Publications by authors named "Chang Xu"

615 Publications

Relationship between individual alpha peak frequency and attentional performance in a multiple object tracking task among ice-hockey players.

PLoS One 2021 27;16(5):e0251443. Epub 2021 May 27.

School of Psychology, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, China.

Individual alpha peak frequency (IAPF), the discrete frequency with the highest power value in the alpha oscillation range of the electroencephalogram, is a stable neurophysiological marker and is closely associated with various cognitive functions, including aspects of attention and working memory. However, the relationship between IAPF and attentional performance as well as the effects of engaging attention on IAPF are unknow. Here, we examined whether IAPF values were associated with attentional performance by evaluating accuracy during the performance of a multiple object tracking (MOT) task, a well-established paradigm for investigating goal-driven attention in dynamic environments, and whether engagement in the task affected IAPF values. In total, 18 elite players and 20 intermediate players completed the study. Resting electroencephalogram recordings were obtained for 120 s while players kept their eyes open and an additional 120 s while players' eyes were closed, before and again after performing the MOT task. Tracking accuracy in the MOT task and IAPF values before and after the MOT task were analyzed. As expected, tracking accuracies were higher in elite players than in intermediate-level players. Baseline IAPF values were significantly and positively correlated with the accuracy of target tracking in the MOT task. IAPF values were higher in elite than intermediate players in both the eyes open and closed conditions and both before and after MOT task performance. Interindividual IAPF values did not differ before and after the MOT task. These findings indicate that IAPF is a stable marker, without intraindividual changes associated with engagement in the MOT task. Elite players had higher IAPF values and exhibited more accurate MOT performance than intermediate-level players; thus, baseline IAPF values may be useful to predict attentional performance in the MOT task among athletes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0251443PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8158945PMC
May 2021

The absence of muscle segment homeobox 2 leads to the pyroptosis of ameloblasts by inducing squamous epithelial hyperplasia in the enamel organ.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Oral Biology, School of Bioscience and Technology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang, China.

Muscle segment homeobox 2 (MSX2) has been confirmed to be involved in the regulation of early tooth development. However, the role of MSX2 has not been fully elucidated in enamel development. To research the functions of MSX2 in enamel formation, we used a Msx2 (KO) mouse model with no full Msx2 gene. In the present study, the dental appearance and enamel microstructure were detected by scanning electron microscopy and micro-computed tomography. The results showed that the absence of Msx2 resulted in enamel defects, leading to severe tooth wear in KO mice. To further investigate the mechanism behind the phenotype, we performed detailed histological analyses of the enamel organ in KO mice. We discovered that ameloblasts without Msx2 could secrete a small amount of enamel matrix protein in the early stage. However, the enamel epithelium occurred squamous epithelial hyperplasia and partial keratinization in the enamel organ during subsequent developmental stages. Ameloblasts depolarized and underwent pyroptosis. Overall, during the development of enamel, MSX2 affects the formation of enamel by regulating the function of epithelial cells in the enamel organ.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16646DOI Listing
May 2021

Cldn-7 deficiency promotes experimental colitis and associated carcinogenesis by regulating intestinal epithelial integrity.

Oncoimmunology 2021 May 11;10(1):1923910. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Oncology Surgery, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Intestinal epithelial barrier protects intestine from infection and injury, while chronic inflammation is a trigger for tumorigenesis. As a member of tight junctions (TJs) family, Claudin-7 (Cldn-7) is dedicated to maintaining cell polarity and TJs barrier integrity, and closely related to the development of inflammation and tumors. However, potential roles of Cldn-7 in intestinal inflammation and colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) have not been well characterized in vivo. Here, we analyzed the expression profile of Cldn-7 in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and CAC. Colitis and colitis-cancer transformation models were established based on inducible intestinal conditional Cldn-7 gene knockout mice (Cldn7fl/fl;villin-CreERT2), by intraperitoneal injection of azomethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) feeding. Cldn-7 knockout promoted susceptibility to colitis and CAC, aggravated clinical symptoms, severely damaged intestinal epithelium, increased mucosal inflammation accompanied dysregulated cell proliferation-apoptosis. Epithelial barrier integrity was destroyed, and intercellular permeability was increased. After AOM/DSS induction, tumor burden and volume were increased, characterized by enhanced proliferation and activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Mechanistically, Cldn-7 deficiency promoted colitis and subsequently malignant transformation by destroying TJs integrity and increasing inflammatory cascade. Overall, based on Cldn-7 knockout mouse model, we have first demonstrated the key roles of Cldn-7 in maintaining intestinal homeostasis and preventing IBD and consequent CAC. AJs: adherens junctions; AOM: azomethane; Cldn-7: Claudin-7; CRC: colorectal cancer; CAC: colitis-associated colorectal cancer; CD: Crohn's disease; DSS: dextran sodium sulfate; DAI: disease activity index; EMT: epithelial-mesenchymal transition; FITC: fluorescence isothiocyanate; HB: hemoglobin; IBD: inflammatory bowel disease; IECs: intestinal epithelial cells; ISCs: intestinal stem cells; PLT: platelet; RBC: red blood cell; ROS: reactive oxygen species; TAM: tamoxifen; TJs: tight junctions; TCF/LEF: T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor; UC: ulcerative colitis; WBC: white blood cell.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2162402X.2021.1923910DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8118418PMC
May 2021

Global characterization of B cell receptor repertoire in COVID-19 patients by single-cell V(D)J sequencing.

