/tobacco complex was monitored using a Y-tube olfactometer. Our findings suggest that tobacco plants are significantly attractive to A. gifuensis after they have been punctured with 50 holes, or housed with Myzus persicae (Sulzer) at a density of 400 aphids, except at an infestation time of 12 h. Moreover, aphid density had a more significant effect on the response than the time interval since aphid application. Aphidius gifuensis was found to be active during the daytime and preferred to search for their aphid hosts at 14:00 h. Five EAG-active tobacco volatiles (trans-2-hexenal, methyl salicylate, benzaldehyde, cis-3-hexen-1-ol, and 1-hexanal) were found to significantly attract A. gifuensis females at different concentration ranges. The practical implications of these results are discussed in the framework of the sustainable biological control of pest aphids in agricultural production systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jisesa/ieab036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8161523PMC
May 2021

Analysis of the clinical effect of noninvasive mechanical ventilation in AIDS patients complicated with pneumonia.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(4):3794-3799. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Fourth Hospital of Changsha Changsha, Hu'nan Province, China.

Objective: To explore the clinical application effect of noninvasive mechanical ventilation for patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) complicated with pneumonia.

Methods: A prospective study was conducted on 86 patients with AIDS complicated with pneumocystis pneumonia. The patients were randomly divided into a control group and an experimental group, both of which were treated with conventional drugs. The control group was supplemented with oxygen via a mask, and the experimental group was additionally treated with noninvasive ventilator ventilation. The changes of arterial oxygen partial pressure, oxygenation index, respiratory frequency, pulse rate, serum albumin and other indicators between the two groups before and after treatment were observed. The patient's hospitalization time, overall improvement and mortality rate were compared.

Results: Compared with those before treatment, the arterial oxygen partial pressure, oxygenation index, respiratory frequency, and pulse rate of the two groups of patients were significantly improved after treatment (P<0.05). The improvement of the experimental group after treatment was more significant than that of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). After treatment, the proportion of recovery rate of serum albumin in the experimental group was 81.40%, which was significantly higher than that in the control group (53.49%), and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, hospitalization time, treatment improvement and mortality rate in the experimental group had significant advantages and statistical significance (P<0.05).

Conclusion: For AIDS patients complicated with pneumonia, noninvasive mechanical ventilation had obvious treatment effects, which could significantly improve respiratory function, reduce mortality rate, and increase recovery rate. It can be considered as a therapeutic method to be included in routine treatment protocols.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8129412PMC
April 2021

Value of C-Choline PET/CT-Based Multi-Metabolic Parameter Combination in Distinguishing Early-Stage Prostate Cancer From Benign Prostate Diseases.

Front Oncol 2020 1;10:600380. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Urology, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Purpose: The most common disadvantage of C-choline positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) in diagnosing early-stage prostate cancer (PCa) is its poor sensitivity. In spite of many efforts, this imaging modality lacks the ideal parameter of choline metabolism for the diagnosis of PCa, and the single metabolic parameter, that is, maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), based on this imaging modality is insufficient. C-choline PET/CT-based multi-metabolic parameter combination can help break this limitation.

Materials And Methods: Before surgery, SUVmax of choline, which is the most common metabolic parameter of C-choline PET/CT, mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean), prostate-to-muscle (P/M) ratio, metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) from 74 patients with histologically proven PCa were quantified. A total of 13 patients with focal chronic prostatitis without severe features and 30 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia were used for comparison. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to compare the patient characteristics and metabolic parameters of C-choline PET/CT. The performance of single parameters and the combination of parameters were assessed by using logistic regression models.

Results: The comparable c-statistics, which mean the area under the ROC curve in the logistic regression model, of SUVmax, SUVmean, and P/M ratio are 0.657, 0.667, and 0.672, respectively. The c-statistic significantly rose to 0.793 when SUVmax and SUVmean were combined with the P/M ratio. This parameter combination performed the best for PCa cases with all biochemical recurrence risks and for PCa patients grouped by different risk. The greatest improvement over a single parameter, such as P/M ratio, was noted in the group of low-risk PCa, with values of 0.535 to 0.772 for the three-parameter combination. And in the histopathological level, the Ki-67 index is positively correlated with the P/M ratio (r=0.491, =0.002).

Conclusion: P/M ratio is a more ideal parameter than SUVmax as a single parameter in early-stage PCa diagnosis. According to our data, the combination of SUVmax, SUVmean, and P/M ratio as a composite parameter for diagnosis of early stage PCa improves the diagnostic accuracy of C-choline PET/CT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.600380DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7882704PMC
February 2021

NANOG regulates the proliferation of PCSCs via the TGF-β1/SMAD pathway.

Open Med (Wars) 2020 1;15(1):841-849. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

The Department of Urology, Mindong Hospital Affiliated to Fujian Medical University, Fuan, Fujian 355000, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: In prostate cancer, castration resistance is a factor that frequently leads to death in individuals with this disease. Recent studies have suggested that prostate cancer stem cells (PCSCs) are pivotal regulators in the establishment of castration resistance. The nanog homeobox (NANOG) and the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/drosophila mothers against decapentaplegic protein (SMAD) signaling pathways are involved in several cancer stem cells but are not involved in PCSCs. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of NANOG on the proliferation of PCSCs regulated by the TGF-β1/SMAD signaling pathway.

