Publications by authors named "Chang-Gue Son"

170 Publications

Genotoxicity of Water Extract from Bark-Removed Stokes.

Molecules 2021 Feb 8;26(4). Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Institute of Bioscience & Integrative Medicine, Daejeon University, 176 split 75 Daedeokdae-ro Seo-gu, Daejeon 35235, Korea.

(RVS) has been traditionally used as an herbal remedy to support the digestive functions in traditional Korean medicine. Additionally, the pharmacological effects of RVS, including antioxidative, antimicrobial and anticancer activities, have been well-reported. The genotoxicity of RVS, however, is elusive; thus, we evaluated the genotoxicity of RVS without bark (RVX) for safe application as a resource of functional food or a medical drug. To evaluate the genotoxicity of RVX, we used a bacterial reverse mutation test, chromosomal aberration test and comet assay, according to the "Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development" (OECD) guidelines. Briefly, for the reverse mutation test, samples (5000, 1667, 556, 185, 62 and 0 μg/plate of RVX or the positive control) were treated with a precultured strain (TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537 or WP2µvrA) with or without the S9 mix, in which RVX partially induced a reverse mutation in four bacterial strains. From the chromosomal aberration test and comet assay, the RVX samples (556, 185, 62, 20 and 0 μg/mL of RVX or the positive control) were treated in a Chinese hamster ovary cell line (CHO-K1 cells) in the conditions of the S9 mix absent or S9 mix present and in Chang liver cells and C2C12 myoblasts, respectively. No chromosomal aberrations in CHO-K1 or DNA damage in Chang liver cells and C2C12 myoblasts was observed. In conclusion, our results suggest the non-genotoxicity of RVX, which would be helpful as a reference for the safe application of bark-removed as functional raw materials in the food, cosmetics or pharmaceutical fields.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26040896DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7914431PMC
February 2021

A Comparison of Isolation Stress and Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress for the Establishment of Mouse Models of Depressive Disorder.

Front Behav Neurosci 2020 7;14:616389. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Institute of Bioscience & Integrative Medicine, Dunsan Hospital of Daejeon University, Daejeon, South Korea.

This study aimed to help to understand the influence of stress on depression, which reflects the social environments of especially solitary life and the increasing prevalence of depressive disorders. To determine the distinguishable features of two-representative animal models of stress-induced depressive disorder, we compared isolation stress (IS) and unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS). After 4-week of stress, both models showed significant depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors in an open field test (OFT; < 0.01 for IS, < 0.01 for UCMS), forced swimming test (FST; < 0.01 for IS, < 0.01 for UCMS), and tail suspension test (TST; < 0.01 for IS, < 0.05 for UCMS) along with alterations in serum corticosterone levels, serotonin activity in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN) and microglial activity in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus ( < 0.05 for both parameters). In a comparison of the two stress models, IS strongly induced depressive and anxiety features, as indicated by all parameters: behavior test scores ( < 0.05 for OFT, FST, and TST), serum corticosterone levels ( < 0.05), immunohistological alterations for serotonin activity ( < 0.05) and microglial activity ( = 0.072). Our results indicate the suitability of IS for the development of animal models of depressive disorders and may reveal the medical impact of social isolation environment in modern society.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2020.616389DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7817641PMC
January 2021

Total Antioxidant Capacity in HBV Carriers, a Promising Biomarker for Evaluating Hepatic Fibrosis: A Pilot Study.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Jan 8;10(1). Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Institute of Bioscience & Integrative Medicine, Daejeon University, 75, Daedeok-daero 176, Seo-gu, Daejeon 35235, Korea.

Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the progression of chronic hepatitis B; however, it is unclear whether the status of blood oxidative stress and antioxidant components differs depending on the degree of hepatic fibrosis. To explore the relationship between oxidative stress/antioxidant capacity and the extent of hepatic fibrosis, fifty-four subjects with liver fibrosis (5.5 ≤ liver stiffness measurement (LSM) score ≤ 16.0 kPa) by chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) were analyzed. From the analysis of eight kinds of serum oxidative stress/antioxidant profiles and liver fibrosis degrees, the level of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) reflected a negative correlation with the severity of hepatic fibrosis (Pearson correlation, r = -0.35, = 0.01). Moreover, TAC showed higher sensitivity (73.91%) than the aspartate transaminase (AST) to platelet ratio index (APRI, 56.52%) in the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Interestingly, the TAC level finely reflected the fibrosis degree in inactive carriers (HBV DNA < 2000 IU/mL), while the APRI did in active carriers (HBV DNA > 2000 IU/mL). In conclusion, TAC is a promising biomarker for evaluating the progression of liver fibrosis in patients with HBV, and this finding may indicate the involvement of TAC-composing factors in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis in chronic HBV carriers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10010077DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7826661PMC
January 2021

Correction to: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials for chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME).

J Transl Med 2020 Dec 23;18(1):492. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Institute of Traditional Medicine and Bioscience, Dunsan Oriental Hospital of Daejeon University, 75, Daedeok-daero 176, Seo-gu, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-020-02603-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7758917PMC
December 2020

The Prospects of the Two-Day Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test (CPET) in ME/CFS Patients: A Meta-Analysis.

J Clin Med 2020 Dec 14;9(12). Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Korean Medicine, Institute of Bioscience and Integrative Medicine, Daejeon University, 62 Daehak-ro, Dong-gu, Daejeon 34520, Korea.

Background: The diagnosis of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is problematic due to the lack of established objective measurements. Postexertional malaise (PEM) is a hallmark of ME/CFS, and the two-day cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) has been tested as a tool to assess functional impairment in ME/CFS patients. This study aimed to estimate the potential of the CPET.

