Publications by authors named "Chang Shu"

420 Publications

Integrin β1 regulates proliferation, apoptosis, and migration of trophoblasts through activation of phosphoinositide 3 kinase/protein kinase B signaling.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Sport Medicine, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China.

Aims: Abnormal trophoblast invasion is one of the onsets of preeclampsia (PE). Studies found that integrin β1 (ITGB1) is closely related to PE, but the role of ITGB1 in the progression of trophoblast remained unclear. Therefore, we studied the functional role of ITGB1 in PE and its effects on trophoblast.

Methods: ITGB1 expression in placenta tissues was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The effects of transfection on HTR-8/SVneo cells were analyzed by qRT-PCR and western blotting. After cell transfection, colony formation assay, flow cytometry, wound healing assay, and transwell assay were performed to detect cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion. Western blotting assay was used for determining phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway. After inhibiting PI3K/Akt pathway, apoptosis-regulated proteins were detected by western blotting, and the effects of inhibitor on the migration and invasion changes were examined.

Results: ITGB1 was downregulated in placenta tissues from PE patients, as compared with normal. ITGB1 overexpression in HTR-8/SVneo cells enhanced cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, reduced cell apoptosis, and improved phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt. However, ITGB1 depletion resulted in an opposite effect to its overexpression. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathway completely blocked the effect of ITGB1 overexpression on cells, because we observed that apoptosis-regulated proteins were highly upregulated, and that cell migration and invasion were reduced.

Conclusion: ITGB1 regulated HTR-8/SVneo cell progression by activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jog.14782DOI Listing
April 2021

High-throughput sequencing identifies salivary microbiota in Chinese caries-free preschool children with primary dentition.

J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2021 Apr;22(4):285-294

The Affiliated Hospital of Stomatology, School of Stomatology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, and Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedical Research of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou 310006, China.

Objectives: The study aimed at identifying salivary microbiota in caries-free Chinese preschool children using high-throughput sequencing.

Methods: Saliva samples were obtained from 35 caries-free preschool children (18 boys and 17 girls) with primary dentition, and 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) V3-V4 hypervariable regions of the microorganisms were analyzed using Illumina MiSeq.

Results: At 97% similarity level, all of these reads were clustered into 334 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Among these, five phyla (Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Candidate division TM7) and 13 genera (, , , , , , , , , , , , and ) were the most dominant, constituting 99.4% and 89.9% of the salivary microbiota, respectively. The core salivary microbiome comprised nine genera (, , , , , , , ,and ). Analysis of microbial diversity and community structure revealed a similar pattern between male and female subjects. The difference in microbial community composition between them was mainly attributed to (=0.023). Furthermore, functional prediction revealed that the most abundant genes were related to amino acid transport and metabolism.

Conclusions: Our results revealed the diversity and composition of salivary microbiota in caries-free preschool children, with little difference between male and female subjects. Identity of the core microbiome, coupled with prediction of gene function, deepens our understanding of oral microbiota in caries-free populations and provides basic information for associating salivary microecology and oral health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B2000554DOI Listing
April 2021

The best option for complicated type B dissection with arch involved.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Vascular Surgery, The 2nd Xiang-ya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410011, China Angiopathy Institute, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410011, China Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College Fuwai Hospital, Beijing 100013, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000001354DOI Listing
March 2021

Endovascular Treatment of Acute Type B Aortic Dissection in a Patient with Takayasu Arteritis.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 Mar 13. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Vascular Surgery,Second Xiangya Hospital,Central South University, Changsha, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2021.02.082DOI Listing
March 2021

Epigenome-wide study of brain DNA methylation following acute opioid intoxication.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 Apr 26;221:108658. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, United States.

Background: Opioid abuse poses significant risk to individuals in the United States and epigenetic changes are a leading potential biomarker of opioid abuse. Current evidence, however, is mostly limited to candidate gene analysis in whole blood. To clarify the association between opioid abuse and DNA methylation, we conducted an epigenome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in brain samples of individuals who died from acute opioid intoxication and group-matched controls.

Methods: Tissue samples were extracted from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of 153 deceased individuals (M = 35.42; 62 % male; 77 % European ancestry). The study included 72 opioid samples, 53 psychiatric controls, and 28 normal controls. The epigenome-wide analysis was implemented using the Illumina MethylationEPIC BeadChip; analyses adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, negative control principal components, ancestry principal components, cellular composition, and surrogate variables. Horvath's epigenetic age and Levine's PhenoAge were calculated, and gene set enrichment analyses were performed.

Results: Although no CpG sites survived false-discovery rate correction for multiple testing, 13 sites surpassed a relaxed significance threshold (p < 1.0 × 10). One of these sites was located within Netrin-1, a gene implicated in kappa opioid receptor activity. There was an association between opioid use and accelerated PhenoAge (b = 2.24, se = 1.11, p = .045). Gene set enrichment analyses revealed enrichment of differential methylation in GO and KEGG pathways broadly related to substance use.

Conclusions: Netrin-1 may be associated with opioid overdose, and future research with larger samples across stages of opioid use will elucidate the complex genomics of opioid abuse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2021.108658DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8026744PMC
April 2021

Enantioselective Synthesis of α-Aryl-β2-Amino-esters via Cooperative Isothiourea and Brønsted Acid Catalysis.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

University of St Andrews, Chemistry, UNITED KINGDOM.

