Publications by authors named "Changfu Sun"

33 Publications

The prevalence of extra-salivary gland complications in immunoglobulin G4-related sialadenitis.

Oral Dis 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Oral Maxillofacial-Head and Neck Surgery, School of Stomatology, Oral Diseases Laboratory of Liaoning, China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of extra-glandular lesions in patients with immunoglobulin G4-related sialadenitis (IgG4-RS).

Methods: Six electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure) were systematically searched from the date of inception of each database to March 2021. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology statement was used to conduct methodological quality assessment, and a random-effect meta-analysis model was applied to estimate the prevalence. Publication bias was visually assessed using a funnel plot and calculated via Begg's and Egger's tests. The Stata 15 software was used to perform data analysis.

Results: A total of 43 articles comprising 1,864 patients with IgG4-RS were considered to be eligible for this study. The pooled prevalence of extra-salivary gland lesions in IgG4-RS was 76.53% with a confidence interval (CI) of (69.39%, 83.04%). A higher prevalence was associated with studies published before or during 2015 (84.38%, CI [74.23%, 92.58%]) than those published after 2015 (68.55%, CI [58.44%, 77.88%]). Lacrimal gland involvement (54.68%, CI [45.61%, 63.60%]) and lymph node swelling (56.96%, CI [48.16%, 65.56%]) were the most frequent lesions.

Conclusions: Extra-glandular lesions were common in patients with IgG4-RS. More high-quality prospective studies with less heterogeneity are required to determine the accurate prevalence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/odi.13926DOI Listing
May 2021

DOCK8 Serves as a Prognostic Biomarker and Is Related to Immune Infiltration in Patients With HPV Positive Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Cancer Control 2021 Jan-Dec;28:10732748211011951

Department of Oromaxillofacial-Head and Neck Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China.

Purpose: Dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) was reported to have a vital link to immunoregulation. However, the mechanisms by which it drives immune infiltration in cancer remain uncertain. We tried to assess the role of DOCK8 in patients with cancer, especially human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).

Methods: Data on the expression and survival of DOCK8 in patients with various cancers were analyzed using the Oncomine and TIMER databases. The TIMER database assessed the relationship of DOCK8 with immune infiltration levels and various markers of multiple immune cells. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed tumor-associated biological processes related to DOCK8. ENCODE database was used to explore relevant transcription factors of DOCK8, and a PPI network was constructed using GENEMINIA. The expression and survival role of DOCK8 was confirmed in patients from independent GEO datasets.

Results: We determined that DOCK8 expression was upregulated or downregulated in various cancers unlike in healthy tissues. A high expression of DOCK8 was significantly correlated with a favorable prognosis in HPV-positive HNSCC and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). Furthermore, multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that DOCK8 was an independent prognostic factor of HPV-positive HNSCC. Additionally, elevated DOCK8 expression was positively correlated with multiple immune cell infiltration levels and immune marker expression associated with particular immune cell subsets. Also, 14 pathways involved in immune activities and carcinogenesis, 22 potential TFs, and co-expression proteins of DOCK8 indicated DOCK8 to be related to tumor-associated biological processes. Ultimately, we verified that DOCK8 is upregulated and confers a favorable overall survival and progression-free survival status in patients with HPV-positive HNSCC.

Conclusion: These results elucidate that high expression of DOCK8 indicates a favorable prognosis in patients with HPV-positive HNSCC as well as increased microenvironmental immune infiltration levels. It would provide new insights into the prognosis predicting and clinical regimen decision making in patients with HPV-positive HNSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10732748211011951DOI Listing
April 2021

Simvastatin inhibits oral squamous cell carcinoma by targeting TMEM16A Ca-activated chloride channel.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2021 Jun 23;147(6):1699-1711. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Liaoning Provincial Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Department of Oromaxillofacial-Head and Neck Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, China Medical University, 117 Nanjing Bei Jie, Heping District, Shenyang,, 110002, Liaoning, China.

Purpose: Ca-activated chloride channel TMEM16A has been found to be overexpressed in many cancers including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Nevertheless, the role of TMEM16A in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains unclear. Although simvastatin is known to produce anti-tumor effect, the mechanisms by which simvastatin inhibits cancer remain unclear.

Methods: In this study, we explored the role of TMEM16A expression in human OSCC tissues using both TCGA dataset and immunohistochemistry. CCK-8 assay was applied to evaluate cell proliferation. Patch clamp technique was applied to record TMEM16A Cl currents.

Results: We found that high TMEM16A expression is related with large tumor size, lymph node metastasis, and poor clinical outcome in patients with OSCC. In addition, TMEM16A overexpression could promote cell proliferation, and inhibition of TMEM16A channel activities could suppress cell proliferation in OSCC cells. Furthermore, simvastatin could suppress TMEM16A channel activities, and inhibited cell proliferation in OSCC cells via TMEM16A.

Conclusion: Our findings identify a novel anti-tumor mechanism of simvastatin by targeting TMEM16A. Simvastatin may represent an innovative strategy for treating OSCC with high TMEM16A expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-021-03575-wDOI Listing
June 2021

Acellular dermal matrix for prevention of Frey's syndrome after superficial parotidectomy of benign tumors.

Am J Otolaryngol 2021 Mar-Apr;42(2):102893. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Lanzhou University Second Hospital, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To evaluate: 1) the efficacy of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) to prevent Frey's syndrome (FS) after superficial parotidectomy of benign tumors. 2) the effect of different follow-up intervals on the incidence of FS.