Methods: In this study, we used flow cytometry to isolate CD44+/CD133+/NANOG+ PCSCs from DU145 prostate cancer cells. Then we used short hairpin RNA to silence NANOG and observed the biological behavior and the TGF-β1/SMAD signal of PCSCs.

Results: NANOG decreased PCSC proliferation, increased apoptosis, and blocked cell cycling at G0/G1. Furthermore, reduction in the TGF-β1, p15, and p-SMAD2 expression was observed.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that NANOG positively regulates the growth of PCSCs through the TGF-β1/SMAD signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/med-2020-0221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7712027PMC
September 2020

Long noncoding RNA NR2F1-AS1 promotes the malignancy of non-small cell lung cancer via sponging microRNA-493-5p and thereby increasing ITGB1 expression.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 08 7;13(5):7660-7675. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Hospital of Changsha, Changsha 410000, Hunan, China.

Several studies have reported that the long noncoding ribonucleic acid (lncRNA) NR2F1 antisense RNA 1 (NR2F1-AS1) affects multiple cellular pathways that are involved in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. The present study aimed to detect NR2F1-AS1 expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), investigate the role of NR2F1-AS1 in promoting the tumorigenic behavior of NSCLC cells, and elucidate the mechanism underlying the effect of NR2F1-AS1 on NSCLC progression. Our results showed that NR2F1-AS1 expression was upregulated in NSCLC cells, and notably, its upregulation was correlated with adverse clinical characteristics and shorter overall survival in patients with NSCLC. The absence of NR2F1-AS1 functionally decreased NSCLC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and promoted tumor cell apoptosis. In addition, the tumor growth of NSCLC cells was inhibited after NR2F1-AS1 silencing. Mechanistically, NR2F1-AS1 functioned as a competing endogenous RNA for miR-493-5p and consequently increased ITGB1 expression. Rescue assays further validated that an increased output of the miR-493-5p/ITGB1 axis could neutralize the regulatory impact of NR2F1-AS1 knockdown on the malignant phenotype of NSCLC cells. In summary, the NR2F1-AS1/miR-493-5p/ITGB1 pathway initiates pro-oncogenic behavior in NSCLC tumor progression, and the NR2F1-AS1/miR-493-5p/ITGB1 axis may provide new molecular targets for anticancer therapy against NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.103564DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993723PMC
August 2020

Simulating the change of precipitation-runoff relationship during drought years in the eastern monsoon region of China.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jun 23;723:138172. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Key Laboratory of Water Cycle & Related Land Surface Process, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100101 Beijing, China.

Most hydrological simulation and prediction methods assume that the precipitation-runoff relationship was stationary. However, this assumption was found to be questionable during drought years: the annual runoff coefficients (the ratio of annual runoff to annual precipitation) during drought years tend to be smaller than those during non-drought years. However, little is known about the spatial distribution of the magnitude of runoff coefficient change (RC) during drought years, and which factors dominate the spatial pattern of RC over a large spatial scale. To answer these questions, this study investigated the RC in 265 catchments in China that cover a broad range of climate and landscape conditions. We identified the significant factors affecting RC from ten catchment characteristics and developed a multivariate generalized additive model to simulate the spatial pattern of RC across the eastern monsoon region of China. Results indicated that the RC showed an increasing trend from north to south of China, with values ranging from -67.1% to -0.3%, with the average being -26.4%. The lower RC (corresponding to more significant runoff reduction) in drought years was more likely to occur in catchments with dryer climate and lower elevation. The simulated RC by the multivariate generalized additive model demonstrated a good agreement with observed RC, and the values of Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency between observed and simulated RC were 0.77 for training catchments and 0.72 for testing catchments. Finally, we applied the model to extrapolate RC to the entire eastern monsoon region of China. The result would benefit water resources management during drought years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138172DOI Listing
June 2020

Neutralization Mechanism of a Monoclonal Antibody Targeting a Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Cap Protein Conformational Epitope.

J Virol 2020 04 16;94(9). Epub 2020 Apr 16.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, China

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is an important pathogen in swine herds, and its infection of pigs has caused severe economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. The capsid protein of PCV2 is the only structural protein that is associated with PCV2 infection and immunity. Here, we report a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb), MAb 3A5, that binds to intact PCV2 virions of the PCV2a, PCV2b, and PCV2d genotypes. MAb 3A5 neutralized PCV2 by blocking viral attachment to PK15 cells. To further explore the neutralization mechanism, we resolved the structure of the PCV2 virion in complex with MAb 3A5 Fab fragments by using cryo-electron microscopy single-particle analysis. The binding sites were located at the topmost edges around 5-fold icosahedral symmetry axes, with each footprint covering amino acids from two adjacent capsid proteins. Most of the epitope residues (15/18 residues) were conserved among 2,273 PCV2 strains. Mutations of some amino acids within the epitope had significant effects on the neutralizing activity of MAb 3A5. This study reveals the molecular and structural bases of this PCV2-neutralizing antibody and provides new and important information for vaccine design and therapeutic antibody development against PCV2 infections. PCV2 is associated with several clinical manifestations collectively known as PCV2-associated diseases (PCVADs). Neutralizing antibodies play a crucial role in the prevention of PCVADs. We demonstrated previously that a MAb, MAb 3A5, neutralizes the PCV2a, PCV2b, and PCV2d genotypes with different degrees of efficiency, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we report the neutralization mechanism of this MAb and the structure of the PCV2 virion in complex with MAb 3A5 Fabs, showing a binding mode in which one Fab interacted with more than two loops from two adjacent capsid proteins. This binding mode has not been observed previously for PCV2-neutralizing antibodies. Our work provides new and important information for vaccine design and therapeutic antibody development against PCV2 infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01836-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7163150PMC
April 2020

Identification of specific B cell linear epitopes of mycoplasma hyorhinis P37 protein using monoclonal antibodies against baculovirus-expressed P37 protein.