The synthesis of α-aryl-β 2 -amino esters through enantioselective aminomethylation of an arylacetic acid ester in high yields and enantioselectivity via cooperative isothiourea and Brønsted acid catalysis is demonstrated. The scope and limitations of this process are explored (25 examples, up to 94% yield and 96:4 er), with applications to the synthesis of ( S )-Venlafaxine·HCl and ( S )-Nakinadine B. Mechanistic studies are consistent with a C(1)-ammonium enolate pathway being followed rather than an alternative dynamic kinetic resolution process. Control studies indicate that (i) a linear effect between catalyst and product er is observed; (ii) an acyl ammonium ion can be used as a precatalyst; (iii) reversible isothiourea addition to an in situ generated iminium ion leads to an off-cycle intermediate that can be used as a productive precatalyst.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202016220DOI Listing
March 2021

Surge effects and survival to hospital discharge in critical care patients with COVID-19 during the early pandemic: a cohort study.

Crit Care 2021 02 17;25(1):70. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Center for Cardiovascular Analytics, Research and Data Science (CARDS), Providence Heart Institute, Providence St. Joseph Health, Portland, OR, USA.

Background: The early months of the COVID-19 pandemic were fraught with much uncertainty and some resource constraint. We assessed the change in survival to hospital discharge over time for intensive care unit patients with COVID-19 during the first 3 months of the pandemic and the presence of any surge effects on patient outcomes.

Methods: Retrospective cohort study using electronic medical record data for all patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to intensive care units from February 25, 2020, to May 15, 2020, at one of 26 hospitals within an integrated delivery system in the Western USA. Patient demographics, comorbidities, and severity of illness were measured along with medical therapies and hospital outcomes over time. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to assess temporal changes in survival to hospital discharge during the study period.

Results: Of 620 patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU [mean age 63.5 years (SD 15.7) and 69% male], 403 (65%) survived to hospital discharge and 217 (35%) died in the hospital. Survival to hospital discharge increased over time, from 60.0% in the first 2 weeks of the study period to 67.6% in the last 2 weeks. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, the risk-adjusted odds of survival to hospital discharge increased over time (biweekly change, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.40, P = 0.02). Additionally, an a priori-defined explanatory model showed that after adjusting for both hospital occupancy and percent hospital capacity by COVID-19-positive individuals and persons under investigation (PUI), the temporal trend in risk-adjusted patient survival to hospital discharge remained the same (biweekly change, aOR 1.18, 95% CI 1.00-1.38, P = 0.04). The presence of greater rates of COVID-19 positive/PUI as a percentage of hospital capacity was, however, significantly and inversely associated with survival to hospital discharge (aOR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.98, P < 0.01).

Conclusions: During the early COVID-19 pandemic, risk-adjusted survival to hospital discharge increased over time for critical care patients. An association was also seen between a greater COVID-19-positive/PUI percentage of hospital capacity and a lower survival rate to hospital discharge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-021-03504-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7887411PMC
February 2021

Bioinformatics analysis of microarray data reveals epithelial-mesenchymal-transition in pediatric ependymoma.

Anticancer Drugs 2021 Apr;32(4):437-447

Tianjin Cerebral Vascular and Neural Degenerative Disease Key Laboratory, Tianjin Huanhuu Hospital, Tianjin Neurosurgery Institute, Tianjin, China.

The objectives of this study were to explore the possible mechanisms of pediatric ependymoma using bioinformatics methods and provide potential genes and signaling pathways for pediatric ependymoma study. The data of GES74195 from Gene Expression Ominibus was analyzed by R language for pediatric ependymoma study. The differentially expressed genes were explored using gene set enrichment analysis, search tool for the retrieval of interacting genes, Cytoscape as well as other mainstream bioinformatics methods. Extracellular matrix-receptors interaction pathways and focal adhesion pathway were demonstrated as the key signaling pathway for pediatric ependymoma. The potential hub genes enriched in the two signaling pathways were regarded as final hub genes for this microarray analysis. The development and progression of pediatric ependymoma were associated with epithelial-mesenchymal-transition. Various potential hub genes and potential key signaling pathways in order to further explore their values in the diagnosis and treatment of this disease in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CAD.0000000000001046DOI Listing
April 2021

Magnetic resonance imaging and contrast-enhanced ultrasound findings of a recurrent primary breast angiosarcoma: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Feb;100(5):e24625

Department of Breast Surgery.

Rationale: Primary breast angiosarcoma (PBA) is a rare and overly aggressive entity and account for less than 1% of all breast cancer cases. PBA had a high rate of delayed preoperative diagnosis due to absent distinctive radiographic characteristics.

Patient Concerns: We report a case of a 47-year-old female patient who had a previous history of luminal cancer in the right breast with mastectomy; the patient complained of asymmetrically diffuse enlarged, accompanying with a painless mass in the left breast 12 years after the mastectomy of her right breast.

Diagnoses: The tumor mimicked idiopathic granulomatous mastitis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the first presentation. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) was performed for further lesion characterization and showed heterogeneous rapid hyper enhanced. An ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy was performed, and the pathology report indicated a breast angiosarcoma.

Interventions: The patient underwent a nipple-sparing simple mastectomy with immediate reconstruction of the left breast.

Outcomes: After 8 months later, the tumor recurred, CEUS and MRI examination suggested PBA recurrence, then re-excision with implant removal was performed, the patient had a lung metastasis 4 months later eventually died 22 months after diagnosis.

Lessons: It is not easy to diagnose PBA with the radiographic examination. This case's importance is by combining CEUS and MRI to reflect enhanced morphology and hemodynamic characteristics of PBA and help diagnose breast angiosarcomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000024625DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870214PMC
February 2021

Symptoms, disc position, occluding pairs, and facial skeletal characteristics of older patients with temporomandibular disorders.