Methods: We reviewed studies of the two-day CPET and meta-analyzed the differences between ME/CFS patients and controls regarding four parameters: volume of oxygen consumption and level of workload at peak (VO, Workload) and at ventilatory threshold (VO@VT, Workload@VT).

Results: The overall mean values of all parameters were lower on the 2nd day of the CPET than the 1st in ME/CFS patients, while it increased in the controls. From the meta-analysis, the difference between patients and controls was highly significant at Workload@VT (overall mean: -10.8 at Test 1 vs. -33.0 at Test 2, < 0.05), which may reflect present the functional impairment associated with PEM.

Conclusions: Our results show the potential of the two-day CPET to serve as an objective assessment of PEM in ME/CFS patients. Further clinical trials are required to validate this tool compared to other fatigue-inducing disorders, including depression, using well-designed large-scale studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9124040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7765094PMC
December 2020

Systematic Review of Primary Outcome Measurements for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) in Randomized Controlled Trials.

J Clin Med 2020 Oct 28;9(11). Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Institute of Bioscience & Integrative Medicine, Dunsan Oriental Hospital of Daejeon University, 75, Daedeok-daero 176, Seo-gu, Daejeon 35235, Korea.

Background: Due to its unknown etiology, the objective diagnosis and therapeutics of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) are still challenging. Generally, the patient-reported outcome (PRO) is the major strategy driving treatment response because the patient is the most important judge of whether changes are meaningful.

Methods: In order to determine the overall characteristics of the main outcome measurement applied in clinical trials for CFS/ME, we systematically surveyed the literature using two electronic databases, PubMed and the Cochrane Library, throughout June 2020. We analyzed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for CFS/ME focusing especially on main measurements.

Results: Fifty-two RCTs out of a total 540 searched were selected according to eligibility criteria. Thirty-one RCTs (59.6%) used single primary outcome and others adapted ≥2 kinds of measurements. In total, 15 PRO-derived tools were adapted (50 RCTs; 96.2%) along with two behavioral measurements for adolescents (4 RCTs; 7.7%). The 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36; 16 RCTs), Checklist Individual Strength (CIS; 14 RCTs), and Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire (CFQ; 11 RCTs) were most frequently used as the main outcomes. Since the first RCT in 1996, Clinical Global Impression (CGI) and SF-36 have been dominantly used each in the first and following decade (26.1% and 28.6%, respectively), while both CIS and Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI) have been the preferred instruments (21.4% each) in recent years (2016 to 2020).

Conclusions: This review comprehensively provides the choice pattern of the assessment tools for interventions in RCTs for CFS/ME. Our data would be helpful practically in the design of clinical studies for CFS/ME-related therapeutic development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113463DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7692998PMC
October 2020

Incidence Rate of Hypersensitivity Reactions to Bee-Venom Acupuncture.

Front Pharmacol 2020 7;11:545555. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Gastrobilliary System, Dunsan Hospital of Daejeon University, Daejeon, South Korea.

Introduction: Bee-venom acupuncture (BVA) has been widely applied to various disorders including pain-related diseases; however, patients are often warned of adverse reactions such as anaphylaxis. This study aimed to estimate the risk of hypersensitivity reactions to BVA and to determine their clinical features.

Methods: We retrospectively surveyed the medical records of patients treated by BVA between January 2010 and April 2019 in Dunsan Hospital of Daejeon University, and all cases of allergic reactions and their clinical symptoms were analyzed.

Results: A total of 8,580 patients (males 4,081 and females 4,499) were treated with BVA which amounts to a total of 60,654 treatments (average 7.1 ± 14.8 times). A total of fifteen patients (7 males and 8 females) reported an allergic reaction (0.175%, 95% CI, 0.086-0.263) of type 1 hypersensitivity, indicating a rate of allergic reaction in 0.025% (95% CI, 0.012-0.037) of the total BVA treatments. The average number of BVA treatments in those patients was 6.9 ± 6.5 (males: 4.1 ± 3.4 and females: 9.3 ± 7.9). Among the cases of hypersensitivity reactions, 4 involved anaphylactic shock; therefore, the incidence rate of anaphylaxis was 0.047% (95% CI, 0.001-0.092) for the 8,580 subjects and 0.007% (95% CI, 0.000-0.013) for the 60,654 treatments. All grade 1 cases were recovered within 1 day, whereas others took up to 30 days for complete recovery.

Conclusion: Our results may emphasize paying attention to unforeseeable risks of anaphylaxis after bee-venom acupuncture. This study could be essential reference data for the guidelines of appropriate use of bee-venom acupuncture and bee-venom-derived interventions in clinical applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.545555DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7577189PMC
October 2020

Reliability and Validity of the Modified Korean Version of the Chalder Fatigue Scale (mKCFQ11).

Healthcare (Basel) 2020 Oct 24;8(4). Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Department of Korean Medicine, Institute of Bioscience and Integrative Medicine, Daejeon University, Daejeon 300-716, Korea.