BMC Microbiol 2019 11 5;19(1):242. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Division of Swine Digestive System Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 678 Ha-ping Street, Xiang-fang region, Harbin, 150069, China.

Background: Mycoplasma hyorhinis (Mhr) is the etiologic agent of lameness and polyserositis in swine. P37 is a membrane protein of Mhr that may be an important immunogen and is a potential target for diagnostic development. However, there is little information concerning Mhr P37 protein epitopes. A precise analysis of the P37 protein epitopes should extend our understanding of the antigenic composition of the P37 protein and the humoral immune responses to Mhr infection. Investigating the epitopes of Mhr P37 will help to establish a detection method for Mhr in tissue and provide an effective tool for detecting Mhr infection.

Results: Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA) confirmed that the expressed P37 protein was recognized by Mhr-positive porcine and mouse sera. Furthermore, the P37 protein was purified using affinity chromatography and used to immunize mice for hybridoma cell fusion. Four monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) found to be positive for Mhr were detected in infected lung tissue. A panel of truncated P37 proteins was used to identify the minimal B cell linear epitopes of the protein based on these mAbs. The core epitope was determined to be KIKKAWNDKDWNTFRNF CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we identified 17 critical amino acids that determine the epitope of the P37 protein of Mhr. This study identified mAbs that could provide useful tools for investigating the Mhr P37 antigenic core epitope (amino acids 206-222) and detecting Mhr-specific antigens in infected tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-019-1614-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6833164PMC
November 2019

Porcine parvovirus replication is suppressed by activation of the PERK signaling pathway and endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis.

Virology 2020 01 26;539:1-10. Epub 2019 Sep 26.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 678 Haping Road, Harbin, 150069, China. Electronic address:

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with numerous mammalian diseases, especially viral diseases. Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is the causative agent of reproductive failure in swine. Here, we observed that the PPV infection of porcine kidney 15 and porcine testis cells resulted in the activation of ER stress sensors mediated by protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK), but not inositol-requiring enzyme 1 and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). ER stress activation obviously blocked PPV replication. Depletion of proteins, such as PERK, eukaryotic initiation factor 2, and ATF4, by small interfering RNA significantly enhanced PPV replication. Moreover, the pro-apoptotic factor C/EBP homologous protein was identified a key factor in the inhibition of PPV replication. These data demonstrate that PPV infection activates ER stress through the PERK signaling pathway and that ER stress inhibits further PPV replication by promoting apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2019.09.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7127029PMC
January 2020

The prevalence and genetic diversity of porcine circovirus types 2 and 3 in Northeast China from 2015 to 2018.

Arch Virol 2019 Oct 4;164(10):2435-2449. Epub 2019 Jul 4.

Division of Swine Digestive System Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 678 Ha-Ping Road, Xiangfang Region, Harbin, 150069, China.

A total of 472 samples from domestic pigs collected in China from 2015 to 2018 were tested for the presence of porcine circovirus types 2 and 3 (PCV2 and PCV3, respectively) by conventional polymerase chain reaction analysis. The prevalence of PCV2, PCV3, and PCV2/3 co-infection was 50.0%, 13.3%, and 6.78%, respectively. The complete genomic sequences of 66 PCV2 isolates and four PCV3 isolates were determined. Based phylogenetic analysis, the PCV2 isolates were assigned to three genotypes, PCV2a, PCV2b, and PCV2d, representing 13.6% (9/66), 25.8% (17/66), and 60.6% (40/66) of the total, respectively. All four PCV3 isolates shared a high degree of similarity in their complete nucleotide sequences (98.8-99.8% identity) and ORF2 amino acid sequences (98.6-99.5% identity). These results indicate that all three PCV2 genotypes (PCV2a, PCV2b, and PCV2d) are present on pig farms and that PCV2d has become the predominant genotype. The predicted amino acid sequences of the four PCV3 isolates indicated that PCV3-CN-JL53/PCV3-CN-LN56, PCV3-CN-HLJ3, and PCV3-CN-0710, belonged to the genotypes PCV3a, PCV3b, and PCV3a-IM, respectively. In view of the great harm that PCV2 causes to the pig industry, the epidemic trend of PCV3 should continue to be closely monitored. This study provides information about the prevalence, genetic diversity, and molecular epidemiology of PCV2 and PCV3 in China from 2015 to 2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-019-04336-4DOI Listing
October 2019

Identification of three linear B cell epitopes using monoclonal antibodies against bovine enterovirus VP2 protein.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2019 Sep 28;103(18):7467-7480. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

Swine Digestive System Infectious Diseases Research Team, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 678 Haping Road, Xiangfang District, Harbin, 150069, China.