Brief Bioinform 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

School of Life Science and Technology at the Harbin Institute of Technology, China.

The world is facing a pandemic of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Adaptive immune responses are essential for SARS-CoV-2 virus clearance. Although a large body of studies have been conducted to investigate the immune mechanism in COVID-19 patients, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of the BCR repertoire in patients. In this study, we used the single-cell V(D)J sequencing to characterize the BCR repertoire across convalescent COVID-19 patients. We observed that the BCR diversity was significantly reduced in disease compared with healthy controls. And BCRs tend to skew toward different V gene segments in COVID-19 and healthy controls. The CDR3 sequences of heavy chain in clonal BCRs in patients were more convergent than that in healthy controls. In addition, we discovered increased IgG and IgA isotypes in the disease, including IgG1, IgG3 and IgA1. In all clonal BCRs, IgG isotypes had the most frequent class switch recombination events and the highest somatic hypermutation rate, especially IgG3. Moreover, we found that an IgG3 cluster from different clonal groups had the same IGHV, IGHJ and CDR3 sequences (IGHV4-4-CARLANTNQFYDSSSYLNAMDVW-IGHJ6). Overall, our study provides a comprehensive characterization of the BCR repertoire in COVID-19 patients, which contributes to the understanding of the mechanism for the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bib/bbab192DOI Listing
May 2021

Expression profiles of SLC39A/ZIP7, ZIP8 and ZIP14 in response to exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021 May 13;67:126784. Epub 2021 May 13.

Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, 200438, China. Electronic address:

Background: Zinc transporters are thought to facilitate the mobilization of zinc (Zn) and the role of Zn as a signaling mediator during cellular events. Little is known about the response of Zn movement and zinc transporters during muscle proliferation and differentiation processes after damage.

Methods: After rats were subjected to one 90-min session of downhill running to cause muscle damage, the gastrocnemius muscles were harvested to assess the expression of zinc transporters SLC39A/ZIP7, ZIP8, ZIP14 and myogenic regulatory factors at the 0 h, 6 h, 12 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, 1 w and 2 w time points after exercise.

Results: SLC39A/ZIP7, ZIP8 and ZIP14 had translocated to different compartments of the cell following damage, and they exhibited differential expression profiles after eccentric exercise. The results regarding the myogenetic regulators showed that nf-κb was upregulated 2 d after exercise, and STAT3 and Akt1 mRNA levels were mostly expressed 2 w after exercise. The upregulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, catalytic subunit gamma (pik3cg), erk1 and erk2 mostly occurred at the early stage (6 h or 12 h) after exercise. In addition, we found that zip7, zip8 and zip14 expression was moderately correlated with certain markers of muscle regeneration.

Conclusion: The zinc transporters SLC39A/ZIP7, ZIP8 and ZIP14 have differential expression profiles upon eccentric exercise, and they might regulate muscle proliferation or differentiation processes through different cellular pathways after exercise-induced muscle damage.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2021.126784DOI Listing
May 2021

Type of Necrosis Influences Prognosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma After the First Transarterial Chemoembolization.

Med Sci Monit 2021 May 10;27:e929884. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Interventional Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, Shandong First Medical University and Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common tumors. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the first choice of treatment for intermediate HCC and an important treatment option for advanced HCC. This retrospective study compared the prognosis between patients showing coagulative necrosis and patients showing liquefactive necrosis after the first TACE procedure. MATERIAL AND METHODS We divided 171 patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) Stage B or C HCC into 2 groups; a coagulative necrosis group (79 patients) and a liquefactive necrosis group (92 patients). The coagulative and liquefactive necroses were identified by computed tomography after the first TACE procedure. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to identify the differences in the overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) between the 2 groups, and the associated risk factors and safety of TACE were analyzed. RESULTS The median OS durations were 23.27±1.40 months and 8.83±2.15 months (P=0.004) and the median PFS durations were 9.33±0.96 months and 3.70±0.44 months (P=0.002) in the coagulative necrosis and liquefactive necrosis groups, respectively. Intrahepatic in situ progression, new intrahepatic metastasis, and extrahepatic progression occurred significantly earlier in the liquefactive necrosis group (P<0.05). Univariate analysis and multivariate analyses showed liquefactive necrosis was the main risk factor for OS. There was no significant difference in the hepatic function impairment or post-embolism syndrome after TACE. CONCLUSIONS After the first TACE procedure, the patients with liquefactive necrosis experienced recurrence and metastasis earlier and had a worse prognosis. Therefore, these patients should be considered for earlier administration of targeted therapies or immunotherapies after TACE.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.929884DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8120908PMC
May 2021

[Research Progress of the Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Glycemic Control and Adverse Maternal-neonatal Outcomes in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Patients].

Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 2021 Apr;43(2):253-258

School of Public Health,Hangzhou Normal University Division of Health Sciences,Hangzhou 311121,China.

Gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM)can cause blood glucose disorders in pregnant women and result in adverse maternal-neonatal outcomes.Vitamin D(VD)can improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity,and thus theoretically,VD supplementation during pregnancy could improve glycemic control as well as maternal-neonatal outcomes in GDM patients.Although studies have shown that VD deficiency is associated with poor maternal-neonatal outcomes in GDM patients,no solid conclusion has been drawn with regard to the effects of VD supplementation on these patients.Therefore,here we summarized the research progress of the effects of VD supplementation on glycemic control and adverse maternal-neonatal outcomes in GDM patients,in an effort to guide the clinical VD supplementation during pregnancy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3881/j.issn.1000-503X.13177DOI Listing
April 2021

Methodological assessment of systematic reviews and meta-analyses on COVID-19: A meta-epidemiological study.

J Eval Clin Pract 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Statistics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida, USA.

Rationale, Aims, And Objectives: COVID-19 has caused an ongoing public health crisis. Many systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been performed to synthesize evidence for better understanding this new disease. However, some concerns have been raised about rapid COVID-19 research. This meta-epidemiological study aims to methodologically assess the current systematic reviews and meta-analyses on COVID-19.

Methods: We searched in various databases for systematic reviews with meta-analyses published between 1 January 2020 and 31 October 2020. We extracted their basic characteristics, data analyses, evidence appraisal, and assessment of publication bias and heterogeneity.

Results: We identified 295 systematic reviews on COVID-19. The median time from submission to acceptance was 33 days. Among these systematic reviews, 73.9% evaluated clinical manifestations or comorbidities of COVID-19. Stata was the most used software programme (43.39%). The odds ratio was the most used effect measure (34.24%). Moreover, 28.14% of the systematic reviews did not present evidence appraisal. Among those reporting the risk of bias results, 14.64% of studies had a high risk of bias. Egger's test was the most used method for assessing publication bias (38.31%), while 38.66% of the systematic reviews did not assess publication bias. The I statistic was widely used for assessing heterogeneity (92.20%); many meta-analyses had high values of I . Among the meta-analyses using the random-effects model, 75.82% did not report the methods for model implementation; among those meta-analyses reporting implementation methods, the DerSimonian-Laird method was the most used one.

Conclusions: The current systematic reviews and meta-analyses on COVID-19 might suffer from low transparency, high heterogeneity, and suboptimal statistical methods. It is recommended that future systematic reviews on COVID-19 strictly follow well-developed guidelines. Sensitivity analyses may be performed to examine how the synthesized evidence might depend on different methods for appraising evidence, assessing publication bias, and implementing meta-analysis models.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jep.13578DOI Listing
May 2021

Avoidable Acute Care Use for Vaccine-Preventable Illnesses among Medicaid Beneficiaries with Lupus.

Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Division of Rheumatology, Inflammation and Immunity, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA.

Objective: Nearly 25% of SLE patients are hospitalized yearly, often for outcomes that may have been avoided if patients had received sustained outpatient care. We examined acute care use for vaccine-preventable illnesses to determine sociodemographic contributors and modifiable predictors.

Methods: Using U.S. Medicaid claims from 29 states (2000-2010), we identified adults (18-65 years) with prevalent SLE and 12 months of enrollment prior to the first SLE code (index date) to identify baseline data. We defined acute care use for vaccine-preventable illnesses as emergency department (ED) or hospital discharge diagnoses for influenza, pneumococcal disease, meningococcal disease, herpes zoster, high-grade cervical dysplasia/cervical cancer, and hepatitis B, after the index date. We estimated the incidence rate (IR) of vaccine-preventable illnesses and used Cox regression to assess risk (HR, 95% CI), by sociodemographic factors and healthcare utilization, adjusting for vaccinations, comorbidities and medications.

Results: Among 45,654 Medicaid beneficiaries with SLE, less than 10% received vaccinations. There were 1,290 patients with ≥1 ED visit or hospitalization for a vaccine-preventable illness (6.6 per 1,000 person-years); 93% of events occurred in unvaccinated patients. Patients who were Black compared to White had 22% higher risk. Greater outpatient visits were associated with lower risk.

Conclusion: Medicaid beneficiaries with SLE who are not vaccinated are at risk for potentially avoidable acute care use for vaccine-preventable illnesses. Racial disparities were noted with a higher risk among Black compared to White patients. Greater outpatient use was associated with reduced risk, suggesting that access to ambulatory care may reduce avoidable acute care use.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acr.24628DOI Listing
May 2021

Does Environmental Regulation Improve the Green Total Factor Productivity of Chinese Cities? A Threshold Effect Analysis Based on the Economic Development Level.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 30;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

School of Economics and Management, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China.