Fatigue can accompany various diseases; however, fatigue itself is a key symptom for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Due to the absence of biological parameters for the diagnosis and severity of CFS, the assessment tool for the degree of fatigue is very important. This study aims to verify the reliability and validity of the modified Korean version of the Chalder Fatigue Scale (mKCFQ11). This study was performed using data from 97 participants (Male: 37, Female: 60) enrolled in a clinical trial for an intervention of CFS. The analyses of the coefficient between the mKCFQ11 score and the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) or the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) at two time points (baseline and 12 weeks) as well as their changed values were conducted. The mKCFQ11 showed strong reliability, as evidenced by the Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.967 for the whole item and two subclasses (0.963 for physical and 0.958 for mental fatigue) along with the suitable validity of the mKCFQ11 structure shown by the principal component analysis. The mKCFQ11 scores also strongly correlated (higher than 0.7) with the VAS, FSS and SF-36 on all data from baseline and 12 weeks and changed values. This study demonstrated the clinical usefulness of the mKCFQ11 instrument, particularly in assessing the severity of fatigue and the evaluation of treatments for patients suffering from CFS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040427DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7712859PMC
October 2020

A standardized herbal combination of Astragalus membranaceus and Paeonia japonica, protects against muscle atrophy in a C26 colon cancer cachexia mouse model.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Mar 14;267:113470. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Institute of Bioscience & Integrative Medicine, Daejeon University, Daejeon University, Daejeon, 35235, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) and Bunge and Paeonia japonica (Makino)Miyabe & H.Takeda have been traditionally used to improve the poor quality of life such as weakness, lack of appetite, fatigue, and malaise which is considered with cachexia condition.

Aim Of The Study: We investigated anti-cachectic effects of a herbal formula composed of Astragalus membranaceus and Paeonia japonica (APX) and the molecular mechanisms of APX in C26 cancer-induced cachexia mice and TNF-a-treated C2C12 myotubes. Additionally synergistic anti-cachectic effects of APX were compared to those of individual herbal extracts and megestrol acetate.

Methods And Materials: The forty-two BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 6 groups: normal (nontreatment), control (C26 injection), AM (C26 injection with Astragalus membranaceus), PJ (C26 injection with Paeonia japonica), APX (C26 injection with combination of Astragalus membranaceus and Paeonia japonica and MA (C26 injection with megestrol acetate). All mice were orally administered DW (normal and control groups) or 100 mg/kg AM, PJ, APX or MA for 10 days. In the animal model, several tissues were weighed, and muscle tissue and blood were used to measure pro-inflammatory cytokines. C2C12 myotubes were exposed to 100 ng/mL TNF- α with or without 10 μg/mL of AM, PJ, APX or MA for 48 h. The cells were used to immunofluorescence staining and western blot analyses.

Results: C26 injection induced notable body and muscle weight loss while APX administration significantly attenuated these alterations and the decrease of muscle weights and strength. APX also significantly attenuated the abnormal elevations in the concentration of three muscle atrophy-inducible cytokines; serum and muscle TNF-α,muscle TWEAK and IL-6 in C26 tumor-bearing mice. In the TNF-α-treated C2C12 myotube model, TNF-α treatment notably decreased MyH but activated atrophic proteins (MuRF and Fbx32) along with p38 and NFκB while these molecular alterations were significantly ameliorated by APX treatment. These pharmacological actions of APX were supported by the results of immunofluorescence staining to MyH expression and the translocation of NFκB into the nucleus in C2C12 myotubes.

Conclusions: Our data indicate the potential of an herbal formula, APX as an anti-cachexia agent; the effect of APX was superior to that of megestrol acetate overall especially for muscle atrophy. The underlying mechanisms of this herbal formula may involve the modulation of muscle atrophy-promoting molecules including p38, NFκB, TNF-α and TWEAK.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.113470DOI Listing
March 2021

Herbal Transformation by Fermentation.

J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2020 Oct 7;13(5):167-168. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Beauty and Health Management, Daejeon University, Republic of Korea.

We herein show a dramatic change of herbal properties of the composition as well as function via fermentation of Cynanchi atrati Radix (family Asclepiadaceae). Cynanchi atrati Radix showed a high cytotoxicity against B16-F10 melanoma cell line, but the function of Cynanchi atrati Radix was completely changed into anti-melanin activity at very low concentration after Lactobacillus -fermentation. In addition, the compounds were drastically changed as shown in HPLC-based profile. Furthermore, this transformation has been achieved by only Lactobacillus -fermentation. This study proposes an strategy which we need to consider in the herb-derived material researches including pharmacopuncture.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jams.2020.10.001DOI Listing
October 2020

Systematic review on the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in South Korea.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2020 Sep 9:101526. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Liver and Immunology Research Center, Dunsan Oriental Hospital of Daejeon University, # 35353 Daedukdae-ro 176 bun-gil 75, Seo-gu, Daejeon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Aims: We aimed to conduct a systematic review and a meta-analysis to estimate NAFLD prevalence and its change in Korea.

Methods: We searched the literature involving NAFLD prevalence in Korea in PubMed, RISS, and KMBASE from inception to June 2017. Studies with subjects with certain disorders, population limitations, or subjects who consume alcohol were excluded. Analysis was stratified by publication year, age, gender, severity, body mass index (BMI), and diagnostic technique. Random-effects models were used to provide point estimates (95% confidence interval) of prevalence with subgroup analysis to account for heterogeneity.

Results: A total of 61 studies (837,897 participants) were included. The overall NAFLD prevalence in Korea was 30.3% (men: 41.1%, women: 20.3%), with a slight increase from 29.0% to 31.0% over an approximately 10-year period. BMI significantly affected NAFLD prevalence (≤ or > 25 kg/m, 12.3% vs. 41.7%, p < 0.001), while women were significantly affected by aging (< or ≥ 50 years, 17.0% vs. 25.8%, p < 0.01). The prevalence of steatosis by severity was 22.6% for mild, 9.8% for moderate to severe and 2.2% for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), with different patterns by gender.

Conclusion: The current study is the first systematic analysis on NAFLD prevalence in Korea and found a change in NAFLD prevalence during the recent decade.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinre.2020.06.022DOI Listing
September 2020

Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Ameliorates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in a High-Fat Diet Mouse Model.

