Publications by authors named "Chang Won Song"

10 Publications

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Corrigendum to "The radiosensitivity of endothelial cells isolated from human breast cancer and normal tissue in vitro" [Microvasc. Res. 84 (2012) 140-148].

Microvasc Res 2019 07 5;124:97. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Microbiology, Center for Advanced Medical Education by BK21 Project, College of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon 400-712, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mvr.2019.04.001DOI Listing
July 2019

Seymour H. Levitt, MD.

Radiology 2018 Feb;286(2):732

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2017174040DOI Listing
February 2018

Enhancement of radiation effect using beta-lapachone and underlying mechanism.

Radiat Oncol J 2013 Jun 30;31(2):57-65. Epub 2013 Jun 30.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea.

Beta-lapachone (β-Lap; 3,4-dihydro-2, 2-dimethyl-2H-naphthol[1, 2-b]pyran-5,6-dione) is a novel anti-cancer drug under phase I/II clinical trials. β-Lap has been demonstrated to cause apoptotic and necrotic death in a variety of human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The mechanisms underlying the β-Lap toxicity against cancer cells has been controversial. The most recent view is that β-Lap, which is a quinone compound, undergoes two-electron reduction to hydroquinone form utilizing NAD(P)H or NADH as electron source. This two-electron reduction of β-Lap is mediated by NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), which is known to mediate the reduction of many quinone compounds. The hydroquinone forms of β-Lap then spontaneously oxidizes back to the original oxidized β-Lap, creating futile cycling between the oxidized and reduced forms of β-Lap. It is proposed that the futile recycling between oxidized and reduced forms of β-Lap leads to two distinct cell death pathways. First one is that the two-electron reduced β-Lap is converted first to one-electron reduced β-Lap, i.e., semiquinone β-Lap (SQ)(·-) causing production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which then causes apoptotic cell death. The second mechanism is that severe depletion of NAD(P)H and NADH as a result of futile cycling between the quinone and hydroquinone forms of β-Lap causes severe disturbance in cellular metabolism leading to apoptosis and necrosis. The relative importance of the aforementioned two mechanisms, i.e., generation of ROS or depletion of NAD(P)H/NADH, may vary depending on cell type and environment. Importantly, the NQO1 level in cancer cells has been found to be higher than that in normal cells indicating that β-Lap may be preferentially toxic to cancer cells relative to non-cancer cells. The cellular level of NQO1 has been found to be significantly increased by divergent physical and chemical stresses including ionizing radiation. Recent reports clearly demonstrated that β-Lap and ionizing radiation kill cancer cells in a synergistic manner. Indications are that irradiation of cancer cells causes long-lasting elevation of NQO1, thereby sensitizing the cells to β-Lap. In addition, β-Lap has been shown to inhibit the repair of sublethal radiation damage. Treating experimental tumors growing in the legs of mice with irradiation and intraperitoneal injection of β-Lap suppressed the growth of the tumors in a manner more than additive. Collectively, β-Lap is a potentially useful anti-cancer drug, particularly in combination with radiotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3857/roj.2013.31.2.57DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3712174PMC
June 2013

The radiosensitivity of endothelial cells isolated from human breast cancer and normal tissue in vitro.

Microvasc Res 2012 Sep 12;84(2):140-8. Epub 2012 Jun 12.

Department of Microbiology, Center for Advanced Medical Education by BK21 Project, College of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon 400-712, Republic of Korea.

We developed a novel method for harvesting endothelial cells from blood vessels of freshly obtained cancer and adjacent normal tissue of human breast, and compared the response of the cancer-derived endothelial cells (CECs) and normal tissue-derived endothelial cells (NECs) to ionizing radiation. In brief, when tissues were embedded in Matrigel and cultured in endothelial cell culture medium (ECM) containing growth factors, endothelial cells grew out of the tissues. The endothelial cells were harvested and cultured as monolayer cells in plates coated with gelatin, and the cells of 2nd-5th passages were used for experiments. Both CECs and NECs expressed almost the same levels of surface markers CD31, CD105 and TEM-8 (tumor endothelial marker-8), which are known to be expressed in angiogenic endothelial cells, i.e., mitotically active endothelial cells. Furthermore, both CECs and NECs were able to migrate into experimental wound in the monolayer culture, and also to form capillary-like tubes on Matrigel-coated plates. However, the radiation-induced suppressions of migration and capillary-like tube formations were greater for CECs than NECs from the same patients. In addition, in vitro clonogenic survival assays demonstrated that CECs were far more radiosensitive than NECs. In summary, we have developed a simple and efficient new method for isolating endothelial cells from cancer and normal tissue, and demonstrated for the first time that endothelial cells of human breast cancer are significantly more radiosensitive than their normal counterparts from the same patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mvr.2012.06.002DOI Listing
September 2012

Beta-lapachone suppresses radiation-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappaB.