Improvement of green total factor productivity (GTFP) through environmental regulation is of great practical significance in promoting the high-quality development of urban economies. Based on panel data for 163 cities in China from 2003 to 2016, five indicators were selected to quantify the effects of environmental regulation: the SO removal rate, smoke and dust removal rate, solid waste utilization rate, domestic sewage treatment rate, and waste harmless treatment rate. This study evaluated the impact of environmental regulation on urban GTFP, and analyzed the threshold effect of urban economic development levels. The research results showed that the impact of environmental regulations on GTFP changed as the level of urban economic development increases. When the economic development level was low, environmental regulation had a significant positive effect on GTFP, especially the SO removal rate. When the economy developed to reach a medium level, the impact of environmental regulation on GTFP was negative. When the economic development level was high, the SO removal rate still had a significant positive impact on GTFP. The solid waste utilization rate had a significant negative impact on GTFP. It was concluded that the government should consider the local economic development level when formulating environmental regulation policies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094828DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8125539PMC
April 2021

cIAP1/2 are involved in the radiosensitizing effect of birinapant on NSCLC cell line in vitro.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Institute of Radiation Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, China.

Tumour radioresistance is a major problem for cancer radiation therapy. To identify the underlying mechanisms of this resistance, we used human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and focused on the Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (IAP) family, which contributes to tumourigenesis and chemoresistance. We investigated the possible correlation between radioresistance in six NSCLC cell lines and IAP protein levels and tested the radiosensitizing effect of birinapant in vitro, a molecule that mimics the second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase. We found that birinapant-induced apoptosis and inhibited the proliferation of NSCLC cells after exposure to radiation. These effects were induced by birinapant downregulation of cIAP protein levels and changes of cIAP gene expression. Overall, birinapant can inhibit tumour growth of NSCLC cell lines to ironizing radiation and act as a promising strategy to overcome radioresistance in NSCLC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16526DOI Listing
May 2021

miR-376a Provokes Rectum Adenocarcinoma CTC1 Depletion-Induced Telomere Dysfunction.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 16;9:649328. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, China.

CTC1 is a component of the mammalian CST (CTC1-STN1-TEN1) complex which plays essential roles in resolving replication problems to facilitate telomeric DNA and genomic DNA replication. We previously reported that the depletion of CTC1 leads to stalled replication fork restart defects. Moreover, the mutation in CTC1 caused cancer-prone diseases including Coats plus (CP) or dyskeratosis congenita (DC). To better understand the CTC1 regulatory axis, the microRNAs (miRNAs) targeting to CTC1 were predicted by a bioinformatics tool, and the selected candidates were further confirmed by a dual-luciferase reporter assay. Here, our current results revealed that miR-376a significantly reduced CTC1 expression at the transcription level by recognizing CTC1 3'-UTR. In addition, the overexpression of miR-376a induced telomere replication defection and resulted in direct replicative telomere damage, which could be rescued by adding back CTC1. Telomere shortening was also observed upon miR-376a treatment. Furthermore, for the clinical patient samples, the high expression of miR-376a was associated with the deregulation of CTC1 and a poor outcome for the rectum adenocarcinoma patients. Together, our results uncovered a novel role of miR-376a in stimulating rectum adenocarcinoma progression CTC1 downregulating induced telomere dysfunction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.649328DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8085492PMC
April 2021

The clinical management of extralobar pulmonary sequestration in children.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Introduction: The treatment of extralobar pulmonary sequestration (ELS) remains divergent. This study aims to demonstrate the characters of ELS in children for optimal clinical management in the future.

Material And Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted for ELS patients' treatment in our center from January 2013 to April 2020.

Results: In total, 85 patients were included, containing 70 upper-diaphragmatic, 7 intra-diaphragmatic, and 8 infra-diaphragmatic ELS. Eight patients' pathology results showing inflammation without symptoms preoperation and two patients had chest pain for torsion. All the upper-diaphragmatic and intra-diaphragmatic ELS patients accepted thoracoscopic surgery resection. The intraoperative operation time and blood loss volume of intra-diaphragmatic ELS were significantly more than that of the upper-diaphragmatic (40.14 ± 9.92  vs. 23.07 ± 6.79 min; 9.29 ± 3.45  vs. 3.18 ± 4.94 ml; all p < .05). No chest tubes were inserted in both subgroups. No complications were found in the postoperative follow-up of operative ELS patients at least 3 months. A total of eight infra-diaphragmatic ELS patients except for one (7/8) had conservative therapy and follow-up by the outpatient clinic or phone call eventually. There were no symptoms occurring and no size increasing of observation infra-diaphragmatic ELS.

Conclusions: The ELS has the potential risk of infection and torsion in this study. Thoracoscopic surgery might be optimal management of upper-diaphragmatic ELS for its minimal invasion and low perioperative risks, which could be developed into a day operation with safe and quick recovery. The intra-diaphragmatic and infra-diaphragmatic ELS need a larger sample size and multiple center data to get a better management approach.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.25433DOI Listing
April 2021

Visible-Light-Induced α-Amino C-H Bond Arylation Enabled by Electron Donor-Acceptor Complexes.

Org Lett 2021 May 30;23(10):3913-3918. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

CAS Key Laboratory of Synthetic Chemistry of Natural Substances, Center for Excellence in Molecular Synthesis, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032, China.