Nutrients 2020 Aug 13;12(8). Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Liver and Immunology Research Center, Dunsan Oriental Hospital of Daejeon University Daedukdae-ro 176 bun-gil 75, Seo-gu, Daejeon 35353, Korea.

The global prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is estimated to be 25% and has continued to increase; however, no drugs have yet been approved for NAFLD treatments. The ethyl acetate fraction of (EFAX) was previously reported to have an anti-hepatic fibrosis effect, but its effects on steatosis or steatohepatitis remain unclear. This study investigated the anti-fatty liver of EFAX using a high-fat diet mouse model. High-fat diet intake for 8 weeks induced hepatic steatosis with mild inflammation and oxidative damage and increased the adipose tissue weight along with the development of dyslipidemia. EFAX treatment significantly ameliorated the steatohepatic changes, the increased weight of adipose tissues, and the altered serum lipid profiles. These observed effects were possibly due to the lipolysis-dominant activity of EFAX on multiple hepatic proteins including sterol regulatory element-binding protein (mSREBP)-1c, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α, AMP-activated protein kinase, and diglyceride acyltransferases (DGATs). Taken together, these results show that EFAX might be a potential therapeutic agent for regulating a wide spectrum of NAFLDs from steatosis to fibrosis via multiple actions on lipid metabolism-related proteins. Further studies investigating clear mechanisms and their active compounds are needed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12082433DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7468949PMC
August 2020

Analysis of patents targeting antimetastatic effect using herbal materials.

Integr Med Res 2020 Dec 20;9(4):100427. Epub 2020 May 20.

Liver and Immunology Research Center, Daejeon Korean Hospital of Daejeon University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imr.2020.100427DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7394849PMC
December 2020

Aquilariae Lignum Methylene Chloride Fraction Attenuates IL-1β-Driven Neuroinflammation in BV2 Microglial Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jul 30;21(15). Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Institute of Bioscience & Integrative Medicine, Dunsan Hospital of Daejeon University, Daejeon 35235, Korea.

Microglial hyperactivation and neuroinflammation are known to induce neuronal death, which is one of the main causes of neurodegenerative disorders. We previously found that Aquilariae Lignum extract attenuated both neuronal excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation in vivo and in vitro. For further analysis, we extracted the methylene chloride fraction of Aquilariae Lignum to determine the bioactive compounds. In this study, we investigated the anti-neuroinflammatory effects and underlying mechanisms of the Aquilariae Lignum fraction (ALF) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. BV2 cells were pretreated with ALF (0.5, 1, and 2.5 μg/mL) before treatment with LPS (1 μg/mL). Pretreatment with ALF significantly attenuated the LPS-induced overproductions of nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E (PGE), and interleukin (IL)-1β. These anti-inflammatory effects were supported by ALF-mediated modulation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. Furthermore, ALF exerted strong anti-inflammasome effects, as shown by IL-1β-specific inhibitory activity, but not activity against tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, along with inhibition of caspase-1 activity and NACHT, LRR, and PYD domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3)-related molecules. These results indicate the potent anti-neuroinflammatory activity of ALF and that its underlying mechanism may involve the regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome-derived neuroinflammation in microglial cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155465DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7432889PMC
July 2020

Combating Drug Resistance in Colorectal Cancer Using Herbal Medicines.

Chin J Integr Med 2020 Aug 1. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Department of Clinical Oncology, Cheonan Korean Medicine Hospital of Daejeon University, Cheonan, 31099, Republic of Korea.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent and lethal cancer types around the world. Most of the CRC patients are treated with chemotherapeutic drugs alone or combined. However, up to 90% of metastatic cancer patients experience the failure of treatment mostly because of the acquired drug resistance, which can be led to multidrug resistance (MDR). In this study, we reviewed the recent literature which studied potential CRC MDR reversal agents among herbal medicines (HMs). Among abundant HMs, 6 single herbs, Andrographis paniculata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Hedyotis diffusa, Sophora flavescens, Curcuma longa, Bufo gargarizans, and 2 formulae, Pien Tze Huang and Zhi Zhen Fang, were found to overcome CRC MDR by two or more different mechanisms, which could be a promising candidate in the development of new drugs for adjuvant CRC chemotherapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11655-020-3425-8DOI Listing
August 2020

Review of case definitions for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS).

J Transl Med 2020 07 29;18(1):289. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Institute of Bioscience and Integrative Medicine, Department of Korean Medicine, Daejeon University, 62 Daehak-ro, Dong-gu, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

Background: Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating disease with unknown causes. From the perspectives on the etiology and pathophysiology, ME/CFS has been labeled differently, which influenced changes in case definitions and terminologies. This review sought to feature aspects of the history, developments, and differential symptoms in the case definitions.

Methods: A search was conducted through PubMed published to February 2020 using the following search keywords: case definition AND chronic fatigue syndrome [MeSH Terms]. All reference lists of the included studies were checked. Of the included studies, the number of citations and the visibility in the literatures of the definitions were considered for comparisons of the criteria.

Results: Since the first 'ME' case definition was developed in 1986, 25 case definitions/diagnostic criteria were created based on three conceptual factors (etiology, pathophysiology, and exclusionary disorders). These factors can be categorized into four categories (ME, ME/CFS, CFS, and SEID) and broadly characterized according to primary disorder (ME-viral, CFS-unknown, ME/CFS-inflammatory, SEID-multisystemic), compulsory symptoms (ME and ME/CFS-neuroinflammatory, CFS and SEID-fatigue and/or malaise), and required conditions (ME-infective agent, ME/CFS, CFS, SEID-symptoms associated with fatigue, e.g., duration of illness). ME and ME/CFS widely cover all symptom categories, while CFS mainly covers neurologic and neurocognitive symptoms. Fatigue, cognitive impairment, PEM, sleep disorder, and orthostatic intolerance were the overlapping symptoms of the 4 categories, which were included as SEID criteria.

