Publications by authors named "Chang Gao"

119 Publications

Expression and clinical significance of miR-338 and miR-20a in serum of patients with gastric carcinoma.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(6):6620-6628. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Oncology, Wuhan Fourth Hospital, Puai Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology Wuhan 430034, Hubei Province, China.

Objective: This research intended to explore the content and the role of miR-338 and miR-20a in the serum of patients with gastric carcinoma (GC).

Methods: Sixty-seven patients with GC, diagnosed and treated for the first time in our hospital from February 2014 to October 2016 were selected as the observation group (OG), and 45 healthy people were selected as the control group (CG). miR-338 and miR-20a of the CG and the OG were tested using qRT-PCR, and the correlation between the two indexes was analyzed by Pearson test. The diagnostic value of miR-338 and miR-20a in GC was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). The correlation of miR-338 and miR-20a with clinical data was compared, and the correlation of the two with the survival of patients was observed. The independent prognostic factors in patients with GC were analyzed by Cox regression.

Results: miR-338 expression was low in GC patients' serum, while miR-20a was high in GC patients. The expression of the two indexes was negatively correlated (r=-0.609, P<0.001). The areas under the curve of miR-338 and miR-20a were 0.849 and 0.865 respectively. Low expression of miR-338 and high expression of miR-20a were correlated to large tumors, low differentiation degree, high possibility of lymph node metastasis, and late TNM stage of GC patients. Multivariate Cox results revealed that tumor size, lymph node metastasis, differentiation degree, TNM stage, miR-338 and miR-20a were independent prognostic factors.

Conclusion: miR-338 and miR-20a are expected to be serological indicators for GC diagnosis and prognosis.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290677PMC
June 2021

The authors reply.

Authors:
Qiang Guo Chang Gao

Crit Care Med 2021 Aug;49(8):e801-e802

Suzhou Dushu Lake Hospital (Dushu Lake Hospital Affiliated to Soochow University), Suzhou, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000005117DOI Listing
August 2021

Dietary Inflammatory Index and Health Outcomes: An Umbrella Review of Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies.

Front Nutr 2021 19;8:647122. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

The dietary inflammatory index (DII) is associated with non-communicable disease. We conducted an umbrella review to systematically evaluate meta-analyses of observational studies on DII and diverse health outcomes. We comprehensively searched the PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases to identify related systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies. Those investigating the association between DII and a wide range of health outcomes in humans were eligible for inclusion. For each meta-analysis, we estimated the summary effect size by using fixed and random effects models, the 95% confidence interval, and the 95% prediction interval. We assessed heterogeneity, evidence of small-study effects, and excess significance bias. The umbrella review identified 35 meta-analyses assessing associations between DII and various health outcomes: cancer ( = 24), mortality ( = 4), metabolic ( = 4), and other ( = 3). The methodological quality was high or moderate. Of the 35 meta-analyses, we observed highly suggestive evidence for harmful associations between digestive tract cancer, colorectal cancer, overall cancer, pharyngeal cancer, UADT cancer, and CVD mortality. Moreover, 11 harmful associations showed suggestive evidence: hormone-dependent cancer, rectal cancer, colon cancer, breast and prostate cancer, gynecological cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, colorectal cancer, prostate cancer, all-cause mortality, and depression. DII is likely to be associated with harmful effects in multiple health outcomes. Robust randomized controlled trials are warranted to understand whether the observed results are causal. CRD42021218361.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.647122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8169973PMC
May 2021

Bioinformatics Analysis of a Prognostic miRNA Signature and Potential Key Genes in Pancreatic Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 20;11:641289. Epub 2021 May 20.

Key Laboratory of Big Data Mining and Precision Drug Design of Guangdong Medical University, Key Laboratory for Research and Development of Natural Drugs of Guangdong Province, School of Pharmacy, Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan, China.

Background: In this study, miRNAs and their critical target genes related to the prognosis of pancreatic cancer were screened based on bioinformatics analysis to provide targets for the prognosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer.

Methods: R software was used to screen differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) and genes (DEGs) downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases, respectively. A miRNA Cox proportional hazards regression model was constructed based on the miRNAs, and a miRNA prognostic model was generated. The target genes of the prognostic miRNAs were predicted using TargetScan and miRDB and then intersected with the DEGs to obtain common genes. The functions of the common genes were subjected to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Gene Ontology (GO) analyses. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of the common genes was constructed with the STRING database and visualized with Cytoscape software. Key genes were also screened with the MCODE and cytoHubba plug-ins of Cytoscape. Finally, a prognostic model formed by the key gene was also established to help evaluate the reliability of this screening process.

Results: A prognostic model containing four downregulated miRNAs (hsa-mir-424, hsa-mir-3613, hsa-mir-4772 and hsa-mir-126) related to the prognosis of pancreatic cancer was constructed. A total of 118 common genes were enriched in two KEGG pathways and 33 GO functional annotations, including extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction and cell adhesion. Nine key genes related to pancreatic cancer were also obtained: MMP14, ITGA2, THBS2, COL1A1, COL3A1, COL11A1, COL6A3, COL12A1 and COL5A2. The prognostic model formed by nine key genes also possessed good prognostic ability.