Enabled by electron donor-acceptor complexes, a novel visible-light-induced α-amino C-H bond arylation protocol, without a photoredox catalyst, has been disclosed. The protocol does not require any transition metal, oxidant, or exclusion of oxygen or moisture. A direct irradiation of the mixture of tertiary amines and benzonitriles with visible light in ,-diethylethanamide in the presence of CsCO afforded α-arylated amines in good to excellent yields.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c00984DOI Listing
May 2021

Effects of Shuanghuanglian oral liquids on patients with COVID-19: a randomized, open-label, parallel-controlled, multicenter clinical trial.

Front Med 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine and Hubei Key Laboratory of Genetics and Molecular Mechanisms of Cardiological Disorders, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China.

We conducted a randomized, open-label, parallel-controlled, multicenter trial on the use of Shuanghuanglian (SHL), a traditional Chinese patent medicine, in treating cases of COVID-19. A total of 176 patients received SHL by three doses (56 in low dose, 61 in middle dose, and 59 in high dose) in addition to standard care. The control group was composed of 59 patients who received standard therapy alone. Treatment with SHL was not associated with a difference from standard care in the time to disease recovery. Patients with 14-day SHL treatment had significantly higher rate in negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 in nucleic acid swab tests than the patients from the control group (93.4% vs. 73.9%, P = 0.006). Analysis of chest computed tomography images showed that treatment with high-dose SHL significantly promoted absorption of inflammatory focus of pneumonia, which was evaluated by density reduction of inflammatory focus from baseline, at day 7 (mean difference (95% CI), -46.39 (-86.83 to -5.94) HU; P = 0.025) and day 14 (mean difference (95% CI), -74.21 (-133.35 to -15.08) HU; P = 0.014). No serious adverse events occurred in the SHL groups. This study illustrated that SHL in combination with standard care was safe and partially effective for the treatment of COVID-19.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11684-021-0853-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8079840PMC
April 2021

A verified genomic reference sample for assessing performance of cancer panels detecting small variants of low allele frequency.

Genome Biol 2021 Apr 16;22(1):111. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Marketing, Integrated DNA Technologies, Inc., 1710 Commercial Park, Coralville, IA, 52241, USA.

Background: Oncopanel genomic testing, which identifies important somatic variants, is increasingly common in medical practice and especially in clinical trials. Currently, there is a paucity of reliable genomic reference samples having a suitably large number of pre-identified variants for properly assessing oncopanel assay analytical quality and performance. The FDA-led Sequencing and Quality Control Phase 2 (SEQC2) consortium analyze ten diverse cancer cell lines individually and their pool, termed Sample A, to develop a reference sample with suitably large numbers of coding positions with known (variant) positives and negatives for properly evaluating oncopanel analytical performance.

Results: In reference Sample A, we identify more than 40,000 variants down to 1% allele frequency with more than 25,000 variants having less than 20% allele frequency with 1653 variants in COSMIC-related genes. This is 5-100× more than existing commercially available samples. We also identify an unprecedented number of negative positions in coding regions, allowing statistical rigor in assessing limit-of-detection, sensitivity, and precision. Over 300 loci are randomly selected and independently verified via droplet digital PCR with 100% concordance. Agilent normal reference Sample B can be admixed with Sample A to create new samples with a similar number of known variants at much lower allele frequency than what exists in Sample A natively, including known variants having allele frequency of 0.02%, a range suitable for assessing liquid biopsy panels.

Conclusion: These new reference samples and their admixtures provide superior capability for performing oncopanel quality control, analytical accuracy, and validation for small to large oncopanels and liquid biopsy assays.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-021-02316-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8051128PMC
April 2021

Cross-oncopanel study reveals high sensitivity and accuracy with overall analytical performance depending on genomic regions.

Genome Biol 2021 Apr 16;22(1):109. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Greenwood Genetic Center, 106 Gregor Mendel Circle, Greenwood, SC, 29646, USA.

Background: Targeted sequencing using oncopanels requires comprehensive assessments of accuracy and detection sensitivity to ensure analytical validity. By employing reference materials characterized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-led SEquence Quality Control project phase2 (SEQC2) effort, we perform a cross-platform multi-lab evaluation of eight Pan-Cancer panels to assess best practices for oncopanel sequencing.

Results: All panels demonstrate high sensitivity across targeted high-confidence coding regions and variant types for the variants previously verified to have variant allele frequency (VAF) in the 5-20% range. Sensitivity is reduced by utilizing VAF thresholds due to inherent variability in VAF measurements. Enforcing a VAF threshold for reporting has a positive impact on reducing false positive calls. Importantly, the false positive rate is found to be significantly higher outside the high-confidence coding regions, resulting in lower reproducibility. Thus, region restriction and VAF thresholds lead to low relative technical variability in estimating promising biomarkers and tumor mutational burden.

Conclusion: This comprehensive study provides actionable guidelines for oncopanel sequencing and clear evidence that supports a simplified approach to assess the analytical performance of oncopanels. It will facilitate the rapid implementation, validation, and quality control of oncopanels in clinical use.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-021-02315-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8051090PMC
April 2021

Number line development of Chilean children from preschool to the end of kindergarten.

J Exp Child Psychol 2021 Aug 13;208:105144. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Psychology, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada; Department of Cognitive Science, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6, Canada.