Methods: Fifty-five patients with benign parotid gland tumors underwent superficial parotidectomy were divided into two groups: Non-ADM group (n = 31, 56.3%) and ADM group (n = 24, 43.6%). The primary outcomes measure was the incidence of FS. The secondary outcomes were surgical site depression, infection, salivary sialocele, and salivary fistula. Subjective FS was evaluated using a clinical questionnaire submitted via WeChat at 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 32 months postoperatively. Objective FS was evaluated using Minor starch-iodine test at 6 and 12 months postoperatively.

Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the incidence of subjective and objective FS when ADM compared with Non-ADM groups (P<0.05). The respective incidence of subjective FS at 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 32 months was 4.2%, 8.3%,20.8%, 20.8%, 20.8%, 20.8% in ADM group and 3.2%, 9.7%, 29%, 38.7%, 45.2% in Non-ADM group. The incidence of objective FS after 6 and 12 months was 4.2%, 8.3% in ADM group and 8.3% (2/24), 38.7% (12/31) in Non-ADM group respectively. Five patients in ADM group and 1 patient in Non-ADM group developed sialocele, and all patients resolved with conservative management. Surgical site depression was significantly higher in the Non-ADM group (15/31) compared with (5/24) in ADM (P=0.049). No cases of immune rejection, infection, hematoma, or salivary fistula were observed in ADM group.

Conclusions: The current study demonstrated that 1) ADM could reduce the incidence of FS in the patients undergoing superficial parotidectomy. 2) the peak onset of about 18 months appear to be acceptable follow-up for the development of FS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjoto.2020.102893DOI Listing
January 2021

Digital navigation and 3D model technology in mandibular reconstruction with fibular free flap: A comparative study.

J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg 2020 Nov 24. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Oromaxillofacial-Head and Neck Surgery, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, PR China. Electronic address:

Objective: The low accuracy limits the use of fibular free flap (FFF). We apply digital navigation and 3D printing model technology in mandibular reconstruction to improve FFF's accuracy.

Methods: 34 patients who underwent with FFF to repair mandibular defects were divided into Navigation Group (13 cases, using digital navigation and 3D printing model) and Control Group (21 cases, only 3D printing model). We retrospectively reviewed patients' hospitalization information and evaluated patients by subjective and objective items, such as UW-Qol scale, CT data.

Results: The operation time of Navigation Group was higher significantly than Control Group (10.36 ± 1.87vs9.00 ± 1.34 h).There were no significant differences in early postoperative complications. The Qol score of appearance, motion, anxiety were higher significantly in Navigation Group. The CT results showed that mandibular angle deviation and chin deflection of Navigation Group were better significantly than Control Group (1.72 ± 1.29° vs 3.69 ± 1.67°, 2.45 ± 1.39 vs 5.19 ± 2.13 mm).

Conclusions: The digital navigation can improve FFF's accuracy in mandibular reconstruction. It doesn't significantly increase complications. The digital navigation's installation and operation methods should be simplified to shorter operation time and expand its application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jormas.2020.11.002DOI Listing
November 2020

Planning Minimal Access Incisions in Resectioning Benign Parotid Tumors.

J Craniofac Surg 2020 Oct;31(7):2007-2011

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Liaoning Provincial Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Shenyang, China.

Background: Traditional parotid surgery leaves visible submaxillary cicatrices, unaesthetic results from incisions, and a high incidence of postoperative complications. This study aimed to examine the feasibility of newly designed incisions for the removal of benign parotid lesions.

Methods: The authors randomly assigned patients (n = 48) with benign parotid lesions admitted to our department from November 2016 to April 2019. In the study group, an aesthetic incision was designed through a preoperative examination combined with a medical history and physical examination. Half of the patients (n = 24) underwent surgery with the new incision design, while the patients in the control group (n = 24) received conventional surgery. The therapeutic effects and outcomes of the two groups were compared.

Results: The postoperative complication rate of the study group (n = 6) was significantly lower than that of the control group (n = 15). Compared to conventional surgery, patients who received the hidden incisions had less total drainage volume, decreased length of incision, and fewer days of postoperative hospitalization (P < 0.05). On an average follow-up of 20 months, no recurrence was found in any patient.

Conclusions: Minimal access incisions, aided with loupe magnification, greatly improve the surgical safety, patient outcomes, and final scar appearance. The described technique is worth further study and utilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000006640DOI Listing
October 2020

Assessment of fibula flap with flexor hallucis longus's effect on head & neck tumor patients' quality of life and function of donor site.

Oral Oncol 2020 01 27;100:104489. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Department of Oromaxillofacial-Head and Neck Surgery, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Objective: Free fibular flaps (FFFs) have been widely used in mandibular reconstruction. It is still unclear whether retaining flexor hallucis longus (FHL) is needed for flaps. This study introduces a comparison in quality of life and donor-site function between those who have and haven't harvested FHL with FFF.

Methods: Patients with FFFs were single-blind-randomly assigned into the FHL group or nFHL group. Patients were followed up preoperatively and 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively via subjective evaluations (SF-36/AOFAS) and objective evaluation s(muscle strength and range of motion). Patients' hospitalization and intraoperative information, donor site morbidity were recorded.