J Int Med Res 2021 Feb;49(2):300060521990530

Department of Temporomandibular Joint, State Key Laboratory of Oral Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Disease, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Objective: To describe the proportions of different osseous diagnoses in older patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and to analyze the symptoms, disc position, occluding pairs, and facial skeletal characteristics of patients with bilateral osteoarthrosis (BOA) and bilateral normal joints (BNJ).

Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study constituted 88 older patients (age ≥60 years). The osseous diagnosis, symptoms, disc position, occluding pairs, and facial skeletal characteristics were evaluated. Variables in BOA patients and BNJ patients were compared using the -test and chi-square test.

Results: Forty-eight patients had BOA, 7 had unilateral osteoarthrosis, 11 had intermediate osteoarthrosis, and 22 had BNJ. The prevalence of disc displacement without reduction (DDw/oR) in BOA patients was significantly higher than in BNJ patients. BOA patients exhibited greater ANB angle, PP-MP, U1-NPo, L1-NPo, and facial convexity angle; shorter posterior cranial base; and decreased ramus height.

Conclusion: BOA patients with associated DDw/oR had more complaints of orofacial pain and exhibited a shorter posterior cranial base, and greater mandibular retrusion, anterior tooth protrusion, and protruded profile than BNJ patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060521990530DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890733PMC
February 2021

Association of Gene Polymorphisms and Amlodipine-Induced Peripheral Edema in Chinese Han Patients with Essential Hypertension.

Pharmgenomics Pers Med 2021 2;14:189-197. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Pharmacy, Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Background: Amlodipine is one of the most used members of calcium channel blockers (CCB), available to treat hypertension. It is mainly metabolized by the Cytochrome P450 3A4/5 (CYP3A4/5) in the liver. Peripheral edema emerges as the major adverse drug reaction to amlodipine and is the primary reason for discontinuation of amlodipine therapy. However, genetic changes in may lead to changes in the tolerability of amlodipine.

Purpose: In this study, we were interested whether variants in CYP3A5 have a role to play in amlodipine-induced peripheral edema.

Methods: A total number of 240 Chinese Han patients that have experienced hypertension were included in the study. Sixty-four patients had experienced amlodipine-induced peripheral edema, while the remaining 176 patients with no history of edema formed the control group. Twenty-four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of gene were sequenced by targeted region sequencing method. The relationship of these genetic variants with amlodipine-induced peripheral edema risk was assessed using logistic regression.

Results: The allele frequencies of (rs15524), (rs4646453) and (rs776746) were significantly different between cases and controls (<0.05). The (CC) or (AA) carriers showed an increased risk of amlodipine-induced peripheral edema in dominant model. Meanwhile, patients carrying (AC/AA) showed a reduced risk of peripheral edema. Furthermore, we found a strong linkage disequilibrium among rs15524, rs4646453 and rs776746.

Conclusion: Our study reveals for the first time that and were associated with amlodipine-induced peripheral edema in Chinese Han patients with hypertension. However, further studies comprising larger number of samples, more related genes and other factors are wanted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PGPM.S291277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7866951PMC
February 2021

Population Pharmacokinetics and Dose Optimization of Ganciclovir in Critically Ill Children.

Front Pharmacol 2020 18;11:614164. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Wuhan Children's Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

The present study aims to establish a population pharmacokinetic model of ganciclovir and optimize the dosing regimen in critically ill children suffering from cytomegalovirus related disease. A total of 104 children were included in the study. The population pharmacokinetic model was developed using the Phoenix NLME program. The final model was validated by diagnostic plots, nonparametric bootstrap, visual predictive check, and normalized prediction distribution errors. To further evaluate and optimize the dosing regimens, Monte Carlo simulations were performed. Moreover, the possible association between systemic exposure and hematological toxicity were also monitored in the assessment of adverse events. The ganciclovir pharmacokinetics could be adequately described by a one-compartment model with first-order elimination along with body weight and estimated glomerular filtration rate as significant covariates. As showed in this study, the typical population parameter estimates of apparent volume of distribution and apparent clearance were 11.35 L and 5.23 L/h, respectively. Simulations indicated that the current regimen at a dosage of 10 mg/kg/d would result in subtherapeutic exposure, and elevated doses might be required to reach the target ganciclovir level. No significant association between neutropenia, the most frequent toxicity reported in our study (19.23%), and ganciclovir exposure was observed. A population pharmacokinetic model of intravenous ganciclovir for critically ill children with cytomegalovirus infection was successfully developed. Results showed that underdosing of ganciclovir was relatively common in critically ill pediatric patients, and model-based approaches should be applied in the optimizing of empiric dosing regimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.614164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847843PMC
January 2021

Splenectomy before hepatectomy for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and hypersplenism: A retrospective study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jan;100(4):e24326

Hepatic Surgery Center, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College.

Abstract: The spleen plays an important role in tumor progression and the curative effects of splenectomy before hepatectomy for hypersplenism and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are not clear. We investigated whether splenectomy before hepatectomy increases survival rate among patients with HCC and hypersplenism compared with that of patients who underwent synchronous hepatectomy and splenectomy or hepatectomy alone.Between January 2011 and December 2016, 266 patients who underwent hepatectomy as a result of HCC and portal hypertension secondary to hepatitis were retrospectively analyzed. Their perioperative complications and survival outcome were evaluated.Patients underwent synchronous hepatectomy and splenectomy (H-S group) and underwent splenectomy before hepatectomy (H-preS group) exhibited significantly higher disease-free survival (DFS) rates than those of patients underwent hepatectomy alone (H-O group). The DFS rates for patients in the H-S group, H-preS group, and H-O group were 74.6%, 48.4%, 39.8%, and 80.1%, 54.2%, 40.1%, and 60.5%, 30.3%, 13.3%, at 1, 3, and 5 years after surgery, respectively. Tumor size, tumors number, and levels of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) were independent risk factors for DFS. Gender and tumor size were independent prognostic factor for overall survival (OS). The preoperative white blood cell (WBC) and platelet (PLT) counts were significantly higher in the H-preS group than in those of the H-S group and the H-O group. After operation, the WBC and PLT counts in the H-S group and H-preS groups were significantly higher compared to those of the H-O group.No matter splenectomy before hepatectomy or synchronous hepatectomy and splenectomy, hepatectomy with splenectomy may improve DFS rates in patients with HCC and hypersplenism, and splenectomy before hepatectomy alleviates hypersplenism without an increased surgical risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000024326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7850697PMC
January 2021