Children's performance on number line tasks reflects their developing number system knowledge. Before 5 years of age, most children perform poorly on even the simplest number lines (i.e., 0-10). Our goal was to understand how number line skills develop before formal schooling. Chilean preschoolers attempted a 0-10 number line task three times over 2 years: at the beginning of pre-kindergarten (M = 4:7 [years;months]; Time 1), at the end of pre-kindergarten (M = 5:0; Time 2), and at the end of kindergarten (M = 5:10; Time 3). We used latent class analysis to group children according to their patterns of performance across number targets. At Time 1, 86% of children had error patterns indicating that they randomly placed estimates on the line. At Time 2, 56% of children continued to respond randomly. At Time 3, 56% of children showed competent performance across the number line, 23% were accurate only near the endpoints, and 21% were accurate only for low target numbers near the origin. Latent transition analyses showed that the transition from less to more proficient estimation classes was predicted by children's number identification skills. Thus, number line performance changed dramatically from 4 to 6 years of age as children began to develop the cognitive and numerical skills necessary to accurately estimate numbers on a number line.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2021.105144DOI Listing
August 2021

Evaluating the analytical validity of circulating tumor DNA sequencing assays for precision oncology.

Nat Biotechnol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

R&D Genomics MPS, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Pathology ARUP Laboratories, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) sequencing is being rapidly adopted in precision oncology, but the accuracy, sensitivity and reproducibility of ctDNA assays is poorly understood. Here we report the findings of a multi-site, cross-platform evaluation of the analytical performance of five industry-leading ctDNA assays. We evaluated each stage of the ctDNA sequencing workflow with simulations, synthetic DNA spike-in experiments and proficiency testing on standardized, cell-line-derived reference samples. Above 0.5% variant allele frequency, ctDNA mutations were detected with high sensitivity, precision and reproducibility by all five assays, whereas, below this limit, detection became unreliable and varied widely between assays, especially when input material was limited. Missed mutations (false negatives) were more common than erroneous candidates (false positives), indicating that the reliable sampling of rare ctDNA fragments is the key challenge for ctDNA assays. This comprehensive evaluation of the analytical performance of ctDNA assays serves to inform best practice guidelines and provides a resource for precision oncology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41587-021-00857-zDOI Listing
April 2021

Home Learning Environments of Children in Mexico in Relation to Socioeconomic Status.

Front Psychol 2021 19;12:626159. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Faculty of Physical Culture Sciences, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico.

We explored the home learning environments of 173 Mexican preschool children (aged 3-6 years) in relation to their numeracy performance. Parents indicated the frequency of their formal home numeracy and literacy activities, and their academic expectations for children's numeracy and literacy performance. Children completed measures of early numeracy skills. Mexican parent-child dyads from families with either high- or low-socioeconomic status (SES) participated. Low-SES parents ( = 99) reported higher numeracy expectations than high-SES parents ( = 74), but similar frequency of home numeracy activities. In contrast, high-SES parents reported higher frequency of literacy activities. Path analyses showed that operational (i.e., advanced) numeracy activities were positively related to children's numeracy skills in the high- but not in the low-SES group. These findings improve the understanding of the role of the home environment in different contexts and provide some insights into the sources of the variable patterns of relations between home learning activities and children's numeracy outcomes. They also suggest that SES is a critical factor to consider in research on children's home numeracy experiences.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.626159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8017273PMC
March 2021

Establishment and characterization of fibroblast cultures derived from a female common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) skin biopsy.

Cell Biol Int 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Biological Resource Center of Plants, Animals and Microorganisms, China National GeneBank, BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China.

The population decline of the common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) has necessitated the preservation of their genetic resources for species conservation and research. Of all actions, cryopreservation of fibroblast cell cultures derived from an animal biopsy is considered a simple but efficient means. Nevertheless, preserving viable cell cultures of the common hippopotamus has not been achieved to our knowledge. To this end, we established and characterized fibroblast cell cultures from the skin sample of a newborn common hippopotamus in this study. By combining the tissue explant direct culture and enzymatic digestion methods, we isolated a great number of cells with typical fibroblastic morphology and high viability. Neither bacteria/fungi nor mycoplasma was detectable in the cell cultures throughout the study. The population doubling time was 34 h according to the growth curve. Karyotyping based on Giemsa staining showed that the cultured cells were diploid with 36 chromosomes in all, one pair of which was sex chromosomes. The amplified mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene sequence of the cultured cells was 99.26% identical with that of the registered H. amphibius complete mitochondrial DNA, confirming the species of origin of the cells. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence staining results revealed that the detected cells were positive for fibroblast markers, S100A4, and vimentin. In conclusion, we generated the fibroblast cell cultures from a common hippopotamus and identified their characteristics using multiple techniques. We believe the cryopreserved cells could be useful genetic materials for future research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbin.11596DOI Listing
March 2021

An elasticity-curvature illusion decouples cutaneous and proprioceptive cues in active exploration of soft objects.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Mar 22;17(3):e1008848. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, United States of America.