Results: Each group had 15 patients. The flap harvesting time in FHL group was shorter significantly than nFHL group (125.9 ± 24.8 min vs 146.7 ± 29.9 min, P = 0.048). There were no significant differences in hospitalization information such as operation time, hospitalization days and cost. Donor site morbidities at 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively showed no significant differences except for the presence of claw toes (nFHL group > FHL group, 40% vs 0, P = 0.017; 53.3% vs 6.7%, P = 0.014; 60.0% vs 13.3%, P = 0.021). There were no significant differences in SF-36 and AOFAS scores. There were no significant differences in muscle strength and range of motion.

Conclusion: Excision of the FHL lowered the flap harvesting time. It did not increase donor site morbidity. The impacts on patients' quality of life and foot function were the same. The surgeons can use the FHL without considering the influence on patients if not retaining the FHL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2019.104489DOI Listing
January 2020

MicroRNA-532-3p Suppresses Malignant Behaviors of Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Regulating CCR7.

Front Pharmacol 2019 29;10:940. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

To provide better therapeutic avenues for treating tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC), a series of experiments about the effects of microRNA (miR)-532-3p on TSCC malignant behaviors were carried out. The result showed that miR-532-3p was down-regulated and C-C chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) was up-regulated in the tumor tissues compared with those in the paired paratumor tissues. Further, expression of miR-532-3p was detected in four TSCC cell lines, TSCCA, TCA8113, CAL-27, and SCC-25. The miR-532-3p mimics and inhibitor were transfected into the CAL-27 and TCA8113 cell lines which were the relatively lowest and highest miR-532-3p expressions, respectively. It was found that the overexpression of miR-532-3p suppressed TSCC cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and promoted apoptosis , whilst the knockdown of miR-532-3p reversed these behaviors. The bioinformatics predicted that CCR7 was a downstream gene of miR-532-3p, which was confirmed luciferase assay. Following, the decline of CCR7 in the miR-532-3p mimics group and the rise of CCR7 in the miR-532-3p inhibitor group were also verified. In addition, enhanced cell proliferation, migration and invasion induced by CCR7 were partly restrained by miR-532-3p in TSCC cell. Meanwhile, miR-532-3p attenuated tumourigenesis due to the reduction of tumor volume and Ki-67 positive rate and the increase of apoptotic cells. Taken together, these findings reveal a pivotal role for the miR-532-3p/CCR7 axis in regulating TSCC, and this novel axis could be suitable for therapeutic intervention in TSCC disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.00940DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6727182PMC
August 2019

Impact of wound closure on fibular donor-site morbidity: a meta-analysis.

BMC Surg 2019 Jul 5;19(1):81. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Department of Oromaxillofacial-Head and Neck Surgery, Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, 117 Nanjing Bei Jie, Heping, Shenyang, Liaoning, 110002, People's Republic of China.

Background: Vascularized free fibular flaps have been the "workhorses" for reconstruction of many kinds of bone defects. Nevertheless, there is no consensus regarding the optimal wound closure method for fibular donor sites. This study aimed to compare prognostic outcomes of primarily closures (PC) and skin grafts (SG) for fibular donor sites.

Methods: Studies regarding donor-site outcomes of PC versus SG in patients undergoing free fibular flap procedures were included. Two authors individually searched PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and clinicaltrials.gov up to February 2019, extracted the data and assessed quality of each selected article. Ultimately, The incidences of donor-site morbidities were evaluated.

Results: Five studies with a total of 119 patients were included in our analysis. No significant differences were found with respect to the rates of donor-site problems between the PC and SG groups.

Conclusions: Fibular flap patients undergoing PC and SG wound closures may have similar donor-site outcomes. Additional large-scale studies are necessary to draw a solid conclusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12893-019-0545-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6612155PMC
July 2019

Efficacy and safety of lower extremity nerve blocks for postoperative analgesia at free fibular flap donor sites.

Head Neck 2018 12 2;40(12):2670-2676. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Department of Anesthesiology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang, People's Republic of China.

Background: We evaluated the utility of combined femoral and common peroneal nerve blocks in patients undergoing free fibular flap-based oromandibular reconstruction.

Methods: Forty patients undergoing reconstructive surgeries with free fibular flaps were randomly divided into nerve block and control groups (NB and C). In group NB, both femoral and common peroneal nerve blocks with 0.33% ropivacaine were used. In group C, sham blocks were performed with saline. The primary outcomes were sufentanyl consumption during the 0- to 24-hour and 24-to 48-hour intervals and cumulative consumption during the 48-hour postoperative period.

Results: Sufentanyl consumption for the 0-to 24-hour interval and cumulative sufentanyl consumption were significantly lower in group NB than in group C. Moreover, more patients in group NB than in group C were satisfied with the pain management.

Conclusion: Lower extremity nerve blocks reduce sufentanyl use and improve patient satisfaction when used for postoperative analgesia at the free fibular flap donor site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hed.25470DOI Listing
December 2018

Management and prognosis of cancers in the accessory parotid gland.

J Int Med Res 2018 Dec 5;46(12):4930-4933. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

2 Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, Affiliated Stomatology Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, PR China.

Objective: This study was performed to analyze the clinical management of accessory parotid gland (APG) cancer and possible risk factors for disease-related death.

Methods: Patients diagnosed with primary APG cancers in the largest medical center in Northeast China were enrolled from January 1990 to December 2016.

Results: All 43 patients underwent resection of the tumors and superficial parotid gland by a standard Blair incision. Seven (16.3%) patients also required selective neck dissection. The most common lesion was mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Temporary facial paralysis occurred in 11 (25.6%) patients, and permanent facial paralysis occurred in 3 (7.0%) patients because of surgical resection of the facial nerve, which was involved with the tumor. The 5- and 10-year disease-specific survival rates were 86.0% and 66.0%, respectively. The tumor stage, neck status, neck dissection, and tumor grade were significantly associated with disease-related death, but only the tumor grade was an independent risk factor.