Bovine enterovirus (BEV) VP2 protein is a structural protein that plays an important role in inducing protective immunity in the host. The function of VP2 has been characterized, but there is little information on its B cell epitopes. Three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against BEV VP2 were generated and characterized from mice immunized with the recombinant VP2 protein. Three minimal linear epitopes FQEAFWLEDG, LIYPHQ, and DATSVD reactive to the three mAbs were identified using western blotting analysis. Three-dimensional model of the BEV-E virion and the VP2 monomer showed that epitope FQEAFWLEDG is exposed on surface of the virion and epitopes DATSVD and LIYPHQ are located inside the virion. Alignment of the amino acid sequences corresponding to the regions containing the three minimal linear epitopes in the VP2 proteins and their cross-reactivity with the three mAbs showed that epitope LIYPHQ is completely conserved in all BEV strains. Epitope DATSVD is highly conserved among BEV-E strains and partly conserved among BEV-F strains. However, epitope FQEAFWLEDG is not conserved among BEV-F strains. Using the mAbs of 3H4 and 1E10, we found that VP2 localized in the cytoplasm during viral replication and could be used to monitor the viral antigen in infected tissues using immunohistochemistry. A preliminary 3H4-epitope-based indirect ELISA allowed us to detect anti-BEV-strain-HY12 antibodies in mice. This study indicates that the three mAbs could be useful tools for investigating the structure and function of the viral VP2 protein and the development of serological diagnostic techniques for BEV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-019-09971-0DOI Listing
September 2019

Elevated pulmonary tuberculosis biomarker miR-423-5p plays critical role in the occurrence of active TB by inhibiting autophagosome-lysosome fusion.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2019 ;8(1):448-460

a Institute of Cell Biology , Zhejiang University School of Medicine , Hangzhou , People's Republic of China.

Rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis is an effective measure to prevent the spread of tuberculosis. However, the grim fact is that the new, rapid, and safe methods for clinical diagnosis are lacking. Moreover, although auto-lysosome is critical in clearing Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the pathological significance of microRNAs, as biomarkers of tuberculosis, in autophagosome maturation is unclear. Here, these microRNAs were investigated by Solexa sequencing and qPCR validation, and a potential diagnostic model was established by logistic regression. Besides that, the mechanism of one of the microRNAs involved in the occurrence of tuberculosis was studied. The results showed that the expression of miR-423-5p, miR-17-5p, and miR-20b-5p were significantly increased in the serum of patients with tuberculosis. The combination of these three microRNAs established a model to diagnose tuberculosis with an accuracy of 78.18%, and an area under the curve value of 0.908. Bioinformatics analysis unveiled miR-423-5p as the most likely candidate in regulating autophagosome maturation. The up-regulation of miR-423-5p could inhibit autophagosome maturation through suppressing autophagosome-lysosome fusion in macrophages. Further investigations showed that VPS33A was the direct target of miR-423-5p, and the two CUGCCCCUC domains in VPS33A 3'-UTR were the direct regulatory sites for miR-423-5p. In addition, an inverse correlation between VPS33A and miR-423-5p was found in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with tuberculosis. Since the inhibition of autolysosome formation plays a critical role in tuberculosis occurrence, our findings suggests that miR-423-5p could suppress autophagosome-lysosome fusion by post-transcriptional regulation of VPS33A, which might be important for the occurrence of active tuberculosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2019.1590129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6455132PMC
August 2019

Rescue and characterization of a recombinant HY12 bovine enterovirus carrying a foreign HA epitope in the 3A nonstructural protein.

Arch Virol 2019 May 15;164(5):1309-1321. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Key Laboratory for Zoonoses Research, Ministry of Education, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xian Road, Changchun, 130062, Jilin, China.

Full-length infectious cDNA clones for recombinant HY12 bovine enteroviruses designated as rHY12-3A-2-HA, rHY12-3A-3-HA, and rHY12-3A-9-HA were constructed by the insertion of an epitope from influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) at the N-terminus of the HY12-encoded 3A protein at amino acid positions 2, 3, and 9. The recombinant HY12 viruses expressing the HA epitope were rescued and characterized using immunoperoxidase monolayer assay, western blotting, and electron microscopy. The three rescued recombinant marker viruses showed similar characteristics, such as TCID titer, plaque size, and growth properties, to those of parental rHY12 virus. Comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences demonstrated the three recombinant marker viruses remained stable for 15 passages with no genetic changes. The recombinant viruses remained viable in various permissive cell lines, including BHK-21, Vero, and PK15 cells, suggesting that the insertion of the HA epitope tag had no effect on virus infectivity. Mice infected with the recombinant marker viruses and the parental virus produced anti-HY12-virus antibodies, while the recombinant marker viruses also produced anti-HA-epitope-tag antibodies. Taken together, these results demonstrate that HY12 viruses containing genetic markers may be useful tools for future investigations of the mechanisms of viral pathogenesis and virus replication, as well as for vaccine development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-019-04178-0DOI Listing
May 2019

A broad spectrum monoclonal antibody against porcine circovirus type 2 for antigen and antibody detection.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2019 Apr 12;103(8):3453-3464. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Swine Digestive System Infectious Diseases Research Team, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 678 Haping Street, Xiangfang District, Harbin, 150069, China.