A Method for Estimating 24-hour Urinary Sodium Excretion by Casual Urine Specimen in Chinese Hypertensive Patients.

Am J Hypertens 2021 Jan 25. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Institute of Hypertension, People's Hospital, Peking University, Xicheng District, Beijing, China.

Background: High salt intake is a known risk factor of hypertension, which in turn increases the risk of stroke and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a method for predicting 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (UNa24h) using casual urine specimens in Chinese hypertensive patients.

Methods: A total of 966 patients with hypertension were included from eight provinces across China. A UNa24h prediction model (Sun_C method) was developed for males and females using linear regression based on age, weight, sodium concentration in the spot urine (UNaspot) and creatinine concentration in the spot urine (UCrspot). The data was split into the training (70%) and testing (30%) sets to respectively develop and evaluate the Sun_C method.

Results: Compared to the Kawasaki, INTERSALT and Tanaka methods, Sun_C method achieved a low and consistent mean bias (1.1 mmol/d) within the range from 106 mmol/d to 212 mmol/d of UNa24h (equivalent to NaCl intake of 6 g/d - 12 g/d). In addition, the Sun_C method showed no significant difference between the measured and estimated UNa24h in a paired t-test (P = 0.689). At individual level, Sun_C method had 79.8% of individuals at the cutoff under ± 30% level.

Conclusion: Sun_C method may prove a reasonable method to estimate the daily dietary sodium intakes (particularly in the range of 6 g/d - 12 g/d of NaCl) in Chinese hypertensive patients using spot urine measurements. As the amount of data increases in the future, the performance of our formulae will be further improved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpab020DOI Listing
January 2021

Barcode signal amplifying strategy for sensitive and accurate protein detection on LC-MS/MS.

Analyst 2021 Mar;146(5):1725-1733

State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China.

Protein drugs showing strong pharmaceutical activity, high specificity, and low toxicity and side effects have drawn extensive attention in the field of life sciences and medicine. Precise evaluation of the function of these drugs requires accurate and sensitive detection methods. Here, we report a novel chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for sensitive and selective detection of protein drugs. Magnetic nanoparticles (Apt29@MNPs) were functionalized by thrombin aptamers, and quantum dots (Apt15@ss@QDs) were dual-functionalized with quantitative thrombin aptamers and small molecules with high ionization efficiency as the mass barcode. After Apt29@MNPs specifically purify and enrich thrombin from biological samples, they can form a nano "sandwich structure" when Apt15@ss@QDs are added, resulting in the release of the mass barcode for LC-MS/MS analysis via the cutting of the disulfide bond. Since there is a higher quantitative molecular ratio of mass barcode to thrombin in the nano-"sandwich structure", quantitative detection of thrombin with high sensitivity and selectivity can be achieved via the LC-MS/MS detection of the mass barcode with high ionization efficiency rather than thrombin, which effectively avoids the disadvantages of direct protein detection by mass spectrometry. The established method for thrombin detection shows a good linear relationship in a concentration range of 0.00115-1.15 nM with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.0007 nM. The present work provides a new approach for the effective and sensitive quantitative analysis of protein drugs and would be of great significance in promoting the development of protein drugs and clinical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0an01948hDOI Listing
March 2021

The Development and Initial Validation of PUMC Localized Scleroderma Facial Aesthetic Index: A Pilot Study.

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2021 Jan 15. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Dermatology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background: Localized scleroderma (LoS) is an autoimmune connective tissue disorder leading to serious long-term aesthetic impairment on patients. Objective evaluation methods are badly needed to facilitate the evaluation of the surgical treatment on individual patients and clinical studies.

Objective: To develop and assess the reliability and validity of Peking Union Medical College LoS facial aesthetic index (PUMC LoSFAI).

Methods: Twelve experts devoted their time and resources in the development and validation. LoS patients in the stable phase were recruited. Reliability and validity was then assessed. LoS patients were evaluated by two plastic surgeons using PUMC LoSFAI and LoS skin damage index (LoSDI). The PUMC LoSFAI comprises 4 domains for the local assessment (surface area of lesion, dyspigmentation, skin thickness and soft tissue atrophy) and 3 domains for the overall assessment (facial symmetry, proportion and profile) to describe LoS facial aesthetic impairment. Face-Q was completed by patients at each visit.

Results: Thirty-two LoS patients had 96 visits, during which 138 lesions were assessed. PUMC LoSFAI and 7 domains demonstrated substantial to excellent inter- and intra-rater reliability (ICC 0.995, κ 0.72-0.91, r 0.85-0.99, respectively). Seven domains considered to be important to extremely important variables (mean rank 3.2-3.8) had high I-CVI (> 0.78) and S-CVI (0.93). PUMC LoSFAI correlated excellently with LoSDI (r = 0.933, P < 0.001), and correlated fairly with Face-Q (r = - 0.399, P = 0.001).