Our sense of touch helps us encounter the richness of our natural world. Across a myriad of contexts and repetitions, we have learned to deploy certain exploratory movements in order to elicit perceptual cues that are salient and efficient. The task of identifying optimal exploration strategies and somatosensory cues that underlie our softness perception remains relevant and incomplete. Leveraging psychophysical evaluations combined with computational finite element modeling of skin contact mechanics, we investigate an illusion phenomenon in exploring softness; where small-compliant and large-stiff spheres are indiscriminable. By modulating contact interactions at the finger pad, we find this elasticity-curvature illusion is observable in passive touch, when the finger is constrained to be stationary and only cutaneous responses from mechanosensitive afferents are perceptible. However, these spheres become readily discriminable when explored volitionally with musculoskeletal proprioception available. We subsequently exploit this phenomenon to dissociate relative contributions from cutaneous and proprioceptive signals in encoding our percept of material softness. Our findings shed light on how we volitionally explore soft objects, i.e., by controlling surface contact force to optimally elicit and integrate proprioceptive inputs amidst indiscriminable cutaneous contact cues. Moreover, in passive touch, e.g., for touch-enabled displays grounded to the finger, we find those spheres are discriminable when rates of change in cutaneous contact are varied between the stimuli, to supplant proprioceptive feedback.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1008848DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8016306PMC
March 2021

Potential Value of Radiomics in the Identification of Stage T3 and T4a Esophagogastric Junction Adenocarcinoma Based on Contrast-Enhanced CT Images.

Front Oncol 2021 3;11:627947. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Pharmaceutical Diagnostics, GE Healthcare China, Beijing, China.

Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the predictive performance of contrast-enhanced CT-based radiomic features for the personalized, differential diagnosis of esophagogastric junction (EGJ) adenocarcinoma at stages T3 and T4a.

Methods: Two hundred patients with T3 (n = 44) and T4a (n = 156) EGJ adenocarcinoma lesions were enrolled in this study. Traditional computed tomography (CT) features were obtained from contrast-enhanced CT images, and the traditional model was constructed using a multivariate logistic regression analysis. A radiomic model was established based on radiomic features from venous CT images, and the radiomic score (Radscore) of each patient was calculated. A combined nomogram diagnostic model was constructed based on Radscores and traditional features. The diagnostic performances of these three models (traditional model, radiomic model, and nomogram) were assessed with receiver operating characteristics curves. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and areas under the curve (AUC) of models were calculated, and the performances of the models were evaluated and compared. Finally, the clinical effectiveness of the three models was evaluated by conducting a decision curve analysis (DCA).

Results: An eleven-feature combined radiomic signature and two traditional CT features were constructed as the radiomic and traditional feature models, respectively. The Radscore was significantly different between patients with stage T3 and T4a EGJ adenocarcinoma. The combined nomogram performed the best and has potential clinical usefulness.

Conclusions: The developed combined nomogram might be useful in differentiating T3 and T4a stages of EGJ adenocarcinoma and may facilitate the decision-making process for the treatment of T3 and T4a EGJ adenocarcinoma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.627947DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7968370PMC
March 2021

Metformin is comparable to insulin for pharmacotherapy in gestational diabetes mellitus: A network meta-analysis evaluating 6046 women.

Pharmacol Res 2021 May 12;167:105546. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Population Medicine, College of Medicine, QU Health, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar. Electronic address:

Context: The comparative efficacy of gestational diabetes (GDM) treatments lack conclusive evidence for choice of first-line treatment.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of metformin and glibenclamide to insulin using a core outcome set (COS) to unify outcomes across trials investigating the treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus.

Study Design: A network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted.

Data-source: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials were searched from inception to January 2020.

Study Selection: RCTs that enrolled pregnant women who were diagnosed with GDM and that compared the efficacy of different pharmacological interventions for the treatment of GDM were included.

Meta-analysis: A generalized pairwise modelling framework was employed.

Results: A total of 38 RCTs with 6046 participants were included in the network meta-analysis. Compared to insulin, the estimated effect of metformin indicated improvements for weight gain (WMD -2·39 kg; 95% CI -3·31 to -1·46), maternal hypoglycemia (OR 0.34; 95% CI 0.12 to 0·97) and LGA (OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.38 to 0·98). There were also improvements in estimated effects for neonatal hypoglycemia (OR 0.48; 95% CI 0.19 to 1·25), pregnancy induced hypertension (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.37 to 1·06), and preeclampsia (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.538 to 1·04), though with limited evidence against our model hypothesis of equivalence with insulin for these outcomes.

Conclusion: Metformin is, at least, comparable to insulin for the treatment of GDM. Glibenclamide appears less favorable, in comparison to insulin, than metformin.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2021.105546DOI Listing
May 2021

A novel nonsense variant of the AGXT identified in a Chinese family: special variant research in the Chinese reference genome.

BMC Nephrol 2021 03 10;22(1):83. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Academy of Medical Sciences, ZhengZhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Background: Primary hyperoxaluria(PH)is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disease that contains three subtypes (PH1, PH2 and PH3). Approximately 80% of PH patients has been reported as subtype PH1, this subtype of PH has been related to a higher risk of renal failure at any age. Several genetic studies indicate that the variants in gene AGXT are responsible for the occurrence of PH1. However, the population heterogeneity of the variants in AGXT makes the genetic diagnosis of PH1 more challenging as it is hard to locate each specific variant. It is valuable to have a complete spectrum of AGXT variants from different population for early diagnosis and clinical treatments of PH1.