This study described the production, characterization, and application of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). Twelve stable hybridomas were produced by immunization with purified PCV2a/LG strain and characterized by immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA), Western blotting, and neutralization assays. All mAbs could react with the PCV2 Cap protein and neutralize PCV2a/LG strain. One of them, mAb 3A5, reacted to all PCV2 strains from PCV2a, PCV2b, and PCV2d and it could be applied to detect PCV2 antigen and antibodies. It was shown that the mAb 3A5 could be used to locate PCV2 antigen in PK15 cells and the inguinal lymph nodes of PCV2b/YJ stain-infected piglets. Furthermore, this mAb could immunoprecipitate the Cap protein in PCV2-infected PK15 cells. Meanwhile, a capture ELISA based on mAb 3A5 was developed and used to specifically test PCV2 antigen from cultures; a linear relationship was observed between the optical density at 405 nm of the ELISA and viral titers (200-12,800 TCID/mL), with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999. Finally, a competitive ELISA based on mAb 3A5 was developed to specifically detect antibodies in PCV2-infected and immunized pigs, and its sensitivity was higher than that of the blocking ELISA. This study suggested that the mAb 3A5 could be used in several convenient and efficient methods for PCV2 clinical and pathological studies, as well as surveillance in pigs and seroconversion monitoring in the vaccinated pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-019-09715-0DOI Listing
April 2019

Response of streamflow to environmental changes: A Budyko-type analysis based on 144 river basins over China.

Sci Total Environ 2019 May 2;664:824-833. Epub 2019 Feb 2.

Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.

Understanding response of streamflow to environmental changes is crucial for large-scale water resources management and ecosystem restoration. There is no consensus on how environmental change influence streamflow in different regions across climate gradient, as previous studies mainly focused on a single river basin or climate region. This study analyzed the variations of aridity index and its contributions to streamflow change based on Budyko's framework approach using bias-corrected precipitation measurement, parameters-optimized potential evapotranspiration and observed streamflow in 144 basins across China. The parameter n in the Budyko type equation exhibits significant spatial heterogeneity, with larger values in the water-limited region than in the energy-limited region, which suggests more pronounced impact of basin characteristic or vegetation change on hydrological cycle. The absolute value of sensitivity coefficient in the water-limited region (-2.56) was larger than both equitant (-2.13) and energy limited region (-1.57), indicating that the streamflow was more sensitive to aridity index change in the water-limited region than in the equitant and energy-limited regions. The dominant factor affecting streamflow under energy-limited and equitant conditions is aridity index (i.e. climate change), with median relative contribution rates of 79.9% and 55.5%, respectively. In contrast, non-climatic factors dominate the variation of streamflow in the water-limited region, the effect of climate change on streamflow has been offset by other factors. This study suggests that the water management practices, such as water diversion across river basins and ecological restorations, should fully consider the differences in hydrological responses to climatic conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.02.011DOI Listing
May 2019

Genetic diversity of porcine circovirus type 2 in China between 1999-2017.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2019 Jan 1;66(1):599-605. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2), is linked to PCV-2 associated disease, which has caused considerable economic loss in the swine industry. Here, we report the genetic diversity of PCV-2 in China. A total of 74 Chinese PCV-2 strains sequenced between 1999 and 2017 were studied. Based on the ORF2 and complete genomes, we found that apart from the PCV-2a, PCV-2b, and PCV-2d genotypes, two unstable recombination genotypes also exist, referred to as IM1 and IM2 genotypes. We found that the patterns of PCV-2 genetic shift in China are similar to the patterns at the global level. Additionally, for the PCV-2 ORF2 gene of Chinese isolates, we found a similar time to the most recent common ancestor and evolutionary rate to the global values. This indicates that PCV2 genetic diversity in China is driven by genetic drift/recombination of local strains and by the sporadic introduction of foreign genotypes from other countries. Overall, our study illustrates the genetic diversity and evolution dynamics of PCV-2 in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13040DOI Listing
January 2019

Construction and evaluation of HA-epitope-tag introduction onto the VP1 structural protein of a novel HY12 enterovirus.

Virology 2018 12 22;525:106-116. Epub 2018 Sep 22.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130062, China; Key Laboratory for Zoonosis, Ministry of Education, Changchun 130062, China. Electronic address:

In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using enterovirus HY12 as a vector to express an exogenous hemagglutinin (HA)-epitope tag onto the HY12-encoded VP1 protein via a reverse genetic system. Characteristics of recombinant (r) HY12-VP1-HA marker virus were determined by immunoperoxidase monolayer assay, western blot, electron microscopy, and serum-neutralisation assay. Sequence analysis demonstrated that the marker virus stably maintained the HA-epitope-tag in MDBK cells, with no changes in viral morphological features observed relative to those of the parental rHY12 virus. Furthermore, detection by immunofluorescence assay revealed the expression of HA-epitope tag and VP2 protein, which distinguish the marker virus from parental rHY12 virus. In addition, neonatal mice infected with the recombinant marker virus showed various microscopic pathological lesions and generated anti-HY12 virus and -HA-epitope-tag antibodies. These results indicated that the recombinant marker virus represented a valuable platform to promote the development of novel genetic vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2018.09.010DOI Listing
December 2018

Is cryosurgery a feasible local therapy for bone metastatic prostate cancer?

Singapore Med J 2018 Nov 24;59(11):584-589. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Department of Urology, Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: This study aims to assess whether cryosurgery is a feasible local therapy for bone metastatic prostate cancer (bmPCa).

Methods: A total of 23 patients with bmPCa who received cryosurgery and adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) were included in the cryosurgery group (Group 1). Another 23 matched patients who received only ADT served as the control (Group 2). Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) nadir level, time to PSA nadir, time to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), progression-free survival and therapy response of bone metastases were compared between the groups.