Conclusions: PUMC LoSFAI was developed and evaluated to play as a tool of aesthetic impairment assessment for LoS patients, which may facilitate the evaluation of the treatment on individual patients and clinical studies. PUMC LoSFAI demonstrated high reliability and validity, and further study in larger patient samples is needed to confirm these preliminary findings.

Level Of Evidence Iv: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine Ratings, please refer to Table of Contents or online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00266-020-02111-4DOI Listing
January 2021

Effect of Del Nido cardioplegia on ventricular arrhythmias after cardiovascular surgery.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2021 Jan 13;21(1):32. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Intensive Care Unit, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, 68 Changle Road, Nanjing, 210006, Jiangsu Province, China.

Background: Del Nido cardioplegia (DNC) has been proven safe and effective in pediatric patients. However, the use of DNC in adult undergoing cardiovascular surgery lacks support with substantial evidence. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of DNC as a cardioplegia of prophylaxis to ventricular arrhythmias associated to cardiovascular surgery in adult patients.

Methods: This study recruited nine hundred fifty-four patients who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgeries in Nanjing Hospital affiliated to Nanjing Medical University between January 2019 and December 2019. Among 954 patients, 324 patients were treated with DNC (DNC group), and 630 patients were treated with St. Thomas cardioplegia (STH group). The incidence of postoperative arrhythmia as well as other cardiovascular events relavant to the surgery were investigated in both groups.

Results: In DNC group, the incidence of postoperative ventricular arrhythmias was lower (12.4% vs. 17.4%, P = 0.040), and the length of ICU stay was shorter (1.97 ± 1.49 vs. 2.26 ± 1.46, P = 0.004). Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that the use of DNC helped to reduce the incidence of postoperative ventricular arrhythmias (adjusted odds ratio 0.475, 95% CI 0.266-0.825, P = 0.010). The propensity score-based analysis and subgroup analysis indicated that DNC has the same protecting effects towards myocardial in all kinds of cardiopulmonary bypass surgeries.

Conclusions: Del Nido cardioplegia may potentially reduce the incidence of postoperative ventricular arrhythmias, shorten the length of ICU stay and improve the overall outcome of the patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-020-01844-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7805093PMC
January 2021

Multiplex immunofluorescence to measure dynamic changes in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and PD-L1 in early-stage breast cancer.

Breast Cancer Res 2021 Jan 7;23(1). Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Earle A. Chiles Research Institute, 4805 N.E. Glisan St., North Tower, Suite 2N87, Portland, OR, 97213, USA.

Background: The H&E stromal tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (sTIL) score and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) SP142 immunohistochemistry assay are prognostic and predictive in early-stage breast cancer, but are operator-dependent and may have insufficient precision to characterize dynamic changes in sTILs/PD-L1 in the context of clinical research. We illustrate how multiplex immunofluorescence (mIF) combined with statistical modeling can be used to precisely estimate dynamic changes in sTIL score, PD-L1 expression, and other immune variables from a single paraffin-embedded slide, thus enabling comprehensive characterization of activity of novel immunotherapy agents.

Methods: Serial tissue was obtained from a recent clinical trial evaluating loco-regional cytokine delivery as a strategy to promote immune cell infiltration and activation in breast tumors. Pre-treatment biopsies and post-treatment tumor resections were analyzed by mIF (PerkinElmer Vectra) using an antibody panel that characterized tumor cells (cytokeratin-positive), immune cells (CD3, CD8, CD163, FoxP3), and PD-L1 expression. mIF estimates of sTIL score and PD-L1 expression were compared to the H&E/SP142 clinical assays. Hierarchical linear modeling was utilized to compare pre- and post-treatment immune cell expression, account for correlation of time-dependent measurement, variation across high-powered magnification views within each subject, and variation between subjects. Simulation methods (Monte Carlo, bootstrapping) were used to evaluate the impact of model and tissue sample size on statistical power.

Results: mIF estimates of sTIL and PD-L1 expression were strongly correlated with their respective clinical assays (p < .001). Hierarchical linear modeling resulted in more precise estimates of treatment-related increases in sTIL, PD-L1, and other metrics such as CD8+ tumor nest infiltration. Statistical precision was dependent on adequate tissue sampling, with at least 15 high-powered fields recommended per specimen. Compared to conventional t-testing of means, hierarchical linear modeling was associated with substantial reductions in enrollment size required (n = 25➔n = 13) to detect the observed increases in sTIL/PD-L1.

Conclusion: mIF is useful for quantifying treatment-related dynamic changes in sTILs/PD-L1 and is concordant with clinical assays, but with greater precision. Hierarchical linear modeling can mitigate the effects of intratumoral heterogeneity on immune cell count estimations, allowing for more efficient detection of treatment-related pharmocodynamic effects in the context of clinical trials.

Trial Registration: NCT02950259 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13058-020-01378-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7788790PMC
January 2021

Pd-Modified ZnO-Au Enabling Alkoxy Intermediates Formation and Dehydrogenation for Photocatalytic Conversion of Methane to Ethylene.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Jan 29;143(1):269-278. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials (iChEM), School of Chemistry and Materials Science, and National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China.

