Publications by authors named "Chang Mann Ko"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid regulates orexigenic peptides and hepatic glucose homeostasis through phosphorylation of FoxO1.

Exp Mol Med 2018 02 2;50(2):e437. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

Departments of Pharmacology and Global Medical Science, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju, Republic of Korea.

4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid (ferulic acid, FA) is known to have numerous beneficial health effects, including anti-obesity and anti-hyperglycemic properties. However, the molecular networks that modulate the beneficial FA-induced metabolic effects have not been well elucidated. In this study, we explored the molecular mechanisms mediating the beneficial metabolic effects of FA. In mice, FA protected against high-fat diet-induced weight gain, reduced food intake and exhibited an overall improved metabolic phenotype. The food intake suppression by FA was accompanied by a specific reduction in hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptides, including agouti-related protein and neuropeptide Y, with no significant changes in the anorexigenic peptides pro-opiomelanocortin and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript. FA treatment also inhibited fat accumulation in the liver and white adipose tissue and suppressed the expression of gluconeogenic genes, including phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and glucose-6-phosphatase. Furthermore, we show that FA phosphorylated and inactivated the transcription factor FoxO1, which positively regulates the expression of gluconeogenic and orexigenic genes, providing evidence that FA might exert its beneficial metabolic effects through inhibition of FoxO1 function in the periphery and the hypothalamus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/emm.2017.253DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5903816PMC
February 2018

Food and Drug Interactions.

J Lifestyle Med 2017 Jan 31;7(1):1-9. Epub 2017 Jan 31.

Department of Pharmacology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Korea.

Natural foods and vegetal supplements have recently become increasingly popular for their roles in medicine and as staple foods. This has, however, led to the increased risk of interaction between prescribed drugs and the bioactive ingredients contained in these foods. These interactions range from pharmacokinetic interactions (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion influencing blood levels of drugs) to pharmacodynamic interactions (drug effects). In a quantitative respect, these interactions occur mainly during metabolism. In addition to the systemic metabolism that occurs mainly in the liver, recent studies have focused on the metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract endothelium before absorption. Inhibition of metabolism causes an increase in the blood levels of drugs and could have adverse reactions. The food-drug interactions causing increased blood levels of drugs may have beneficial or detrimental therapeutic effects depending on the intensity and predictability of these interactions. It is therefore important to understand the potential interactions between foods and drugs should and the specific outcomes of such interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15280/jlm.2017.7.1.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5332115PMC
January 2017

FoxO1 in dopaminergic neurons regulates energy homeostasis and targets tyrosine hydroxylase.

Nat Commun 2016 Sep 29;7:12733. Epub 2016 Sep 29.

Department of Pharmacology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju 26426, Korea.

Dopaminergic (DA) neurons are involved in the integration of neuronal and hormonal signals to regulate food consumption and energy balance. Forkhead transcriptional factor O1 (FoxO1) in the hypothalamus plays a crucial role in mediation of leptin and insulin function. However, the homoeostatic role of FoxO1 in DA system has not been investigated. Here we report that FoxO1 is highly expressed in DA neurons and mice lacking FoxO1 specifically in the DA neurons (FoxO1 KO) show markedly increased energy expenditure and interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) thermogenesis accompanied by reduced fat mass and improved glucose/insulin homoeostasis. Moreover, FoxO1 KO mice exhibit an increased sucrose preference in concomitance with higher dopamine and norepinephrine levels. Finally, we found that FoxO1 directly targets and negatively regulates tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression, the rate-limiting enzyme of the catecholamine synthesis, delineating a mechanism for the KO phenotypes. Collectively, these results suggest that FoxO1 in DA neurons is an important transcriptional factor that directs the coordinated control of energy balance, thermogenesis and glucose homoeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms12733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5056402PMC
September 2016

Gallic Acid Promotes Wound Healing in Normal and Hyperglucidic Conditions.

Molecules 2016 Jul 8;21(7). Epub 2016 Jul 8.

Department of Pharmacology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju 26426, Korea.