Results: The median follow-up time in Group 1 and Group 2 patients was 37 (range 19-53) months and 42 (range 24-56) months, respectively. Patients in Group 1 had fewer local complications, lower PSA nadir level (0.23 ng/mL vs. 4.01 ng/mL; p = 0.024), shorter median time to PSA nadir (3 months vs. 7 months; p < 0.001), longer median time to CRPC (36 months vs. 27 months; p = 0.002) and longer progression-free survival (35 months vs. 26 months; p = 0.003) compared to those in Group 2. Therapy responses of bone metastases were similar in the two treatment groups (p = 0.689).

Conclusion: Cryosurgery is a feasible local therapy for bmPCa patients with prostate volume less than 50 mL and without bulk tumours outside the prostate capsula. Cryosurgery may decrease PSA nadir level, local complications and time to PSA nadir, delay time to CRPC and improve progression-free survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11622/smedj.2018119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6250764PMC
November 2018

Incorporating vegetation dynamics noticeably improved performance of hydrological model under vegetation greening.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Dec 24;643:610-622. Epub 2018 Jun 24.

Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100101 Beijing, China.

Numerous hydrological models calculate actual evaporation as a function of potential evaporation (PET) and soil moisture stress. There are some limitations for such empirical equations since they do not consider vegetation changes, and therefore cannot account for the different responses of soil evaporation and plant transpiration to changes in environmental factors and cannot be used for evaluating the impacts of vegetation changes. Here, we investigated whether incorporating a physically based evaporation scheme into a grid-based hydrological model can improve the accuracy of hydrological simulations. The original and modified hydrological models were evaluated in a basin which has experienced rapid vegetation greening. The model evaluations were performed using streamflow observations, soil moisture observations and water balance-based evaporation estimates. Results indicated that the modified model can provide better evaporation simulations than the original model during the period of vegetation greening. The streamflow and soil moisture simulations by the modified model over the same period benefitted significantly from the improvement in evaporation simulations and exhibited better consistency with in situ observations than the original model. This study underscores the importance of including vegetation change information in evaporation estimates and demonstrated that the physically based evaporation equation can be used in hydrological models to improve the hydrological simulations under vegetation greening conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.06.233DOI Listing
December 2018

[Cloning and analysis of a powdery mildew responsive gene CmSAMDC from Cucumis melo L.]

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2018 Jun;34(6):928-936

College of Horticulture, Northwest A & F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China.

In order to investigate the effect of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) gene in melon resistance to powdery mildew, according to the previous results of EST sequences from cDNA-AFLP library and the melon genome sequence data, the SAMDC gene was isolated from Chinese wild melon clone 'Yuntian930' by RT-PCR and designated as CmSAMDC (GenBank Accession No. KF151861). The mORF (main open reading frame) was 1 095 bp encoding 364 amino acids with a molecular mass of 40 kDa. The predicted protein sequence showed high similarity with Cucumis sativus and Citrofortunella microcarpa. The SDS-PAGE showed that the expression protein was a fusion protein with the molecular weight of 40 kDa, which perfectly matched the mass calculated from the amino acid sequence. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that the expression level of CmSAMDC reached a maximum at 48 hpi (hours post inoculation) that over 7-fold to 0 hpi, and the expression of CmSAMDC was also detected in tendril, root, leaf and stem. These results indicate that CmSAMDC gene may play protective roles in melon resistance to powdery mildew infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13345/j.cjb.180038DOI Listing
June 2018

Linking fish tolerance to water quality criteria for the assessment of environmental flows: A practical method for streamflow regulation and pollution control.

Water Res 2018 Sep 15;141:96-108. Epub 2018 May 15.

School of the Environment, Faculty of Science, University of Technology Sydney, NSW, 2007, Australia.

The survival of aquatic biota in stream ecosystems depends on both water quantity and quality, and is particularly susceptible to degraded water quality in regulated rivers. Maintenance of environmental flows (e-flows) for aquatic biota with optimum water quantity and quality is essential for sustainable ecosystem services, especially in developing regions with insufficient stream monitoring of hydrology, water quality and aquatic biota. Few e-flow methods are available that closely link aquatic biota tolerances to pollutant concentrations in a simple and practical manner. In this paper a new method was proposed to assess e-flows that aimed to satisfy the requirements of aquatic biota for both the quantity and quality of the streamflow by linking fish tolerances to water quality criteria, or the allowable concentration of pollutants. For better operation of water projects and control of pollutants discharged into streams, this paper presented two coefficients for streamflow adjustment and pollutant control. Assessment of e-flows in the Wei River, the largest tributary of the Yellow River, shows that streamflow in dry seasons failed to meet e-flow requirements. Pollutant influx exerted a large pressure on the aquatic ecosystem, with pollutant concentrations much higher than that of the fish tolerance thresholds. We found that both flow velocity and water temperature exerted great influences on the pollutant degradation rate. Flow velocity had a much greater influence on pollutant degradation than did the standard deviation of flow velocity. This study provides new methods to closely link the tolerance of aquatic biota to water quality criteria for e-flow assessment. The recommended coefficients for streamflow adjustment and pollutant control, to dynamically regulate streamflow and control pollutant discharge, are helpful for river management and ecosystems rehabilitation. The relatively low data requirement also makes the method easy to use efficiently in developing regions, and thus this study has significant implications for managing flows in polluted and regulated rivers worldwide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.05.025DOI Listing
September 2018

Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis Induction via Viral Protein ORF4 of Porcine Circovirus 2 Binding to Mitochondrial Adenine Nucleotide Translocase 3.

J Virol 2018 05 27;92(10). Epub 2018 Apr 27.

Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China

Apoptosis is an essential strategy of host defense responses and is used by viruses to maintain their life cycles. However, the apoptotic signals involved in virus replication are poorly known. In the present study, we report the molecular mechanism of apoptotic induction by the viral protein ORF4, a newly identified viral protein of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). Apoptosis detection revealed not only that the activity of caspase-3 and -9 is increased in PCV2-infected and ORF4-transfected cells but also that cytochrome release from the mitochondria to the cytosol is upregulated. Subsequently, ORF4 protein colocalization with adenine nucleotide translocase 3 (ANT3) was observed using structured illumination microscopy. Moreover, coimmunoprecipitation and pulldown analyses confirmed that the ORF4 protein interacts directly with mitochondrial ANT3 (mtANT3). Binding domain analysis further confirmed that N-terminal residues 1 to 30 of the ORF4 protein, comprising a mitochondrial targeting signal, are essential for the interaction with ANT3. Knockdown of markedly inhibited the apoptotic induction of both ORF4 protein and PCV2, indicating that ANT3 plays an important role in ORF4 protein-induced apoptosis during PCV2 infection. Taken together, these data indicate that the ORF4 protein is a mitochondrial targeting protein that induces apoptosis by interacting with ANT3 through the mitochondrial pathway. The porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) protein ORF4 is a newly identified viral protein; however, little is known about its functions. Apoptosis is an essential strategy of the host defense response and is used by viruses to maintain their life cycles. In the present study, we report the molecular mechanism of the apoptosis induced by the ORF4 protein. The ORF4 protein contains a mitochondrial targeting signal and is an unstable protein that is degraded by the proteasome-dependent pathway. Viral protein ORF4 triggers caspase-3- and -9-dependent cellular apoptosis in mitochondria by directly binding to ANT3. We conclude that the ORF4 protein is a mitochondrial targeting protein and reveal a mechanism whereby circovirus recruits ANT3 to induce apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00238-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5923066PMC
May 2018

Nanoparticles Penetrate into the Multicellular Spheroid-on-Chip: Effect of Surface Charge, Protein Corona, and Exterior Flow.

Mol Pharm 2017 12 13;14(12):4618-4627. Epub 2017 Nov 13.

Key Lab of Industrial Biocatalysis, Ministry of Education, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University , Beijing, 100084, China.

Nanoparticles (NPs) are widely studied as tumor targeted vehicles. The penetration of NPs into the tumor is considered as a major barrier for delivery of NPs into tumor cell and a big challenge to translate NPs from lab to the clinic. The objective of this study is to know how the surface charge of NPs, the protein corona surrounding the NPs, and the fluid flow around the tumor surface affect the penetration and accumulation of NPs into the tumor, through in vitro penetration study based on a spheroid-on-chip system. Surface decorated polystyrene (PS) NPs (100 nm) carrying positive and negative surface charge were loaded to the multicellular spheroids under static and flow conditions, in the presence or absence of serum proteins. NP penetration was investigated by confocal laser microscopy scanning followed with quantitative image analysis. The results reveal that negatively charged NPs are attached more on the spheroid surface and easier to penetrate into the spheroids. Protein corona, which is formed surrounding the NPs in the presence of serum protein, changes the surface properties of the NPs, weakens the NP-cell affinity, and, therefore, results in lower NP concentration on the spheroid surface but might facilitate deeper penetration. The exterior fluid flow enhances the interstitial flow into the spheroid, which benefits the penetration but also strips the NPs (especially the NPs with protein corona) on the spheroid surface, which decreases the penetration flux significantly. The maximal penetration was obtained by applying negatively charged NPs without protein corona under the flow condition. We hope the present study will help to understand the spatiotemporal performance of drug delivery NPs and inform the rational design of NPs with highly defined drug accumulation localized at a target site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.7b00726DOI Listing
December 2017

Terahertz circular Airy vortex beams.

Sci Rep 2017 06 20;7(1):3891. Epub 2017 Jun 20.

Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074, Hubei, China.

Vortex beams have received considerable research interests both in optical and millimeter-wave domain since its potential to be utilized in the wireless communications and novel imaging systems. Many well-known optical beams have been demonstrated to carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), such as Laguerre-Gaussian beams and high-order Bessel beams. Recently, the radially symmetric Airy beams that exhibit an abruptly autofocusing feature are also demonstrated to be capable of carrying OAM in the optical domain. However, due to the lack of efficient devices to manipulate terahertz (THz) beams, it could be a challenge to demonstrate the radially symmetric Airy beams in the THz domain. Here we demonstrate the THz circular Airy vortex beams (CAVBs) with a 0.3-THz continuous wave through 3D printing technology. Assisted by the rapidly 3D-printed phase plates, individual OAM states with topological charge l ranging from l = 0 to l = 3 and a multiplexed OAM state are successfully imposed into the radially symmetric Airy beams. We both numerically and experimentally investigate the propagation dynamics of the generated THz CAVBs, and the simulations agree well with the observations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-04373-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5478637PMC
June 2017

The Comparison of Urinary Stones Between She Minority and Han Nationality in East Fujian, China.

Clin Lab 2017 May;63(5):1015-1019

Background: The purpose of the study was to compare the incidence of urinary stones of She minority and Han nationality and analyze the composition of urinary stones.

Methods: The study was performed in 381 cases with 181 She minority and 200 Han nationality. The composition of stones was mainly analyzed by infrared absorption spectrum. The incidence of urinary stones at different ages, different gender and different parts was compared between She minority and Han nationality.