Conclusion: Superficial parotidectomy is a reliable surgical procedure associated with a high survival rate and low morbidity in treating APG cancers. The tumor grade is the key prognostic factor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060518767792DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6300960PMC
December 2018

Clinical study of tuberculosis in the head and neck region-11 years' experience and a review of the literature.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2018 Jan 10;7(1). Epub 2018 Jan 10.

Department of Oromaxillofacial-Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, No. 117, Nanjing North Street, Shenyang, Liaoning, 110002, China.

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease and major health concern. Head and neck tuberculosis (HNTB) is relatively rare, but can arise in many regions, including the lymph nodes, larynx, oral cavity and pharynx. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 60 patients diagnosed with HNTB in our department between March 2005 and January 2016. A review and summary of previous HNTB articles published in PubMed since 1885 was also performed. The subjects consisted of 17 males and 43 females, and the average age of patients was 45 ± 14.67 years. The major clinical presentation was a lump or swelling, followed by an oral ulcer and skin fistula. The most common site of tuberculosis was in the cervical lymph node. Three patients also suffered from a malignant tumor in the head and neck region. A total of 980 papers involving 5881 patients were included in our literature review. The included subjects ranged in age from 15 months to 100 years with a male-to-female ratio of 1.5:1. The larynx (38.92%), cervical lymph nodes (38.28%) and oral cavity (9.92%) were the three most common development sites. 465 patients were positive according to a HIV test, and 40 patients had comorbidities with different types of tumors. Head and neck tuberculosis should always be considered during a differential diagnosis for lesions in the head and neck region. Early diagnosis and treatment can greatly enhance the therapeutic effect and patients' quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41426-017-0008-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5837174PMC
January 2018

Cervical level IIb metastases in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Onco Targets Ther 2017 11;10:4475-4483. Epub 2017 Sep 11.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to clarify whether level IIb dissection should be performed or avoided in the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma by meta-analysis.

Materials And Methods: Articles that were published before June 2017 were searched electronically in four databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Ovid and China National Knowledge Infrastructure) without any date or language restrictions by two independent reviewers. Abstracts and full-text papers which investigated the cervical metastases to level IIb from primary head and neck cancers and were deemed potentially relevant were screened. Data were analyzed using RevMan 5.3.

Results: Four hundred and fifty-five abstracts and 129 full-text papers were screened, and 22 studies were included in the analysis. Among the 2001 patients included, 112 patients had level IIb metastases, the pooled frequency of which was 6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.0-7.0). Among the 400 patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma from 12 studies, 37 patients had level IIb metastases, the pooled incidence of which was 7% (95% CI: 5.0-10.0). Metastases to level IIb always went together with level IIa, and only three patients were found to have isolated level IIb metastases without involving the other levels.

Conclusion: Due to the low frequency of level IIb nodal metastases in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients and rare occurrence of isolated level IIb, level IIb dissection could be avoided when the primary lesions were in early stages (T1 and T2), with the exception of tongue cancer. It is recommended to dissect level IIb tongue cancers without considering the stages of primary lesions and the lymph nodes status. It is also suggested that level IIb dissection should be performed in patients preoperatively or intraoperatively found with multilevel neck metastasis, especially level IIa metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S143392DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5602281PMC
September 2017

Jak3 is involved in CCR7-dependent migration and invasion in metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

Oncol Lett 2017 May 14;13(5):3191-3197. Epub 2017 Mar 14.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110002, P.R. China.

Patients with cervical lymph node metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) exhibit a poor prognosis and low 5-year survival rate. It has been proven that chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) promotes cellular migration and invasion in metastatic SCCHN. In the present study, the metastatic SCCHN PCI-37B cell line was utilized to explore the role of Janus activated kinase-3 (Jak3) in the CCR7-mediated signaling pathway in metastatic SCCHN cells. It was observed that phospho-Jak3 was expressed in SCCHN tissues. In addition, when the PCI-37B cells were analyzed in response to chemokine ligand 19 (CCL19), the ligand of CCR7, at the indicated time points, the results of the present study demonstrated that CCR7 induced Jak3 activation, and inhibition of Jak3 activity using a specific inhibitor, ZM39923, significantly attenuated CCR7-induced Jak3 phosphorylation. Migration and invasion assays and immunofluorescence staining experiments demonstrated that CCL19 promoted cell migration, invasion and F-actin rearrangment in CCR7-expressing SCCHN cells partially due to the activation of the Jak3 signaling pathway. These results demonstrate that the Jak3 signaling pathway is important for the CCR7-induced malignant biological behavior of SCCHN cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2017.5861DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5431255PMC
May 2017

Carvacrol suppresses proliferation and invasion in human oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Onco Targets Ther 2016 18;9:2297-304. Epub 2016 Apr 18.

Department of Oromaxillofacial-Head and Neck Surgery, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, People's Republic of China; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, People's Republic of China.