Photocatalysis provides an intriguing approach for the conversion of methane to multicarbon (C) compounds under mild conditions; however, with methyl radicals as the sole reaction intermediate, the current C products are dominated by ethane, with a negligible selectivity toward ethylene, which, as a key chemical feedstock, possesses higher added value than ethane. Herein, we report a direct photocatalytic methane-to-ethylene conversion pathway involving the formation and dehydrogenation of alkoxy (i.e., methoxy and ethoxy) intermediates over a Pd-modified ZnO-Au hybrid catalyst. On the basis of various characterizations, it is revealed that the Pd-induced dehydrogenation capability of the catalyst holds the key to turning on the pathway. During the reaction, methane molecules are first dissociated into methoxy on the surface of ZnO under the assistance of Pd. Then these methoxy intermediates are further dehydrogenated and coupled with methyl radical into ethoxy, which can be subsequently converted into ethylene through dehydrogenation. As a result, the optimized ZnO-AuPd hybrid with atomically dispersed Pd sites in the Au lattice achieves a methane conversion of 536.0 μmol g with a C compound selectivity of 96.0% (39.7% CH and 54.9% CH in total produced C compounds) after 8 h of light irradiation. This work provides fresh insight into the methane conversion pathway under mild conditions and highlights the significance of dehydrogenation for enhanced photocatalytic activity and unsaturated hydrocarbon product selectivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.0c10369DOI Listing
January 2021

MicroRNA‑301a/ZNRF3/wnt/β‑catenin signal regulatory crosstalk mediates glioma progression.

Int J Oncol 2020 Nov 10. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, P.R. China.

MicroRNA (miR)‑mediated mRNA and multiple signaling pathway dysregulations have been extensively implicated in several cancer types, including gliomas. Although previous studies have reported that miR‑301a acts as an oncogene, the underlying mechanisms of miR‑301a in the initiation and progression of glioma remain unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the involvement of miR‑301a‑mediated signaling pathway dysregulation in glioma. The results identified that miR‑301a was significantly upregulated in gliomas and was associated with a poor prognosis based on The Cancer Genome Atlas and Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas databases. Moreover, zinc and ring finger 3 (ZNRF3) exerted a critical role in the miR‑301a‑mediated effects on the malignant phenotype, such as by affecting proliferation and apoptosis. Mechanistically, the TOP/FOP luciferase assay, western blotting and immunofluorescence results demonstrated that miR‑301a knockdown inhibited the wnt/β‑catenin signaling pathway, at least partially via ZNRF3, while ZNRF3 was a direct functional target of miR‑301a, as indicated by luciferase reporter assay and western blot analysis. Furthermore, ZNRF3 could in turn repress miR‑301a expression, which was dependent on the wnt pathway. Collectively, the present study identified a novel miR‑301a/ZNRF3/wnt/β‑catenin signaling feedback loop that serves critical roles in glioma tumorigenesis, and that may represent a potential therapeutic target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2020.5145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721082PMC
November 2020

Association of liver abnormalities with in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19.

J Hepatol 2020 Dec 19. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Hepatic Surgery Center, and Hubei Key Laboratory of Hepato-Pancreatic-Biliary Diseases, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, Hubei, China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: The evolution and clinical significance of abnormal liver chemistries and the impact of hepatitis B infection on outcome in patients with COVID-19 is not well characterized. This study aimed to explore these issues.

Methods: This large retrospective cohort study included 2,073 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and definite outcomes in Wuhan, China. Longitudinal liver function tests were conducted, with associated factors and risk of death determined by multivariate regression analyses. A prognostic nomogram was formulated to predict the survival of patients with COVID-19. The characteristics of liver abnormalities and outcomes of patients with COVID-19, with and without hepatitis B, were compared after 1:3 propensity score matching.

Results: Of the 2,073 patients, 1,282 (61.8%) had abnormal liver chemistries during hospitalization, and 297 (14.3%) had a liver injury. The mean levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and direct bilirubin (D-Bil) increased early after symptom onset in deceased patients and showed disparity compared to levels in discharged patients throughout the clinical course of the disease. Abnormal AST (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.39; 95% CI 1.04-1.86, p = 0.027) and D-Bil (adjusted HR 1.66; 95% CI 1.22-2.26; p = 0.001) levels at admission were independent risk factors for mortality due to COVID-19. A nomogram was established based on the results of multivariate analysis and showed sufficient discriminatory power and good consistency between the prediction and the observation. HBV infection in patients did not increase the risk of poor COVID-19-associated outcomes.

Conclusions: Abnormal AST and D-Bil levels at admission were independent predictors of COVID-19-related mortality. Therefore, monitoring liver chemistries, especially AST and D-Bil levels, is necessary in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.

Lay Summary: Liver test abnormalities (in particular elevations in the levels of aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and direct bilirubin [D-Bil]) were observed after symptom onset in patients who went on to die of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Abnormal levels of AST and D-Bil at admission were independent predictors of COVID-19-related mortality. HBV infection in patients did not increase the risk of poor COVID-19-associated outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.12.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7749734PMC
December 2020

Diagnosis and outcomes of surgical treatment of carotid bifurcation tumors.

J Int Med Res 2020 Dec;48(12):300060520976495

Department of Vascular Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Objective: To retrospectively review our experience with the diagnosis and treatment of carotid bifurcation tumors (CBFT).

Methods: This was a retrospective study of 60 patients with CBFT who underwent surgical and conservative treatment. The patients' clinicopathological features, imaging examination findings, treatment strategy, and prognosis were analyzed. The surgical grade, blood loss, tumor size, operative time, and postoperative complications were analyzed by Spearman's correlation.

Results: Resection was performed in 52 patients with 53 tumors. The mean tumor volume, operative time, estimated blood loss, and follow-up time was 47.62 ± 65.28 cm, 176.1 ± 86.55 minutes, 231.3 ± 354.0 mL, and 44.42 ± 29.30 months, respectively. Pathological examination showed that the number of carotid body tumors (CBT; paraganglioma), neurilemmoma, mesenchymal tissue tumor, and angioleiomyoma was 42, 8, 1, and 1, respectively. Of the CBT group, the rate of Shamblin Type I, II, and III was 11.9%, 59.5%, and 28.6%, and three cases were malignant CBT with lymph node metastasis. Spearman's correlation analysis showed that complication grade was significantly related to surgical difficulty grade and operative time.