Results: The urinary stone incidence of males was about twice as high as in women in She minority and Han nationality, and the incidence reached its maximum between the ages of 41 and 60, but the incidence decreased after 60 years of age. The distribution characteristics of urethra stones between She minority and Han nationality showed a significant difference (p < 0.05). The differences of carbonate apatite and struvite in male and female were statistically significant between She minority and Han nationality (p < 0.05). The level of Ca2+ and HPO42- in serum showed significant difference between She minority and Han nationality (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: According to these results, we put forward corresponding preventive measures of urinary stones in She minority.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7754/Clin.Lab.2017.161209DOI Listing
May 2017

SU6668 modulates prostate cancer progression by downregulating MTDH/AKT signaling pathway.

Int J Oncol 2017 May 22;50(5):1601-1611. Epub 2017 Mar 22.

Institute of Ningde Urological Research and Department of Urology, Affiliated Mindong Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fu'an, Fujian 355000, P.R. China.

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men in Western counties and has increased in incidence also in China in recent years. Although diagnosis modalities for primary prostate cancer have markedly improved, there are still no effective therapies for metastatic prostate cancer. SU6668 is an inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase activity of three angiogenic receptors VEGFR2, PDGFRβ and FGFR1. There is strong experimental evidence that SU6668 can induce growth inhibition of various primary tumors. However, the function and molecular mechanism of SU6668 in prostate cancer has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we found that SU6668 inhibited the proliferation and invasion of prostate cancer cells. Functional studies also demonstrated that SU6668 inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition in DU145 and LNCap cells. After treatment with SU6668, MTDH protein, which has been reported to be significantly overexpressed in many human tumor tissues, was downregulated in DU145 and LNCap cells. siRNA-mediated silencing of MTDH in prostate cancer cells decreased their proliferation and invasive capabilities, suggesting that SU6668 may inhibit cell proliferation and invasion of prostate cancer cells partly through downstream targeting of MTDH. Mechanistic investigations showed that AKT signaling pathway was inhibited after SU6668 treatment in prostate cancer cells. Moreover, a combination of SU6668 and PI3K-AKT pathway inhibitor LY29004 resulted in increased inhibition of cell proliferation and invasion in DU145 cells. Taken together, our findings revealed that SU6668 suppressed prostate cancer progression by downregulating MTDH/AKT signaling pathway and identified a promising therapeutic strategy for prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2017.3926DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5403372PMC
May 2017

3D-printed diffractive elements induced accelerating terahertz Airy beam.

Opt Express 2016 Dec;24(25):29342-29348

We first demonstrate the accelerating terahertz (THz) Airy beam with a 0.3-THz continuous wave. Two diffractive elements are designed and 3D-printed to form the generation system, which cannot only imprint the desired complex phase pattern but also perform the required Fourier transform (FT). We both numerically and experimentally demonstrate the propagation dynamics of the accelerating THz Airy beam and investigate its self-healing property during propagation in the free space. Our observations are in good agreement with the numerical simulations. Such an accelerating THz Airy beam could be able to develop novel THz imaging systems and robust THz communication links.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.24.029342DOI Listing
December 2016

Serum Protein KNG1, APOC3, and PON1 as Potential Biomarkers for Yin-Deficiency-Heat Syndrome.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2016 24;2016:5176731. Epub 2016 Oct 24.

Institute of Cell Biology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Yin-deficiency-heat (YDH) syndrome is a concept in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for describing subhealth status. However, there are few efficient diagnostic methods available for confirming YDH syndrome. To explore the novel method for diagnosing YDH syndrome, we applied iTRAQ to observe the serum protein profiles in YDH syndrome rats and confirmed protein levels by ELISA. A total of 92 differentially expressed proteins (63 upregulated proteins and 29 downregulated proteins), which were mainly involved in complement and coagulation cascades and glucose metabolism pathway, were identified by the proteomic experiments. Kininogen 1 (KNG1) was significantly increased ( < 0.0001), while apolipoprotein C-III (APOC3, < 0.005) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1, < 0.001) were significantly decreased in the serum of YDH syndrome rats. The combination of KNG1, APOC3, and PON1 constituted a diagnostic model with 100.0% sensitivity and 85.0% specificity. The results indicated that KNG1, APOC3, and PON1 may act as potential biomarkers for diagnosing YDH syndrome. KNG1 may regulate cytokines and chemokines release in YDH syndrome, and the low levels of PON1 and APOC3 may increase oxidative stress and lipolysis in YDH syndrome, respectively. Our work provides a novel method for YDH syndrome diagnosis and also provides valuable experimental basis to understand the molecular mechanism of YDH syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5176731DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5098100PMC
October 2016

Discrimination of orbital angular momentum modes of the terahertz vortex beam using a diffractive mode transformer.

Opt Express 2016 Jun;24(12):12534-41

We present an efficient method to discriminate orbital angular momentum (OAM) of the terahertz (THz) vortex beam using a diffractive mode transformer. The mode transformer performs a log-polar coordinate transformation of the input THz vortex beam, which consists of two 3D-printed diffractive elements. A following lens separates each transformed OAM mode to a different lateral position in its focal plane. This method enables a simultaneous measurement over multiple OAM modes of the THz vortex beam. We experimentally demonstrate the measurement of seven individual OAM modes and two multiplexed OAM modes, which is in good agreement with simulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.24.012534DOI Listing
June 2016