Conclusions: This study comprehensively described the journey of the development of case definitions and compared the symptom criteria. This review provides broader insights and explanations to understand the complexity of ME/CFS for clinicians and researchers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-020-02455-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7391812PMC
July 2020

A survey of herbal medicines as tumor microenvironment-modulating agents.

Phytother Res 2021 Jan 13;35(1):78-94. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Dept. of Clinical Oncology, Cheonan Korean Medicine Hospital of Daejeon University, Cheonan-si, Republic of Korea.

The tumor microenvironment (TME) is extremely complex, involving extensive interactions among stromal cells, immune cells, and signaling molecules. Therefore, an approach targeting the TME has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy. Herbal medicines consist of multiple active compounds, which have multi-target effects. Therefore, they have been regarded as potential anticancer agents; multiple studies have explored their effects on the TME. In this review, we report the effects of 29 single herb medicines or herbal formulas on the TME, based on the findings of 64 published studies. Specifically, we describe the effects of these herbal medicines on cancer-associated fibroblasts/tumor-associated fibroblasts, tumor-associated endothelial cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and tumor-associated macrophages. Among the reviewed herbal medicines, the most promising TME-modulating effects were exhibited by curcumin, DHA, EGCG, resveratrol, and silibinin; these medicines showed the ability to regulate two or more components of the TME. The findings of this review support the notion that the combination of herbal medicines with conventional anticancer therapies are likely to exhibit a clinical benefit, which should be further explored in clinical trials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6784DOI Listing
January 2021

An Herbal Formula CG Ameliorates Stress-Induced Hepatic Injury in a BALB/c Mouse Model.

Front Pharmacol 2020 14;11:447. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Liver and Immunology Research Center, Dunsan Oriental Hospital of Daejeon University, Daejeon, South Korea.

Introduction: Stress is a well-known factor for inflammation in diverse organs/tissues. Stress also leads to liver injury, which was supported by clinical observations and animal studies. We herein investigated the hepatoprotective property of an herbal formula (called as CG) consisting of Artemisia gmelinii Weber ex Stechm. (syn, Kitamura), Wurfbainia villosa var. xanthioides (Wall. ex Baker) Skornick. & A.D.Poulsen (syn, Wallich), and Bunge against stress-induced hepatic damage.

Methods: Male BALB/c mice were orally administered water extract of CG (0, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg) daily for 5 days, and then subjected to immobilization stress for 6 h on the 5 day.

Results: Acute immobilization stress elevated remarkably serum concentrations of stress hormones (corticosterone and adrenaline) and two hepatic injury parameters (ALT and AST), while these alterations were significantly attenuated by the administration of CG. The increases of oxidative parameters (ROS, NO, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonyl) and deviation of IL-1β and IL-10 in opposite directions in hepatic tissues were significantly normalized by CG. Pre-treatment with CG also notably ameliorated the abnormal activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), CD14, and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LPB) as well as infiltration of neutrophils in hepatic tissues.

Conclusion: These results suggest that an herbal formula (CG) derived from traditional pharmaceutical theory has a potent protective effect against stress-induced hepatic injury regulation of pro- (IL-1β) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00447DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7171450PMC
April 2020

Anti-hepatofibrotic effects of CGX, a standardized herbal formula: A multicenter randomized clinical trial.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 Jun 20;126:110105. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Liver and Immunology Research Center, Dunsan Oriental Hospital of Daejeon University, 35353, Daedukdae-ro 176 bun-gil 75, Seo-gu, Daejeon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Chunggan extract (CGX) is an herbal formula used for the treatment of chronic liver disease in traditional Korean medicine. Many preclinical studies have suggested its therapeutic or preventive effects on liver fibrosis. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of CGX, we conducted a randomized controlled clinical trial of CGX in patients with liver fibrosis diagnosed by Fibroscan.

Methods: We enrolled 67 subjects at two hospitals with chronic liver disorders with a 5.5 ≤ liver stiffness measurement (LSM) score ≤ 16 kPa. Subjects were randomly assigned at a 1:1:1 ratio with stratification (with/without concomitant use of antivirals) and orally administered CGX (1 g or 2 g) or placebo twice daily for 24 weeks. The end point was the change in instantaneous elasticity of the liver assessed by Fibroscan before and after treatment.

Results: LSM scores were significantly decreased in both the CGX1 g (2.5 ± 1.7 kPa, p < 0.01) and CGX2 g (1.9 ± 2.0 kPa, p < 0.05) groups compared to the placebo (0.6 ± 1.6 kPa) group. The change was also significant in 35 subjects without concomitant use of antiviral agents in the CGX1 g group (placebo 0.1 ± 1.4 kPa vs. 2.7 ± 1.6 kPa, p < 0.01) but not in those with concomitant antiviral use (p > 0.05). No notable adverse events were present.

Conclusion: CGX appeared to have a pharmacological effect against liver fibrosis. Further studies to confirm the results are needed in the future using a larger sample size.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110105DOI Listing
June 2020

The myokine meteorin-like (metrnl) improves glucose tolerance in both skeletal muscle cells and mice by targeting AMPKα2.