Carvacrol, a component of thyme oil, as a novel antitumor agent, has been implicated in several types of cancer cells. However, the mechanisms underlying the effect of carvacrol in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remain unclear. Here, we report that carvacrol significantly inhibits tumor cell proliferation, metastasis and invasion, and induces apoptosis in OSCC. Our results demonstrated that the molecular mechanisms of the effect of carvacrol in Tca-8113 induces G1/S cell cycle arrest through downregulation of CDK regulator CCND1 and CDK4, and upregulation of CDK inhibitor P21. Further analysis demonstrated that carvacrol also inhibited Tca-8113 cells' clone formation in clonogenic cell survival assay. Student's t-test (two-tailed) was used to compare differences between groups, and the significance level was P<0.01. Then, treatment of Tca-8113 cells with carvacrol resulted in downregulation of Bcl-2, Cox2, and upregulation of Bax. Carvacrol significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of human OSCC cells by blocking the phosphorylation of FAK and MMP-9 and MMP-2, transcription factor ZEB1, and β-catenin proteins' expression. Taken together, these results provide novel insights into the mechanism of carvacrol and suggest potential therapeutic strategies for human OSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S98875DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4846059PMC
May 2016

Frizzled2 mediates the migration and invasion of human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells through the regulation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 signaling pathway.

Oncol Rep 2015 Dec 17;34(6):3061-7. Epub 2015 Sep 17.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Oromaxillofacial-Head and Neck Surgery, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110002, P.R. China.

Frizzled2 (Fzd2) is a receptor for wingless-type MMTV integration site family members (Wnts), the aberrant overexpression of which has been noted to contribute to cancer metastasis. The present study was performed to characterize the role of Fzd2 in the migration and invasion of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) in vitro. Using TSCCa cells (a tongue SCC cell line) for loss- or gain-of-function of Fzd2, we found that a forced overexpression of Fzd2 promoted TSCCa cell migration and invasion, decreased the expression of epithelial‑cadherin (E-cadherin, an epithelial marker) and increased that of vimentin, Snail Slug, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-2/-9/-13 and a-disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs-5 (ADAMTS5). By contrast, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of Fzd2 had opposite effects on OSCC cells. In addition, we found that the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) was enhanced by Fzd2 overexpression, but suppressed by Fzd2 depletion, and that STAT3‑specific shRNA attenuated Fzd2 overexpression‑induced cell invasion. In summary, the present study demonstrated that Fzd2 contributes to the migration and invasion of OSCC cells, at least partly through regulation of the STAT3 pathway. These results suggest Fzd2 as a novel therapeutic target for OSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2015.4285DOI Listing
December 2015

The association between miR-499 polymorphism and cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis.

Onco Targets Ther 2015 20;8:2179-86. Epub 2015 Aug 20.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang, People's Republic of China.

Background: MicroRNAs are a class of new noncoding RNA that play important roles in the pathogenesis of tumor. Rs3746444 in miR-499 is suggested to be associated with cancer susceptibility. In the present study, we assess the association between miR-499 rs3746444 polymorphism and cancer susceptibility through a meta-analysis.

Methods: We searched relevant articles from the PubMed and Embase databases. We screened all the resulting articles for adherence to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The associations between miR-499 polymorphism and cancer susceptibility were estimated by computing the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All analyses were performed using Stata software.

Results: There are 18 datasets included in the analysis. Statistically significant associations were found between the miR-499 rs3746444 polymorphism and susceptibility to cancer (GG versus AA: OR =1.24, 95% CI: 1.01-1.52; G versus A: OR =1.11, 95% CI: 1.01-1.23). A subsequent analysis, on the basis of ethnicity for the population characteristic, showed that Asians had increased susceptibility to cancer (GG versus AA: OR =1.32, 95% CI: 1.09-1.59; GG + AG versus AA: OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.01-1.37). In the subgroup analysis of tumor type, none of the genetic models had statistically significant results. The meta-regression suggested that race and cancer types are not the source of heterogeneity in the present meta-analysis. No publication bias was detected by either the inverted funnel plot or Egger's test.

Conclusion: Rs3746444 in miR-499 might be related to susceptibility to cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S88224DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4550183PMC
September 2015

Risk Factors for Early and Late Donor-Site Morbidity After Free Fibula Flap Harvest.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2015 Aug 11;73(8):1637-40. Epub 2015 Feb 11.

Department Head, Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Purpose: This article reports on the incidence of donor-site complications and identifies predictive factors for early and late donor-site complications.

Materials And Methods: From January 2007 through December 2012, 45 patients underwent free fibula flap reconstruction and their medical records were reviewed. They were asked to complete a questionnaire on the operated leg and they were evaluated for ankle stability and ambulatory status.

Results: One patient (2.2%) developed a complication owing to a hematoma, but no other patients had any complications. During the risk factor analysis, no domain was found to be statistically associated with early morbidity; late dysfunction was noted in 20 patients (57.1%), and of these cases, at least 2 symptoms were found in 10 patients (50%). The most common complication was numbness followed by toe contracture and abnormal ambulatory movement. During the risk analysis, the following domains affected late donor-site morbidity: harvested fibula length, operation time, and follow-up time. Furthermore, in cases with complications, patients with the osteocutaneous fibula flap complained more than patients with the osseous flap (P = .07).

Conclusion: Early donor-site morbidity was uncommon, but late morbidity occurred frequently. Harvested fibula length, operation time, and follow-up time were statistically linked to postoperative function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joms.2015.01.036DOI Listing
August 2015

Chemokine receptor 7 promotes tumor migration and invasiveness via the RhoA/ROCK pathway in metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

Oncol Rep 2015 Feb 27;33(2):849-55. Epub 2014 Nov 27.

Department of Oromaxillofacial-Head and Neck Surgery, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110002, P.R. China.

Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) has been shown to express chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7), which can activate signaling pathways to promote invasion and survival of SCCHN cells. We hypothesized that the RhoA/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) pathway is involved in the CCR7-induced invasion and migration of metastatic SCCHN cells. Thus, using migration, matrigel invasion and scrape wound-healing assays, we elucidated the role of RhoA in mediating CCR7-associated cellular mobility. Pull-down assays and western blotting were used to measure RhoA and its downstream expression. Immunohistochemical staining and analysis were useful in identifying the correlation between CCR7 and RhoA expression and clinicopathological factors. The results showed that inhibition of RhoA/ROCK reduced the tumor cell migration and invasiveness induced by CCL19. Activated RhoA, proline-rich tyrosine kinase-2 (Pyk2) and cofilin induced by CCL19 were elevated, and increased RhoA, Pyk2 and cofilin activity was eliminated by CCR7mAb, RhoA/ROCK and Pyk2 inhibitors, indicating involvement of the RhoA/ROCK-Pyk2-cofilin cascade. In summary, CCR7 via RhoA/ROCK-Pyk2 cofilin pathway promotes invasion and migration of metastatic SCCHN cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2014.3631DOI Listing
February 2015

Salivary duct carcinoma in the mandible.

J Craniofac Surg 2014 Nov;25(6):e598-9

From the *Department of Pediatric Dentistry, and †Department of Oromaxillofacial-Head and Neck Surgery and Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, PR China.

We reported 1 case of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) in the mandible. The patient complained of pain and a growing mass in the right submandibular area for approximately 2 months. On clinical examination, there was a mass under the right angle of the mandible with a size of approximately 3 × 3 cm, a smooth surface, a poor activity, and a hard texture. Panoramic radiograph revealed poorly circumscribed area. Computed tomography presented mandible central destruction. Biopsy examination showed a malignant tumor that originated in the central epithelium of the mandible. An operation of unilateral selective neck dissection and mandible subtotal ectomy was performed. Postoperative pathology reported SDC. The patient received postoperative radiation and stayed alive at last follow-up without disease recurrence. Ablative resection and postoperative radiotherapy were the standard treatment stratagem for SDC, but trastuzumab therapy might play a key role in treating the disease in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000000764DOI Listing
November 2014

Prognostic factors and survival rates for parotid duct carcinoma patients.

J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2014 Dec 13;42(8):1929-31. Epub 2014 Aug 13.

Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, No.117, Nanjing North Street, Heping District, Shenyang, Liaoning 110002, PR China. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the survival rates of patients diagnosed with parotid duct carcinoma (PDC) and analyze the associated risk factors.

Methods: This study included 38 patients with PDC and the following information was collected for each patient: gender, age, tumor size, TNM classification, neck node metastasis, House-Brackmann grade, neural invasion, use of postoperative radiation therapy and survival data. The Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox model were used to determine prognostic factors for disease-specific survival (DSS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates.

Results: Of the 38 patients, 36 (94.7%) were male. Mean age at initial diagnosis was 59.9 years (range: 43-79). A total of 32 (84.2%) patients had T3/T4 tumors, and 29 (76.3%) patients had a preoperative House-Brackmann grade of I/II. A correlation analysis showed that tumor stage was significantly associated with House-Brackmann grade (Spearman r = 0.521, p = 0.001). The 5-year DSS and RFS rates were 45% and 30%, respectively. Using Cox-regression analysis, node metastasis and the preoperative House-Brackmann grade were the independent predictors of both RFS and DSS. Postoperative radiation could decrease disease recurrence, but did not improve disease-specific survival.

Conclusion: Parotid duct carcinoma is an aggressive tumor. Node status and preoperative House-Brackmann grade are key prognostic factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcms.2014.08.001DOI Listing
December 2014

Primary neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the parotid gland: A case report and review of the literature.

Oncol Lett 2014 Sep 17;8(3):1275-1278. Epub 2014 Jun 17.

Department of Oromaxillofacial-Head and Neck Surgery, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110002, P.R. China.

Small cell carcinoma (SCC) is a malignant epithelial tumor that predominantly arises in the lungs. Primary SCC of the parotid gland is rare and difficult to diagnose by analysis of frozen sections obtained during surgery. Due to the aggressive nature of SCC and the frequent occurrence of distant metastases, identification of the disease is important. The current study reports the case of a male patient who presented with a right parotid gland mass. The tumor was resected and evaluated by light microscopy and immunohistochemical analysis. Immunohistochemically, the tumor was positive for cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, cluster of differentiation 117, synaptophysin and thyroid transcription factor-1, which indicated that the tumor was a SCC of the parotid gland. An extended resection of the right parotid gland mass and dissection of the facial nerve were performed. Following discharge from the hospital, the patient received radiation therapy postoperatively. The patient has remained disease free during five months of follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2014.2258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4114714PMC
September 2014

Chemokine receptor 7 enhances cell chemotaxis and migration of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck through activation of matrix metalloproteinase-9.

Oncol Rep 2014 Aug 6;32(2):794-800. Epub 2014 Jun 6.

Department of Oromaxillofacial-Head and Neck, Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110002, P.R. China.