Conclusion: CBT is the most frequent lesion in CBFT, and CBT may be treated safely by surgical management. The severity of surgical complications is significantly correlated with surgical difficulty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060520976495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7739102PMC
December 2020

The relation of cephalometric features to internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

Orthod Craniofac Res 2020 Dec 8. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Chengdu, China.

Purpose: To review and summarize the data on the relationship between craniofacial morphology features and internal derangement (ID) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ).

Method: A systematic review was designed and registered at PROSPERO, CRD42019132731. The PubMed, Embase and Scopus databases were searched for cephalometric studies comparing craniofacial morphology between female patients with TMJ ID and controls. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used for quality assessment. Weighted mean differences for cephalometric measurements were pooled for subsequent meta-analysis.

Result: From the establishment date to August 2020, 14 of 1038 collected records were selected, which consisted of 772 patients with TMJ ID and 423 controls. These records were eventually pooled for the designed statistical analysis after the NOS quality assessment. Compared with the controls, TMJ ID patients had obviously smaller, retruded and clockwise-rotated mandible, showing significantly decreased S-Na, S-Go, Go-Me, Ar-Pog, Ar-Go, SNB, Na perp Pog, and increased FH-MP, SN-MP, PP-MP, SN to Ar-Go, S-Ar-Go and ANB.

Conclusion: Certain craniofacial morphology features were found strongly associated with the presence of TMJ ID, especially the size and position of the mandible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ocr.12454DOI Listing
December 2020

Epigenome-wide association scan identifies methylation sites associated with HIV infection.

Epigenomics 2020 11 24;12(21):1917-1927. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

To investigate the role of epigenetics in HIV pathophysiology We conducted an epigenome-wide association scan on HIV infection status among people who inject drugs in the AIDS Linked to the IntraVenous Experience study with primary (n = 397) and validation samples (n = 390). DNA methylation from blood was measured by the Illumina EPIC BeadChip. We controlled for cell type heterogeneity by HIV status. HIV infection status was associated (p < 10) with DNA methylation at 49 CpG sites. Sites were enriched in response to virus, interferon signaling pathway, etc. Among these sites, discovery and validation t-statistics were highly correlated (r = 0.96). In a cohort of people who inject drugs, HIV status was associated with differential DNA methylation at biologically meaningful sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/epi-2020-0123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7788472PMC
November 2020

Comparison of methylation capture sequencing and Infinium MethylationEPIC array in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

Epigenetics Chromatin 2020 11 23;13(1):51. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, 06516, USA.

Background: Epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) have been widely applied to identify methylation CpG sites associated with human disease. To date, the Infinium MethylationEPIC array (EPIC) is commonly used for high-throughput DNA methylation profiling. However, the EPIC array covers only 30% of the human methylome. Methylation Capture bisulfite sequencing (MC-seq) captures target regions of methylome and has advantages of extensive coverage in the methylome at an affordable price.

Methods: Epigenome-wide DNA methylation in four peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples was profiled by using SureSelectXT Methyl-Seq for MC-seq and EPIC platforms separately. CpG site-based reproducibility of MC-seq was assessed with DNA sample inputs ranging in quantity of high (> 1000 ng), medium (300-1000 ng), and low (150 ng-300 ng). To compare the performance of MC-seq and the EPIC arrays, we conducted a Pearson correlation and methylation value difference at each CpG site that was detected by both MC-seq and EPIC. We compared the percentage and counts in each CpG island and gene annotation between MC-seq and the EPIC array.

Results: After quality control, an average of 3,708,550 CpG sites per sample were detected by MC-seq with DNA quantity > 1000 ng. Reproducibility of DNA methylation in MC-seq-detected CpG sites was high among samples with high, medium, and low DNA inputs (r > 0.96). The EPIC array captured an average of 846,464 CpG sites per sample. Compared with the EPIC array, MC-seq detected more CpGs in coding regions and CpG islands. Among the 472,540 CpG sites captured by both platforms, methylation of a majority of CpG sites was highly correlated in the same sample (r: 0.98-0.99). However, methylation for a small proportion of CpGs (N = 235) differed significantly between the two platforms, with differences in beta values of greater than 0.5.

Conclusions: Our results show that MC-seq is an efficient and reliable platform for methylome profiling with a broader coverage of the methylome than the array-based platform. Although methylation measurements in majority of CpGs are highly correlated, a number of CpG sites show large discrepancy between the two platforms, which warrants further investigation and needs cautious interpretation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13072-020-00372-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7684759PMC
November 2020

Endovascular Repair of Aortic Dissection Involving the Left Subclavian Artery by Castor Stent Graft: A Multicentre Prospective Trial.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2020 12 9;60(6):854-861. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Vascular Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan, China.

Objective: The left subclavian artery (LSA) origin can be intentionally covered by stent grafts, to provide adequate proximal landing zones during thoracic endovascular repair for Stanford type B aortic dissections (TBADs). To preserve the LSA, a novel single branched stent graft, named "Castor" was designed and a clinical trial conducted to investigate its suitability.

Methods: From April 2013 to March 2015, 73 patients with TBAD were treated by Castor stent grafts at 11 Chinese tertiary hospitals as part of a single arm prospective clinical trial. There were 50 acute (<2 weeks [68.5%]) and 23 chronic aortic dissections (>2 weeks [31.5%]).