FEBS J 2020 May 19;287(10):2087-2104. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Department of Anatomy, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Meteorin-like (metrnl) is a recently identified adipomyokine that beneficially affects glucose metabolism; however, its underlying mechanism of action is not completely understood. We here show that the level of metrnl increases in vitro under electrical pulse stimulation and in vivo in exercised mice, suggesting that metrnl is secreted during muscle contractions. In addition, metrnl increases glucose uptake via the calcium-dependent AMPKα2 pathway in skeletal muscle cells and increases the phosphorylation of HDAC5, a transcriptional repressor of GLUT4, in an AMPKα2-dependent manner. Phosphorylated HDAC5 interacts with 14-3-3 proteins and sequesters them in the cytoplasm, resulting in the activation of GLUT4 transcription. An intraperitoneal injection of recombinant metrnl improved glucose tolerance in mice with high-fat-diet-induced obesity or type 2 diabetes, but not in AMPK β1β2 muscle-specific null mice. Metrnl improves glucose metabolism via AMPKα2 and is a promising therapeutic candidate for glucose-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.15301DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7383816PMC
May 2020

Systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME).

J Transl Med 2020 02 24;18(1):100. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Institute of Bioscience and Integrative Medicine, Department of Korean Medicine, Daejeon University, 62 Daehak-ro, Dong-gu, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

Background: Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) has been emerging as a significant health issue worldwide. This study aimed to systemically assess the prevalence of CFS/ME in various aspects of analyses for precise assessment.

Methods: We systematically searched prevalence of CFS/ME from public databases from 1980 to December 2018. Data were extracted according to 7 categories for analysis: study participants, gender and age of the participants, case definition, diagnostic method, publication year, and country of the study conducted. Prevalence data were collected and counted individually for studies adopted various case definitions. We analyzed and estimated prevalence rates in various angles: average prevalence, pooled prevalence and meta-analysis of all studies.

Results: A total of 1291 articles were initially identified, and 45 articles (46 studies, 56 prevalence data) were selected for this study. Total 1085,976 participants were enrolled from community-based survey (540,901) and primary care sites (545,075). The total average prevalence was 1.40 ± 1.57%, pooled prevalence 0.39%, and meta-analysis 0.68% [95% CI 0.48-0.97]. The prevalence rates were varied by enrolled participants (gender, study participants, and population group), case definitions and diagnostic methods. For example, in the meta-analysis; women (1.36% [95% CI 0.48-0.97]) vs. men (0.86% [95% CI 0.48-0.97]), community-based samples (0.76% [95% CI 0.53-1.10]) vs. primary care sites (0.63% [95% CI 0.37-1.10]), adults ≥ 18 years (0.65% [95% CI 0.43-0.99]) vs. children and adolescents < 18 years (0.55% [95% CI 0.22-1.35]), CDC-1994 (0.89% [95% CI 0.60-1.33]) vs. Holmes (0.17% [95% CI 0.06-0.49]), and interviews (1.14% [95% CI 0.76-1.72]) vs. physician diagnosis (0.09% [95% CI 0.05-0.13]), respectively.

Conclusions: This study comprehensively estimated the prevalence of CFS/ME; 0.89% according to the most commonly used case definition CDC-1994, with women approximately 1.5 to 2 folds higher than men in all categories. However, we observed the prevalence rates are widely varied particularly by case definitions and diagnostic methods. An objective diagnostic tool is urgently required for rigorous assessment of the prevalence of CFS/ME.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-020-02269-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7038594PMC
February 2020

, A Standardized Herbal Drug, Exerts an Anti-Depressive Effect in a Social Isolation Stress-Induced Mouse Model.

Front Pharmacol 2019 31;10:1674. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Liver and Immunology Research Center, Daejeon Korean Medicine Hospital of Daejeon University, Daejeon, South Korea.

Introduction: (UCW) is one of the most representative standardized herbal drugs for the treatment of central nervous system diseases, including mood disorders, and has been used for over 600 years in Korea and China. In spite of the long clinical application of UCW, no experimental evidence for its use against depressive disorders exists. Here, we performed an animal study to investigate the anti-depressive effect of UCW and the underlying mechanisms.

Methods: A social isolation-induced depressive-like model was produced using C57BL/6J male mice by housing the mice individually for 31 days, and the mice underwent daily oral administration of distilled water, UCW (100, 200, 400 mg/kg) or fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) during the final 17 days. A tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST), and open field test (OFT) were used to explore the effects of UCW on depressive-like behaviors. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) was measured in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN) using immunofluorescence. The serum corticosterone level was measured with its receptor and catecholamine, along with cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus.

Results: Social isolation stress effectively induced depressive-like behaviors, and UCW treatment significantly improved the symptoms of depressive-like behavior in the FST, TST, and OFT. The isolation stress-induced depletion of 5-HT was significantly ameliorated by UCW treatment. UCW also attenuated the activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the elevated serum corticosterone level, as well as the hippocampal levels of dopamine and norepinephrine. Dexametasone-derived translocation of GR was inhibited by UCW treatment in PC12 cells and HT22 cells. In addition, alterations of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), BDNF, and CREB in the protein analyses were notably regulated by UCW treatment.

Conclusions: These results provide animal-based evidence for the anti-depressive effect of UCW, and its underlying mechanisms may involve regulating the serotonergic system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and neurotrophin.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.01674DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7005224PMC
January 2020

Effect of Daesiho-tang on obesity with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a study protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial.

Trials 2020 Jan 31;21(1):128. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Liver-Immune Research Center, Dunsan Hospital of Daejeon University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

Background: The high prevalence of obesity and non-alcoholic fatty acid disease has become an important public health problem. Daesiho-tang (DST) is an herbal medicine widely used to treat obesity, metabolic syndrome and liver diseases. This pilot study will assess the feasibility of using DST in obese patients with a non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) prior to undertaking a full-scale clinical trial.