The mechanisms leading to squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (SCCHN) metastasis are not fully understood. Although evidence shows that the chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) and its ligand CCL19 may regulate tumor dissemination, their role is not clearly defined in SCCHN. Matrix metalloproteinases break consisting of tissue barrier to the surrounding tissue invasion and metastasis by destroying the balance of matrix degradation of the basement membrane of tumor cells and extracellular matrix (ECM). We used chemotaxis and migration assays, western blotting, gelatin zymography, actin polymerization assay, immunofluorescence staining and immunohistochemical analysis to explore whether MMP-9 can be activated by CCL19 (CCR7's ligand) and its role in SCCHN. The experiments were performed in the metastatic SCCHN cell line PCI-37B after pre-incubation of the cells with CCL19 and SB-3CT (inhibitor of MMP-9). Our results demonstrated that CCR7 favors PCI-37B cell chemotaxis and migration, upregulation of MMP-9 protein and motivates the activity of MMP-9 protein, induces reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and upregulation of MMP-9 protein. SB-3CT can block all these effects. Collectively, our data indicated that CCR7 regulates cell chemotaxis and migration via MMP-9 in metastatic SCCHN, and these results provide a basis for new strategies in preventing metastases of SCCHN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2014.3242DOI Listing
August 2014

Pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 (PTTG1) is overexpressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and promotes migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in SCC15 cells.

Tumour Biol 2014 Sep 31;35(9):8801-11. Epub 2014 May 31.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, 117 North Nanjing Street, Shenyang, 110002, China.

Pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 (PTTG1) is an important oncogenic transcription factor implicated in various malignancies, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), a common malignancy of head and neck. Although PTTG1 is reportedly overexpressed in OSCC tissues, its role in human OSCC remains elusive. Thus, this study was conducted to explore the correlation between PTTG1 expression and tumorigenesis of OSCC. We first examined PTTG1 mRNA and protein expression in 28 pairs of OSCC tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues. PTTG1 protein levels in 98 OSCC specimens were also evaluated by using immunohistochemistry. Our data showed that both mRNA and protein expression levels of PTTG1 in OSCC tissue specimens were markedly higher than that in the corresponding non-tumor tissue samples. A high level of PTTG1 protein expression was found in 74 out of 98 cases (75.51 %) and it was correlated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.002) and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (P = 0.007) of patients with OSCC. Moreover, forced overexpression of PTTG1 enhanced SCC15 cell migration and invasion, whereas knockdown of PTTG1 resulted in reverse phenomena. In addition, elevated PTTG1 also increased the activities and expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) process in SCC15 cells. The EMT changes were accompanied by downregulation of epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) protein expression and upregulation of snail and vimentin. In summary, our results illustrate that PTTG1 may contribute to the development and progression of human OSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13277-014-2143-2DOI Listing
September 2014

IL-17A (-197G/A) and IL-17F (7488T/C) gene polymorphisms and cancer risk in Asian population: a meta-analysis.

Onco Targets Ther 2014 13;7:703-11. Epub 2014 May 13.

Department of Oromaxillofacial, Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang, People's Republic of China.

Interleukin (IL)-17 has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammation and cancer. The IL-17A (-197G/A) and IL-17F (7488T/C) polymorphisms have been extensively investigated with cancer risk, but individually published results have been inconclusive. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of the IL-17A (-197G/A) and IL-17F (7488T/C) polymorphisms on cancer risk in Asian populations. Relevant studies were identified by searching databases extensively. The association between the IL-17A (-197G/A) and IL-17F (7488T/C) polymorphisms and cancer risk was assessed by odds ratios (ORs) together with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 12 articles with adequate information satisfied our inclusion criteria; these included 12 studies, with 4,540 cases and 5,875 controls, of IL-17A (-197G/A) polymorphism and seven studies, with 1,960 cases and 3,226 controls, of IL-17F (7488T/C) polymorphism. In the overall analysis, the IL-17A (-197G/A) polymorphism was significantly associated with increased cancer risk (P<0.05), for all genetic models. However, there was no statistically significant association between IL-17F (7488T/C) and cancer risk (P>0.05), for any genetic models. Furthermore, stratification by cancer type revealed a significant correlation between the IL-17A (-197G/A) polymorphism and cancer risk for all cancer types. When stratified by source of controls, a significant correlation was observed between the IL-17A (-197G/A) polymorphism and cancer risk in the population-based control subgroup but not in hospital-based control subgroup. In conclusion, our meta-analysis provides evidence that the IL-17A (-197G/A) polymorphism might be associated with cancer risk, while no evidence suggested a significant association between IL-17F (7488T/C) polymorphism and cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S62781DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4027853PMC
May 2014

High expression of SOX2 is associated with poor prognosis in patients with salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma.

Int J Mol Sci 2014 May 13;15(5):8393-406. Epub 2014 May 13.

Department of Oromaxillofacial-Head and Neck Surgery & Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110002, China.

Sex determining region Y-BOX2 (SOX2), one of the key members of the SOX family, is a transcription factor that is involved in the maintenance of embryonic stem cell pluripotency and in multiple developmental processes. Recent studies have shown that SOX2 is aberrantly expressed in several types of tumors. The present study aimed to investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of SOX2 in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of salivary gland. In this study, the expression of SOX2 in ACC tissues and matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues was measured by immunohistochemistry, western blot, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. High SOX2 expression occurred in approximately 62.6% of primary ACC. In addition, high expression of SOX2 was significantly associated with T classification (p=0.003) and distant metastasis (p=0.002). The 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with high SOX2 expression is poorer than those with low SOX2 expression. When adjusted by multivariate analysis, high SOX2 expression, together with distant metastasis, was an independent prognostic factor. The findings of the present study provide evidence that SOX2 represents a potential novel prognostic biomarker for ACC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms15058393DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4057738PMC
May 2014

Modified visor approach applied to total or subtotal glossectomy and reconstruction: avoidance of lip splitting and mandibulotomy and cutting off mental nerve.