Case Presentation: In this study, We performed high-throughput sequencing and genetic analysis of a 6-year-old male PH1 patient from a Chinese family. Two variants (c.346G > A: p.Gly116Arg; c.864G > A: p.Trp288X) of the gene AGXT were identified. We found a nonsense variant (c.864G > A: p.Trp288X) that comes from the proband's mother and has never been reported previously. The other missense variant (c.346G > A: p.Gly116Arg) was inherited from his father and has been found previously in a domain of aminotransferase, which plays an important role in the function of AGT protein. Furthermore, we searched 110 pathogenic variants of AGXT that have been reported worldwide in healthy local Chinese population, none of these pathogenic variants was detected in the local genomes.

Conclusions: Our research provides an important diagnosis basis for PH1 on the genetic level by updating the genotype of PH1 and also develops a better understanding of the variants in AGXT by broadening the variation database of AGXT according to the Chinese reference genome.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-021-02276-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7945658PMC
March 2021

Simultaneous phase-shifting interferometer with a monitored spatial light modulator flexible reference mirror.

Appl Opt 2021 Feb;60(6):1550-1557

A simultaneous phase-shifting interferometer with a monitored spatial light modulator (SLM) flexible reference mirror is proposed to balance the flexibility and accuracy of aspheric-surface in-process measurements. In this method, polarization simultaneous phase-shifting camera systems are applied to reduce the influence of environmental vibrations on the in-process measurements. An SLM reference mirror is employed to improve the flexibility of in-process measurements. A device is integrated to monitor the SLM surface in order to improve measurement accuracy caused by the spatial phase nonuniformity and modulation instability of the SLM. Thus, the SLM surface is monitored and the aspheric surface is measured simultaneously in only one interferometer, which presents the advantages of a compact structure and simple calibration. A flat acrylic mirror with an unknown surface figure error is measured by the proposed interferometer. Cross tests demonstrate the feasibility of this interferometer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.414810DOI Listing
February 2021

Estimation of soil organic carbon storage based on digital soil mapping technique.

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2021 Feb;32(2):591-600

College of Forestry, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, China.

Accurate spatial distribution information of soil properties would be helpful for improving the accuracy of soil organic carbon storage estimation. In this study, terrain factors were used as predictors, and the fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering method was used to make digital soil prediction mapping for soil organic carbon content, soil bulk density, soil depth, and soil gravel content in Nanshan forest farm in Jiyuan City of Henan Province. Based on the digital mapping results, the prediction mapping of soil organic carbon density and the estimation of soil organic carbon storage were realized. The results showed that the average soil organic carbon density in the study area based on the digital soil mapping method was 4.24 kg·m, the mean error (ME), mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) of the prediction map were 0.08, 2.80 and 5.03 kg·m, respectively. The accuracy, stability and reliability of the prediction results were higher than the tradiation methods. The soil organic carbon storage in the study area was estimated to be 3.08×10 kg. Based on the digital soil mapping technology, only a small number of soil samples could be used to map and estimate the soil organic carbon density with high accuracy, which could characterize the spatial distribution characteristics of soil organic carbon density. This study provided a new way to estimate soil organic carbon storage, which would help to improve the accuracy and efficiency of soil organic carbon storage estimation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.13287/j.1001-9332.202102.014DOI Listing
February 2021

Occurrence, source apportionment, plant bioaccumulation and human exposure of legacy and emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in soil and plant leaves near a landfill in China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 8;776:145731. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Nanjing Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Ecology and Environment of the People's Republic of China, Nanjing 210042, China.

In this study, 17 legacy and emerging PFASs were investigated in soil and plant leaves near a valley-type landfill, which has been in operation for over 20 years. ΣPFASs concentrations ranged from 5.31 to 108 ng/g dw and 11.9 to 115 ng/g dw in the soil and leaf samples, respectively, and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) was dominant in both soil and leaves. The concentrations of hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (HFPO-DA), 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acid (F-53B) and 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTS) were significantly higher than those of legacy PFOA and PFOS, indicating emerging alternatives were widely applied in the region. The integrated approach of PCA analysis, field investigation of relevant industrial activities in the study area, along with the Unmix model analysis quantitatively revealed that factories producing consumer products and the landfill were the major sources of PFASs in soil, accounting for 57% of total PFASs detected. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of ΣPFASs in leaves varied from 0.37 to 8.59, and higher BAFs were found in camphor leaves. The logBAFs in all plant leaves showed a linear decrease with increasing carbon chain lengths for individual PFCAs (C4-C8). The BAF values of HFPO-DA, F-53B and 6:2 FTS were 0.01-3.39, 0.04-6.15 and 0.01-6.33, respectively. The human health risk assessment of EDIs showed a decreasing trend with the increasing carbon chain lengths of PFCAs (C4-C9), and the PFASs EDI indicated further study on the human health risk via vegetable consumption be warranted.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145731DOI Listing
July 2021