Exp Mol Med 2010 May;42(5):327-34

Department of Microbiology, and Center for Advanced Medical Education by BK21 Project, College of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon 400-712, Korea.

Anticancer effects of beta-lapachone (beta-lap) are due to generation of ROS and metabolic catastrophes as a result of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1)-mediated futile cycling between the oxidized and reduced forms of beta-lap. It has been shown that NQO1 is also essential for the TNF-induced activation of NF-kappaB and that beta-lap suppresses the TNF-induced NF-kappaB activation. We investigated whether or not NQO1 is involved and beta-lap suppresses the radiation-induced NF-kappaB activation using A549 human lung cancer cells and NQO1-knock down A549 cells (shNQO1 A549 cells). Irradiation with 4 Gy markedly increased the DNA binding activity of NF-kappaB in A549 cells, but not in the shNQO1 A549 cells, thus demonstrating that NQO1 plays a pivotal role in irradiation-induced NF-kappaB activation. Treatment with 10 micronM beta-lap for 4 h almost completely abrogated the radiation-induced increase in NF-kappaB activation and the transcription of NF-kappaB target genes such as bcl2, gadd45beta and cyclinD1. Moreover, beta-lap markedly suppressed the activation of IkappaB kinase gamma (IKKgamma) and the subsequent phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha, thereby inhibiting NF-kappaB activation. It is concluded that beta-lap suppresses the radiation-induced activation of NF-kappaB by interrupting the involvement of NQO1 in the activation of NF-kappaB, thereby inhibiting the transcription of survival signals. The radiosensitization caused by beta-lap may, in part, be attributed to beta-lap-induced suppression of NF-kappaB activation.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2877251PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.3858/emm.2010.42.5.034DOI Listing
May 2010

Cisplatin enhances the anticancer effect of beta-lapachone by upregulating NQO1.

Anticancer Drugs 2009 Nov;20(10):901-9

Department of Therapeutic Radiology-Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota Academic Health Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) has been reported to play an important role in cell death caused by beta-lapachone (beta-lap), 3,4-dihydro-22,2-dimethyl-2H-naphthol[1,22b]pyran-5,6-dione. This study investigated whether cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum) sensitizes cancer cells to beta-lap by upregulating NQO1. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin and beta-lap alone or in combination against FSaII fibrosarcoma cells of C3H mice in vitro was determined with a clonogenic survival assay and assessment of gamma-H2AX foci formation, a hallmark of DNA double-strand breaks. The cellular sensitivity to beta-lap progressively increased during the 24 h after cisplatin treatment. The expression and enzymatic activity of NQO1 also increased during the 24 h after cisplatin treatment, and dicoumarol, an inhibitor of NQO1, was found to nullify the cisplatin-induced increase in beta-lap sensitivity. The role of NQO1 in the cell death caused by beta-lap alone or in combination with cisplatin was further elucidated using NQO1-positive and NQO1-negative MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Cisplatin increased the sensitivity of the NQO1-positive but not the NQO1-negative MDA-MB-231 cells to beta-lap treatment. Combined treatment with cisplatin and beta-lap suppressed the growth of FSaII tumors in the legs of C3H mice in a manner greater than additive. It is concluded that cisplatin markedly increases the sensitivity of cancer to beta-lap in vitro and in vivo by upregulating NQO1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CAD.0b013e328330098dDOI Listing
November 2009

Heat shock increases expression of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), mediator of beta-lapachone cytotoxicity, by increasing NQO1 gene activity and via Hsp70-mediated stabilisation of NQO1 protein.

Int J Hyperthermia 2009 ;25(6):477-87

Department of Microbiology, and Centre for Advanced Medical Education by BK21 Project, College of Medicine, Inha University, Inchon, South Korea.

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) mediates cell death caused by the novel anti-cancer drug beta-lapachone (beta-lap). Therefore, beta-lap sensitivity of cells is positively related to the level of cellular NQO1. Heat shock up-regulates NQO1 expression in cancer cells, thereby enhancing the clonogenic cell death caused by beta-lap. The mechanisms by which heat shock elevates NQO1 expression were investigated in the present study using human A549 lung cancer cells and human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. When MDA-MB-231(NQO1+) cells stably transfected with NQO1 were heated at 42 degrees C for 1 h the expression of NQO1 and the sensitivity of the cells to beta-lap progressively increased during the 24-48 h post-heating period. Heating increased NQO1 transcription by cis-acting elements such as xenobiotic response element and antioxidant response element located in the NQO1 gene promoter region. The turnover of NQO1 protein in heated cells was much slower than in unheated cells. NQO1 and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) co-precipitated and co-localised in cells before and after heating, demonstrating the close association of these two proteins in the cells. These results suggest that NQO1 is stabilised by the Hsp70 molecular chaperone. It is concluded that the prolonged increase in NQO1 expression after heat shock is due to increased NQO1 transcription, and also increased Hsp70-mediated NQO1 stabilisation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02656730903049836DOI Listing
February 2010

Radiosensitization of tumor cells by modulation of ATM kinase.