Tumour Biol 2014 Aug 13;35(8):7847-52. Epub 2014 May 13.

Department of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450052, Henan, China.

A lower lip-splitting incision has traditionally been performed with different types of mandibulotomy approaches for obtaining wide access to total or subtotal glossectomy. However, lip splitting can be associated with unfavorable aesthetic and function results. We describe our new modification of a traditional visor approach without lip splitting, mandibulotomy, and reserve mental nerve to avoid these morbidities and to compare aesthetic, functional, and patient subjective outcomes between the two access procedures.Of the patients undergoing total or subtotal glossectomy and reconstruction with flaps, 99 were grouped according to a surgical access procedure performed (lip split and mandibulotomy [LSM] or modified visor approach [MVA]). Data on surgical morbidity and outcomes were compared. All the tumors were safely removed by means of our modified visor approach through the combined intraoral and transcervical routes with adequate resection margins. There were no troublesome difficulties in reconstruction of the surgical defects with various flaps. Recurrence rates, swallowing, chewing, and speech were similar for both groups. Rates of postoperative fistulae were 9.3 % (LSM) vs 0 % (MVA). There were significant differences between the two groups in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) signs (p = 0.000) and for appearance domains (p = 0.01). Avoiding lip splitting and mandibulotomy reduces patient morbidity and hospital stay and gets excellent aesthetic consequences; reserve mental nerve can avoid lower lip numbness after surgery. In our experience, the lower lip-splitting and mandibulotomy procedure for surgical exposure is unnecessary for both oncologic resection and reconstruction of tongue cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13277-014-2036-4DOI Listing
August 2014

Association between polymorphisms in ERCC2 gene and oral cancer risk: evidence from a meta-analysis.

BMC Cancer 2013 Dec 12;13:594. Epub 2013 Dec 12.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Nanjing North Street, Shenyang, Heping District 110002, People's Republic of China.

Background: Excision repair cross-complementing group 2 (ERCC2) plays important roles in the repair of DNA damage and adducts. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ERCC2 gene are suspected to influence the risks of oral cancer. We performed a meta-analysis to systematically summarize the possible association of ERCC2 rs1799793 and rs13181 polymorphisms with oral cancer risks.

Methods: We retrieved the relevant articles from PubMed and Embase databases. Studies were selected using specific criteria. ORs and 95% CIs were calculated to assess the association. All analyses were performed using the Stata software.

Results: Six studies were included in this meta-analysis. There were no significant associations between ERCC2 rs1799793 and rs13181 polymorphism with overall oral cancer risk. In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, no significant associations were found. In the stratified analysis by tumor type, the risk of oral leukoplakia was significant associated with rs13181 polymorphism (AC vs. AA: OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.01-1.62, P = 0.546 for heterogeneity, I² = 0.0%; CC vs. AA: OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 0.99-3.79, P = 0.057 for heterogeneity, I² = 60.1%; dominant model AC + CC vs. AA: OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.08-1.69, P = 0.303 for heterogeneity, I² = 17.6%; allele C vs. A: OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.04-1.82. P = 0.043 for heterogeneity, I² = 56.4%).

Conclusion: Rs13181 in ERCC2 gene might be associated with oral leukoplakia risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-13-594DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3878799PMC
December 2013

Cetuximab inhibits oral squamous cell carcinoma invasion and metastasis via degradation of epidermal growth factor receptor.

J Oral Pathol Med 2014 Apr 11;43(4):250-7. Epub 2013 Sep 11.

Department of Oromaxillofacial-Head and Neck Surgery, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China.

Cetuximab (Erbitux, C225) is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to the extracellular domain of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), inhibiting tumor growth, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. However, the mechanisms underlying the effect of Cetuximab in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remain unclear. Here, we report that Cetuximab modulates EGFR protein stability through the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway, resulting in the inhibition of human OSCC growth. Cetuximab significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of human OSCC cells by blocking epithelial/mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the AKT and ERK pathways. Furthermore, Cetuximab-inhibited cell growth by modulating the expression of integrin β5. Taken together, these results provide novel insights into the mechanism of Cetuximab action and suggest potential therapeutic strategies for OSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jop.12116DOI Listing
April 2014

Vascularized free forearm flap versus free anterolateral thigh perforator flaps for reconstruction in patients with head and neck cancer: assessment of quality of life.

Head Neck 2013 Dec 3;35(12):1808-13. Epub 2013 May 3.

Department of Oromaxillofacial-Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Background: This study investigated the quality of life of Chinese patients with malignant tumors who had undergone immediate free flap reconstruction surgery. In addition, we compared 2 groups of patients: those who had received radial forearm free flap surgery and others who had received free anterolateral thigh perforator flap surgery.

Methods: Quality of life was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study-Short Form-36 (MOS SF-36) and the University of Washington Quality of Life (UW-QOL) questionnaires 12 months after reconstruction.

Results: A total of 121 of 163 questionnaires were returned (74.2%). There were significant differences between the 2 groups in the T classification (p < .005). Patients reconstructed with free anterolateral thigh perforator flaps performed better in the appearance and shoulder domains, and the role emotion and social functioning domains.

Conclusions: Using either radial forearm free flaps or free anterolateral thigh perforator flaps for reconstruction of head and neck defects after cancer resection significantly influences a patient's quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hed.23254DOI Listing
December 2013
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