Methods/design: This is a study protocol for a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, stratified, placebo-controlled pilot trial. We will recruit a total of 60 participants with NAFLD who have a body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m. They will take either DST or placebo (3 g, three times daily) for 12 weeks with a 4-week follow-up period. The effects of DST will be evaluated by the mean change in body weight as the primary measurement and other secondary parameters (body composition, anthropometric measurements, blood tests, hepatic fat quantification through transient elastography and a physical symptoms questionnaire). Faecal samples will be collected before and after the intervention for a gut microbial analysis.

Discussion: In anticipation of conducting further large-scale trials, in this study we will explore the effect of DST on weight loss and obesity-related markers, along with NAFLD-related clinical parameters, in obese patients with NAFLD. Furthermore, it will provide insight into the DST pharmacological mechanism of action through a gut microbiome analysis.

Trial Registration: Korean Clinical Trial Registry, KCT0003554. Registered on 25 February 2019.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-4068-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6995056PMC
January 2020

Systematic review of randomized controlled trials for chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME).

J Transl Med 2020 01 6;18(1). Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Institute of Traditional Medicine and Bioscience, Dunsan Oriental Hospital of Daejeon University, 75, Daedeok-daero 176, Seo-gu, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

Background: Although medical requirements are urgent, no effective intervention has been proven for chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). To facilitate the development of new therapeutics, we systematically reviewed the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for CFS/ME to date.

Methods: RCTs targeting CFS/ME were surveyed using two electronic databases, PubMed and the Cochrane library, through April 2019. We included only RCTs that targeted fatigue-related symptoms, and we analyzed the data in terms of the characteristics of the participants, case definitions, primary measurements, and interventions with overall outcomes.

Results: Among 513 potentially relevant articles, 55 RCTs met our inclusion criteria; these included 25 RCTs of 22 different pharmacological interventions, 28 RCTs of 18 non-pharmacological interventions and 2 RCTs of combined interventions. These studies accounted for a total of 6316 participants (1568 males and 4748 females, 5859 adults and 457 adolescents). CDC 1994 (Fukuda) criteria were mostly used for case definitions (42 RCTs, 76.4%), and the primary measurement tools included the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS, 36.4%) and the 36-item Short Form health survey (SF-36, 30.9%). Eight interventions showed statistical significance: 3 pharmacological (Staphypan Berna, Poly(I):poly(CU) and CoQ + NADH) and 5 non-pharmacological therapies (cognitive-behavior-therapy-related treatments, graded-exercise-related therapies, rehabilitation, acupuncture and abdominal tuina). However, there was no definitely effective intervention with coherence and reproducibility.

Conclusions: This systematic review integrates the comprehensive features of previous RCTs for CFS/ME and reflects on their limitations and perspectives in the process of developing new interventions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-019-02196-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6943902PMC
January 2020

An Adrenalectomy Mouse Model Reflecting Clinical Features for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

Biomolecules 2020 01 1;10(1). Epub 2020 Jan 1.

Institute of Traditional Medicine and Bioscience, Dunsan Hospital of Daejeon University, Daejeon 34323, Korea.

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is one of the most intractable diseases and is characterized by severe central fatigue that impairs even daily activity. To date, the pathophysiological mechanisms are uncertain and no therapies exist. Therefore, a proper animal model reflecting the clinical features of CFS is urgently required. We compared two CFS animal models most commonly used, by injection with lipopolysaccharide (LPS from O111:B4) or polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), along with bilateral adrenalectomy (ADX) as another possible model. Both LPS- and poly I:C-injected mice dominantly showed depressive behaviors, while ADX led to fatigue-like performances with high pain sensitivity. In brain tissues, LPS injection notably activated microglia and the 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT) receptor in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Poly I:C-injection also remarkably activated the 5-HT transporter and 5-HT receptor with a reduction in serotonin levels in the brain. ADX particularly activated astrocytes and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) 1 in all brain regions. Our results revealed that LPS and poly I:C animal models approximate depressive disorder more closely than CFS. We suggest that ADX is a possible method for establishing a mouse model of CFS reflecting clinical features, especially in neuroendocrine system.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10010071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7023174PMC
January 2020

Synergistic hepatoprotective effects of CG on CCl-induced acute injury.

J Ethnopharmacol 2020 Mar 29;249:112441. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Liver and Immunology Research Center, Korean Medical College of Daejeon University, 75, Daedeok-daero 176 Beon-gil, Seo-gu, Daejeon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Traditional Chinese/Korean medicine suggests "blood stasis ()", "stagnation of vital energy ()" and "dampness and Phlegm ()" as the main etiologies of liver disorders, and multiherbal formulas are generally believed to exert synergistic action.

Aim Of The Study: The present study aimed to investigate the synergistic hepatoprotective effects of CG (a mixture of Salviae miltiorrhiza, Artemisia iwayomogi and Ammomum xanthioides) compared to those of the individual herbs.

Methods And Materials: A total of fifty-six male Balb/C mice were randomly divided into eight groups and were administered water (normal and CCl groups), 100 mg/kg S. miltiorrhiza, A. iwayomogi, or A. xanthioides, 50 or 100 mg/kg CG or dimethyl dimethoxybiphenyl dicarboxylate (DDB) as a positive control for 4 consecutive days. After a single CCl injection (i.p., 10 mL/kg of 0.2% CCl in olive oil), blood and liver tissues were collected after 18 h of fasting for serum biochemistry, histopathological examination and molecular analyses.