Int J Radiat Biol 2006 Apr;82(4):277-83

Department of Therapeutic Radiology, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul, South Korea.

Purpose: To elucidate the relationship between the radiation-induced activation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase, G2 arrest and the caffeine-induced radiosensitization.

Method: RKO cells (human colorectal cancer cells) and ATM kinase over-expressing RKO/ATM cells were used. The cellular radiosensitivity was determined with clonogenic survival assay and the cell cycle progression, including G2 arrest, was studied with flow cytometry. The activity of ATM kinase, check point 2 (Chk2) kinase and cycline B1/cell division cycle 2 (Cdc2) kinase was investigated. The radiosensitivity of RKO xenografts grown in nude mice was studied.

Results: RKO/ATM cells were radioresistant as compared with RKO cells. There was a greater increase in ATM kinase activity and G2 arrest in RKO/ATM cells than in RKO cells. Caffeine also sensitized both RKO cells and RKO/ATM cells to radiation. The caffeine treatment suppressed the radiation-induced activation of ATM kinase, suppressed the activation of Chk2 kinase and inhibited the accumulation of cells in G2 phase. The activity of cycline B1/Cdc2 kinase increased earlier but decayed rapidly in the presence of caffeine. Caffeine enhanced radiation-induced growth delay of RKO xenografts.

Conclusions: Caffeine inhibited the radiation-induced activation of ATM kinase, thereby preventing the accumulation of cells in G2 phase. Consequently, radiosensitivity of cells increased in the presence of caffeine both in vitro and in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09553000600702346DOI Listing
April 2006

Effect of pH on radiation-induced p53 expression.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2004 Nov;60(4):1264-71

Department of Therapeutic Radiology, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: In most tumors, the intratumor environment is acidic. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of acidic extracellular environment on the radiation-induced expression of p53 and related molecular signals.

Methods And Materials: Cultured RKO.C human colorectal cancer cells carrying wild-type p53 were used. Cells grown in pH 7.5 medium or pH 6.6 medium were irradiated with gamma-rays, and the expression of p53 and p53 mRNA, as well as the degradation rate of the molecules, was determined. The transcriptional activity for p53 was investigated using cells transfected with a p53 reporter construct. The expression of Mdm2 and the phosphorylation of p53, essential factors for p53 degradation, were also investigated.

Results: The pH 6.6 environment prolonged the radiation-induced expression of p53 and p53 mRNA. The radiation-induced increase in transcriptional activity of p53 lasted longer in pH 6.6 medium than in pH 7.5 medium. The degradation of p53 was delayed at pH 6.6. The radiation-induced expression of Mdm2 was markedly suppressed, whereas the phosphorylation of p53 was markedly increased after irradiation in pH 6.6 medium.

Conclusion: Acidic environment significantly enhances the radiation-induced expression of p53, partly by increasing the formation of p53 and also partly by slowing down the degradation of p53 through inhibiting p53-Mdm2 complex formation. The potential implication of acidic intratumor microenvironment for the response of tumors to radiotherapy remains to be elucidated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2004.04.043DOI Listing
November 2004

Influence of environmental pH on G2-phase arrest caused by ionizing radiation.

Radiat Res 2003 Jan;159(1):86-93

Department of Microbiology, Inha University, College of Medicine, Inchon, Korea.

We investigated the effects of an acidic environment on the G2/M-phase arrest, apoptosis, clonogenic death, and changes in cyclin B1-CDC2 kinase activity caused by a 4-Gy irradiation in RKO.C human colorectal cancer cells in vitro. The time to reach peak G2/M-phase arrest after irradiation was delayed in pH 6.6 medium compared to that in pH 7.5 medium. Furthermore, the radiation-induced G2/M-phase arrest decayed more slowly in pH 6.6 medium than in pH 7.5 medium. Finally, there was less radiation-induced apoptosis and clonogenic cell death in pH 6.6 medium than in pH 7.5 medium. It appeared that the prolongation of G2-phase arrest after irradiation in the acidic environment allowed for greater repair of radiation-induced DNA damage, thereby decreasing the radiation-induced cell death. The prolongation of G2-phase arrest after irradiation in the acidic pH environment appeared to be related at least in part to a prolongation of the phosphorylation of CDC2, which inhibited cyclin B1-CDC2 kinase activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1667/0033-7587(2003)159[0086:ioepog]2.0.co;2DOI Listing
January 2003
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