Skin is the outermost layer of the human body that is constantly exposed to environmental stressors, such as UV radiation and toxic chemicals, and is susceptible to mechanical wounding and injury. The ability of the skin to repair injuries is paramount for survival and it is disrupted in a spectrum of disorders leading to skin pathologies. Diabetic patients often suffer from chronic, impaired wound healing, which facilitate bacterial infections and necessitate amputation. Here, we studied the effects of gallic acid (GA, 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid; a plant-derived polyphenolic compound) on would healing in normal and hyperglucidic conditions, to mimic diabetes, in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Our study reveals that GA is a potential antioxidant that directly upregulates the expression of antioxidant genes. In addition, GA accelerated cell migration of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in both normal and hyperglucidic conditions. Further, GA treatment activated factors known to be hallmarks of wound healing, such as focal adhesion kinases (FAK), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erk), underpinning the beneficial role of GA in wound repair. Therefore, our results demonstrate that GA might be a viable wound healing agent and a potential intervention to treat wounds resulting from metabolic complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules21070899DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6274221PMC
July 2016

Leucine-enkephalin promotes wound repair through the regulation of hemidesmosome dynamics and matrix metalloprotease.

Peptides 2016 Feb 4;76:57-64. Epub 2016 Jan 4.

Department of Pharmacology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju 26426, Republic of Korea; Department of Global Medical Science, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju 26426, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The skin responds to environmental stressors by coordinated actions of neuropeptides and their receptors. An endogenous peptide for δ-opioid receptor (DOPr), Leu-enkephalin (L-ENK), is expressed in the skin and its expression is altered in pathological conditions. Although the importance of DOPr is rapidly gaining recognition, the molecular mechanisms underlying its effects on wound healing are largely undefined. We show here that L-ENK induced activation of Erk, P90(RSK), and Elk-1 and promoted the disruption of hemidesmosomes and the expression of matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, important processes for wound healing. Treatment with Erk inhibitor blocked activation of P90(RSK) and Elk-1 and significantly blunted wound repair. Therefore, our results suggest that activation of Erk and its downstream effectors, P90(RSK) and Elk-1, are critical for DOPr-mediated skin homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2015.12.010DOI Listing
February 2016

Gallic acid regulates body weight and glucose homeostasis through AMPK activation.

Endocrinology 2015 Jan;156(1):157-68

Departments of Pharmacology and Global Medical Science (K.V.D., C.M.K., A.W.K., D.J.Y., Y.-H.C., I.Y.O., N.M.N., A.K., J.W.C., K.W.K.), Institute of Lifestyle Medicine and Nuclear Receptor Research Consortium (D.V.K., D.J.Y., Y.-H.C., K.W.K.), and Departments of Biochemistry (Y.J.), Anatomy (M.H.J., W.G.C.), and Physiology (S.X., K.S.P.), Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju 220-701, Republic of Korea; Global Research Laboratory (W.J.P.), Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-757, Republic of Korea; Innoplant Co, Ltd (S.Y.C.), Jinju, Gyeongnam 660-844, Republic of Korea; and Antiaging Research Institute of BIO-FD & C Co Ltd (H.S.K., S.H.M., Y.-H.C.), Incheon 406-840, Republic of Korea.

Gallic acid [3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (GA)], a natural phytochemical, is known to have a variety of cellular functions including beneficial effects on metabolic syndromes. However, the molecular mechanism by which GA exerts its beneficial effects is not known. Here we report that GA plays its role through the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and by regulating mitochondrial function via the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator1α (PGC1α). Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) knockdown significantly blunted GA's effect on PGC1α activation and downstream genes, suggesting a critical role of the AMPK/Sirt1/PGC1α pathway in GA's action. Moreover, diet-induced obese mice treated with GA showed significantly improved glucose and insulin homeostasis. In addition, the administration of GA protected diet-induced body weight gain without a change in food intake. Biochemical analyses revealed a marked activation of AMPK in the liver, muscle, and interscapular brown adipose tissue of the GA-treated mice. Moreover, uncoupling protein 1 together with other genes related to energy expenditure was significantly elevated in the interscapular brown adipose tissue. Taken together, these results indicate that GA plays its beneficial metabolic roles by activating the AMPK/Sirt1/PGC1α pathway and by changing the interscapular brown adipose tissue genes related to thermogenesis. Our study points out that targeting the activation of the AMPK/Sirt1/PGC1α pathway by GA or its derivatives might be a potential therapeutic intervention for insulin resistance in metabolic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2014-1354DOI Listing
January 2015

Functional Expression of P2Y Receptors in WERI-Rb1 Retinoblastoma Cells.

Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 2011 Feb 28;15(1):61-6. Epub 2011 Feb 28.

Department of Basic Nursing Science and Institute for Nursing Science, Keimyung University, Daegu 704-701, Korea.

P2Y receptors are metabotropic G-protein-coupled receptors, which are involved in many important biologic functions in the central nervous system including retina. Subtypes of P2Y receptors in retinal tissue vary according to the species and the cell types. We examined the molecular and pharmacologic profiles of P2Y purinoceptors in retinoblastoma cell, which has not been identified yet. To achieve this goal, we used Ca(2+) imaging technique and western blot analysis in WERI-Rb-1 cell, a human retinoblastoma cell line. ATP (10 µM) elicited strong but transient [Ca(2+)](i) increase in a concentration-dependent manner from more than 80% of the WERI-Rb-1 cells (n=46). Orders of potency of P2Y agonists in evoking [Ca(2+)](i) transients were 2MeS-ATP>ATP>>UTP=αβ-MeATP, which was compatible with the subclass of P2Y(1) receptor. The [Ca(2+)](i) transients evoked by applications of 2MeS-ATP and/or ATP were also profoundly suppressed in the presence of P2Y(1) selective blocker (MRS 2179; 30 µM). P2Y(1) receptor expression in WERI-Rb-1 cells was also identified by using western blot. Taken together, P2Y(1) receptor is mainly expressed in a retinoblastoma cell, which elicits Ca(2+) release from internal Ca(2+) storage sites via the phospholipase C-mediated pathway. P2Y(1) receptor activation in retinoblastoma cell could be a useful model to investigate the role of purinergic [Ca(2+)](i) signaling in neural tissue as well as to find a novel therapeutic target to this lethal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4196/kjpp.2011.15.1.61DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3062085PMC
February 2011

Calcium mobilization by activation of M(3)/M(5) muscarinic receptors in the human retinoblastoma.

J Pharmacol Sci 2007 Oct;105(2):184-92

Department of Basic Nursing Science and Institute for Nursing Science, Keimyung University College of Nursing, Daegu, Korea.

Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) is one of the most important signal transduction pathways in the human body. In this study, we investigated the role of mAChR activation in relation to its subtypes in human retinoblastoma cell-lines (WERI-Rb-1) using Ca(2+) measurement, real-time PCR, and Western Blot techniques. Acetylcholine (ACh) produced prominent [Ca(2+)](i) transients in a repeated manner in WERI-Rb-1 cells. The maximal amplitude of the [Ca(2+)](i) transient was almost completely suppressed by 97.3 +/- 0.8% after atropine (1 microM) pretreatment. Similar suppressions were noted after pretreatments with thapsigargin (1 microM), an ER Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) inhibitor, whereas the ACh-induced [Ca(2+)](i) transient was not affected even in the absence of extracellular calcium. U-73122 (1 microM), a PLC inhibitor, and xestospongin C (2 microM), an IP(3)-receptor antagonist, elicited 11.5 +/- 2.9% and 17.8 +/- 1.9% suppressions, respectively. The 50% inhibitory concentration of (IC(50)) values for blockade of a 100 microM ACh response by pirenzepine and 4-DAMP were 315.8 and 9.1 nM, respectively. Moreover, both M(3) and M(5) mAChRs were prominent in quantitative real-time-PCR. Taken together, the M(3)/M(5) subtypes appear to be the major contributor, leading to intracellular calcium mobilization from the internal store via an IP(3)-dependent pathway in the undifferentiated retinoblastoma cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1254/jphs.fp0070877DOI Listing
October 2007
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