Results: CCl injection induced drastic hepatic injury characterized by a more than 30-fold increase in the release of AST and ALT into the serum. These alterations were significantly attenuated by pretreatment with each of the three herbs, while the effects of the individual herbs were synergistically augmented by CG pretreatment. The synergistic hepatoprotective actions of CG were demonstrated consistently by analyses of oxidative stress (oxidative stressors, oxidation products and antioxidant enzymes), pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-ɑ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10), and apoptosis (caspase-3, p53 and BAX) and histopathology.

Conclusions: These data suggest that CG exerts its hepatoprotective effects in a synergistic manner, and further studies are required for clinical application using other chronic models.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2019.112441DOI Listing
March 2020

Recovery from hepatitis A after Korean medicine-based treatment : a case report.

Integr Med Res 2019 Dec 7;8(4):257-260. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Department of Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Korean Medicine, University of Daejeon, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

Background: Many studies reported that Korean medicine (KM) is effective for treating liver disease, including hepatitis A. However, KM, specifically with herbal medicine (Chungganplus, CGP) has not been reported yet. We aimed to report a patient with hepatitis A who was treated with KM including CGP, acupuncture, and moxibustion for 12 days.

Methods: A 39-year-old man with hepatitis A who was hospitalized for 12 days after being admitted to our hospital with abdominal pain, diarrhea and vomiting. We prescribed CGP three times a day, with acupuncture performed twice daily and moxibustion at conception vessel (CV)-12 once a day. Follow-up blood tests have been done 4 times during the admission in order to access the effect of the treatment.

Results: In 12 days the symptoms had disappeared and the blood test results improved steadily. His AST level have declined from 1,189 IU/L to 44 IU/L, ALT from 2,423 IU/L to 127 IU/L, r-GTP from 1,347 IU/L to 339 IU/L, ALP from 384 IU/L to 205 IU/L, and total bilirubin from 3.6 mg/dL to 0.89 mg/dL.

Conlcusions: This case suggests that KM-based treatment using CGP may be effective for hepatitis A with no adverse effect. Further research and clinical trial on CGP would be needed to make the basis more valid.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imr.2019.11.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6872770PMC
December 2019

Clinical application of single acupoint (HT7).

Authors:
Chang-Gue Son

Integr Med Res 2019 Dec 30;8(4):227-228. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Institute of Integrative Medicine and Bioscience, Daejeon University, 176 bun-gil 75, Seo-gu, Daejeon 301-724, Republic of Korea.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imr.2019.08.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6804472PMC
December 2019

Intermittent restraint-induced sympathetic activation attenuates hepatic steatosis and inflammation in a high-fat diet-fed mouse model.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2019 12 11;317(6):G811-G823. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

Institute of Traditional Medicine and Bioscience, Daejeon University, Daejeon, Korea.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is very prevalent worldwide and is associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Stress is a physiological and biological response to maintain homeostasis of the body against stressors while severe stress response is an important contributor to various illnesses, including metabolic syndrome and brain disorders. We have evaluated the effects of intermittent restraint stress on NAFLD in a high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mouse model. C57/BL6 mice had free access to a 60% HFD for 8 wk, with or without intermittent restraint stress (3 h) conducted three times a week. HFD administration increased fat accumulation in liver tissues. Unlike the stressed standard diet group, the levels of hepatic total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly ameliorated in the HFD with stress group compared with the HFD alone group. These beneficial results were in accordance with serum levels of liver enzymes (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase) and hepatic levels of TNF-α and oxidative stress parameters (reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde). The intermittent restraint stress significantly attenuated the HFD-derived alterations in serum insulin levels, hepatic protein kinase B activity, and gene expression, especially related to lipogenesis. This intermittent restraint stress also elevated the serum epinephrine concentration and activated the adrenergic receptor β2 or β3 in livers or white adipose tissue (WAT). Activation of energy expenditure markers (uncoupling protein 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α) in brown adipose tissue and the browning of WAT were also observed in the HFD with stress group. Taken together, our findings showed the beneficial effects of sympathetic activation by intermittent restraint stress on HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and partial inflammation. In modern society, stress is a part of daily life, and a certain level of stress is inevitable to most of the general population. Uncontrolled severe stress is obviously harmful; however, certain kind/level of stress could be beneficial on lipid metabolism via sympathetic activation. Our data suggest that a sympathetic activation by intermittent restraint stress could play a positive role in maintaining the balance of hepatic lipid metabolism, especially under high-fat diet conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00047.2019DOI Listing
December 2019

Successful treatment of refractory edema with traditional herbal medicine: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Oct;98(41):e17551

Department of Internal Medicine, Cheonan Korean Medicine Hospital of Daejeon University.

Rationale: Refractory edema is characterized by persistent swelling which does not react to diuretic use and sodium restriction. Traditional herbal medicine, Gwack Rhyung Tang and Chunggan extract effectively treated refractory lower limb edema caused by cirrhosis and improved liver function.

Patient Concerns: A 64-year-old male patient with a history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hepatic encephalopathy, and cellulitis presented lower limb edema which did not react to diuretics for more than 7 months.

Diagnoses: Refractory edema caused by cirrhosis.

Interventions: The patient was treated for 25 days using Gwack Rhyung Tang and Chunggan extract.

Outcomes: Loss of body weight, decrease in circumferences of both lower limb and improvement of liver function biochemistry results are checked. There was no recurrence or aggravation of the condition up to 3 weeks of follow-up periods.

Lessons: Traditional herbal medicine can be an effective alternative for refractory edema due to cirrhosis with improving liver function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000017551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6799692PMC
October 2019