Results: The technical success rate was 97% (n = 71/73). The two failures were caused by occlusion of the branch section of the stent graft. There were four intra-operative endoleaks (two type Ia, two type B from the LSA). The endoleak rate was 5% (n = 4/73). There was one in hospital death and no major complications. The median follow up time was 61 months (range 48-72 months). The mortality was 5% (n = 4/73) within one year and 7% within six years (n = 5/73). Two deaths were of unknown cause and three were not related to the aorta. Two new entry tears were found on the proximal or distal edge of the stent graft and were retreated endovascularly. Six occlusions of the branch section of the Castor stent graft were found, and the follow up patency rate of the branch section was 93% (n = 63/68). Two intra-operative endoleaks were left during follow up and eventually disappeared according to the latest computed tomography angiograms.

Conclusion: For patients with TBADs needing anchoring proximal to the origin of LSA, the Castor single branched stent graft may provide an easily manipulated, safe, and effective endovascular treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2020.08.022DOI Listing
December 2020

Pristimerin Suppresses Trophoblast Cell Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition via miR-542-5p/EGFR Axis.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2020 2;14:4659-4670. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Central Laboratory, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130021, People's Republic of China.

Background: Ectopic pregnancy (EP) is an ectopic embryo implantation occurred outside the uterine cavity. Nowadays, more attention have garnered in fast and effective treatment with less side effects. Pristimerin is known as the clinical application for anti-cancer, and the effect on EP therapy is still unclear.

Materials And Methods: Trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo was used; then, we performed cell counting kit-8 assay, wound healing assay, flow cytometry and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis (RT-PCR) to detect the cell viability, migration ability, apoptosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) under pristimerin treatment. In addition, public bioinformatic database was used to discover the connection between molecular and genes. Finally, we used miRNA transfection and RT-PCR techniques to determine the underlying molecular mechanism.

Results: We revealed that pristimerin inhibited trophoblast cells proliferation, migration and EMT, while induced trophoblast cell apoptosis. Furthermore, expression of miR-542-5p, AGO2 and EGFR was suppressed in HTR-8/SVneo cells post pristimerin treatment, and miR-542-5p silence showed the same effect. Combing pristimerin treatment and miR-542-5p silence showed a synergistic action.

Conclusion: Pristimerin could be an effective treatment to block embryo implantation by miR-542-5p and EGFR down-regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S274595DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7646443PMC
November 2020

Transcriptomic analysis reveals the contribution of auxin on the differentially developed caryopses on primary and secondary branches in rice.

J Plant Physiol 2021 Jan 2;256:153310. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Gene Resources and Molecular Development, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875, China; Academy of Plateau Science and Sustainability of the People's Government of Qinghai Province & Beijing Normal University, Qinghai Normal University, Xining, 810008, Qinghai, China. Electronic address:

Generally, the caryopses located on proximal secondary branches (CSB) have smaller grain size and slower and poorer filling rate than those on apical primary branches (CPB) in rice, which greatly limits the grain yield potential fulfillment. However, the key regulators determining the developmental differences between CPB and CSB remain elusive. Here, we have performed transcriptomic analysis in CPB and CSB at four developmental stages [0, 5, 12 and 20 days after fertilization (DAF)] using high-throughput RNA-sequencing technique. Based on gene expression cluster analysis, the genes expressed in CPB and CSB were clustered into two subtypes in a positional-independent manner: one includes 0- and 5-DAF CPB and CSB, and 12-DAF CSB; another includes 12-DAF CPB, 20-DAF CPB and CSB. Moreover, according to the expression value of each gene, K-mean cluster analysis showed that the K4 to K6 classifiers contain the genes highly expressed in 5-DAF CPB and 12-DAF CSB, which were enriched in DNA synthesis, protein synthesis and cell proliferation mainly responsible for grain size decision. Then, functional enrichment analysis in Gene Ontology database showed that auxin-related genes were relatively enriched, indicating that auxin might be the key determinant for gene expression in K4 to K6 classifiers. Finally, the application of exogenous IAA in CSB before fertilization promoted gene expression, caryopsis development and grain weight closer to that in CPB, providing a molecular framework to optimize CSB development and potential targets for increasing grain yield.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2020.153310DOI Listing
January 2021

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Diet and Upregulation of Lipoxin A4 Reduce the Inflammatory Response of Preeclampsia.

J Proteome Res 2021 01 31;20(1):357-368. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Jilin University, No.71 Xinmin Street, Changchun, Jilin Province 130021, China.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and lipoxin A4 (LXA4) on preeclampsia (PE). The LXA4 level was significantly reduced in PE rats. The PUFA diet upregulated the expressions of lipoxygenase 12 (LOX12) and lipoxygenase 15 (LOX15) and downregulated those of cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and endoglin. Lipopolysaccharides could inhibit cell growth and cause inflammatory response, while the presence of PUFAs inhibited the inflammatory response and promoted the expressions of LOX12, LOX15, and LXA4. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) regulated LXA4 expression and inflammation levels by affecting LOX. Inhibition of lipoxygenase 5 activity by NDGA upregulated the expressions of LOX12 and LOX15, while LXA4 reversed LXA4, nitric oxide downregulation, and TNF-α upregulation by NDGA. A decrease in LXA4 levels played an important role in the development and progression of PE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.0c00439DOI Listing
January 2021

Popliteal Artery Aneurysm Rupture in a Patient with Type 1 Neurofibromatosis.

Authors:
Jiehua Li Chang Shu

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2021 02 27;61(2):315. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China; Fuwai Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2020.09.014DOI Listing
February 2021