Conclusions: The prognostic model consisting of four miRNAs can reliably predict the prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer. In addition, the screened nine key genes, which can also form a reliable prognostic model, are significantly related to the occurrence and development of pancreatic cancer. Among them, one novel miRNA (hsa-mir-4772) and two novel genes (COL12A1 and COL5A2) associated with pancreatic cancer have great potential to be used as prognostic factors and therapeutic targets for this tumor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.641289DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8174116PMC
May 2021

Slice encoding for the reduction of outflow signal artifacts in cine balanced SSFP imaging.

Magn Reson Med 2021 Oct 31;86(4):2034-2048. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Purpose: Standard balanced SSFP (bSSFP) cine MRI often suffers from blood outflow artifacts. We propose a method that spatially encodes these outflowing spins to reduce their effects in the intended slice.

Methods: Bloch simulations were performed to characterize through-plane flow and to investigate how the use of phase encoding along the slice select's direction ("slice encoding") could alleviate its issues. Phantom scans and in vivo cines were acquired on a 3T system, comparing the standard 2D acquisition to the proposed slice-encoding method. Nineteen healthy volunteers were recruited for short-axis and horizontal long-axis oriented scans. An expert radiologist evaluated each slice-encoded/standard cine pairs in a rank comparison test and graded their quality on a 1-5 scale. The grades were used for a nonparametric paired evaluation for independent samples with a null hypothesis that there was no statistical difference between the two quality-grade distributions for α = 0.05 significance.

Results: Bloch simulation results demonstrated this technique's feasibility, showing a fully resolved slice profile given a sufficient number of slice encodes. These results were confirmed with the phantom experiments. Each in vivo slice-encoded cine had a higher quality than its corresponding standard acquisition. The nonparametric paired evaluation came to 0.01 significance, encouraging us to reject the null hypothesis and conclude that slice-encoding effectively works in reducing outflow effects.

Conclusion: The slice-encoding balanced SSFP technique is helpful in mitigating outflow effects and is achievable within a single breath hold, being a useful alternative for cases in which the flow artifacts are significant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.28858DOI Listing
October 2021

Analysis of the proportion and clinical characteristics of obstructive sleep apnea in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

Sleep Breath 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Reproductive Medical Center, Peking University Third Hospital, No. 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100191, China.

Purpose: To investigate the proportion and clinical characteristics of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in Chinese patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) through home sleep apnea test (HSAT) and to evaluate the reproductive endocrine and metabolic characteristics in these patients.

Methods: The study was a cross-sectional analysis of infertile PCOS patients who underwent sleep respiratory monitoring between January and December 2019 at Peking University Third Hospital Reproductive Medical Center and respiratory and critical care medicine department. The prevalence of OSA, body mass index (BMI), menstruation, reproductive endocrine, and metabolic characteristics were collected in patients with PCOS. Logistic regression was performed to identify significant relationships among these factors and OSA.

Results: Amont 328 patients with PCOS, the prevalence of OSA was 40% (131/328), and six cases (5%) were severe. Univariate analysis showed that BMI and blood pressure were significantly higher in patients with OSA than in those without OSA (P < 0.05), whereas the anti-Mullerian hormone was lower than that in patients without OSA. In terms of glucose and lipid metabolism, the glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, and fasting insulin levels were significantly higher in patients with PCOS and comorbid OSA than in those without OSA (all P < 0.05). Patients with OSA also had higher triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that higher BMI, elevated serum testosterone, and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are correlated with occurrence of OSA (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: OSA in patients with PCOS was associated with multiple alterations in indexes of reproductive endocrine and metabolic disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11325-021-02376-2DOI Listing
May 2021

Icariin enhance mild hypothermia-induced neuroprotection via inhibiting the activation of NF-κB in experimental ischemic stroke.

Metab Brain Dis 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Hainan Medical University, No.48, Baishuitang Road, Haikou, 460106, Hainan, China.

Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is a promising neuroprotective agent for treating stroke. However, its clinical application was limited by the impractical duration. Icariin (ICA) were reported to have therapeutic effect on cerebral ischemia. In this research, our aim was to investigate whether the combination of TH and ICA had better neuroprotective effects on ischemic stroke. An ischemia-reperfusion rat model was established and treated with mild hypothermia, ICA or JSH-23 (inhibitor of NF-κB). Thermistor probe, 2'3'5'-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC), 5/12-score system, and ELISA were used to detect temperature (rectum, cortex, striatum), infarct volume, neurological deficit, and cerebral cell death of these rats. The expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, Interleukin- 6 (IL-6), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), nuclear factor erythroid2-related factor (Nrf2), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARα), PPARγ, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), p-JAK2, signal transducers and activators of transduction-3 (STAT3), and p-STAT3 were detected by Western blot or q-PCR. Mild hypothermia, ICA, and JSH-23 reduced the cerebral infarct volume, neurological deficit, cerebral cell death of rats, downregulated the expressions of TNF-α, IL-6, C-Caspase 3 and Bax, and the activation of PPARs/Nrf2/NF-κB and JAK2/STAT3 pathways, but elevated the expression of Bcl-2. ICA promoted the effect of mild hypothermia on infarct volume, neurological deficit, and cerebral cell death. Moreover, ICA also enhanced the regulatory effect of mild hypothermia on apoptosis/inflammation factors expressions and activation of PPARs/Nrf2/NF-κB and JAK2/STAT3 pathways. ICA could promote mild hypothermia-induced neuroprotection by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB through the PPARs/Nrf2/NF-κB and JAK2/STAT3/NF-κB pathways in experimental stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11011-021-00731-6DOI Listing
May 2021

A seamlessly integrated device of micro-supercapacitor and wireless charging with ultrahigh energy density and capacitance.

Nat Commun 2021 May 11;12(1):2647. Epub 2021 May 11.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Photoelectronic/Electrophotonic Conversion Materials, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, PR China.

Microdevice integrating energy storage with wireless charging could create opportunities for electronics design, such as moveable charging. Herein, we report seamlessly integrated wireless charging micro-supercapacitors by taking advantage of a designed highly consistent material system that both wireless coils and electrodes are of the graphite paper. The transferring power efficiency of the wireless charging is 52.8%. Benefitting from unique circuit structure, the intact device displays low resistance and excellent voltage tolerability with a capacitance of 454.1 mF cm, superior to state-of-the-art conventional planar micro-supercapacitors. Besides, a record high energy density of 463.1 μWh cm exceeds the existing metal ion hybrid micro-supercapacitors and even commercial thin film battery (350 μWh cm). After charging for 6 min, the integrated device reaches up to a power output of 45.9 mW, which can drive an electrical toy car immediately. This work brings an insight for contactless micro-electronics and flexible micro-robotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22912-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113435PMC
May 2021

BMP9 Can Induce Schwann Cells Expressing Simian Virus 40 T Antigen to Differentiate into Fat and Bone and .

Cell Reprogram 2021 Apr;23(2):108-116

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

In our previous study, we constructed Schwann cells (SCs) that stably express Simian virus 40 T antigen (SV40T-SCs). SV40T-SCs functions and markers are similar to those of neural crest cells. There we used bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9) to induce SV40T-SCs differentiation and and study possible related mechanism. SV40T-SCs differentiation was induced by BMP9 conditioned medium. The lipogenic differentiation of SV40T-SCs was assessed by Oil Red O staining. Alizarin red and Alcian blue staining, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assays were used to evaluate the SV40T-SCs osteogenic differentiation. The expression of adipocyte differentiation ( and ) and osteoblast differentiation markers ( and ) were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). To study possible mechanism related to SV40T-SCs differentiation, the P53 and E2F1 activity were assessed by luciferase reporter plasmid, and Slug and E-cadherin expression by qPCR. , SV40T-SCs infected by Ad-BMP9 or Ad-GFP were injected under the skin of nude mice. After 4-6 W, the mice were euthanized and subcutaneously mass formed at injecting sites was collected for pathological analysis. After SV40T-SCs were cultured in BMP9 conditioned medium, lipid droplets were formed in the cytoplasm of these cells. Alizarin red and Alcian blue staining were positive, and ALP activity of SV40T-SCs increased significantly. The expression of adipocyte differentiation ( and ) and osteoblast differentiation markers ( and ) in SV40T-SCs was upregulated by BMP9. SV40T significantly increased Slug expression and decreased E-cadherin expression. SV40T-SCs infected with Ad-BMP9 were able to differentiate into adipose tissue and form a small bone matrix under the nude mice skin. SV40T-SCs have the ability to differentiate into adipocytes and osteoblasts and . SV40T can upregulate the Slug expression and downregulate the E-cadherin expression to produce endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The multidirectional differentiation ability of SV40T-SCs may be related to EMT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cell.2020.0069DOI Listing
April 2021

Primary extrasensal nasal-type natural killer/T-cell lymphoma of the sigmoid colon and ıleocecal junction: A case report.

Turk J Gastroenterol 2020 12;31(12):955-956

Department of Gastroenterology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China;Hubei Clinical Center and Key Lab of Intestinal and Colorectal Diseases, Wuhan, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/tjg.2020.19873DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7928242PMC
December 2020

Relationship Between the ApoE Gene Polymorphism and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Complications.

Genet Test Mol Biomarkers 2021 Feb;25(2):111-115

Cadre Ward-2, Fourth Medical Center of General Hospital of PLA, Beijing, China.

Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) polymorphisms are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its complications, but studies have shown conflicting results. To examine the relationship of ApoE gene polymorphisms with T2DM and its complications. This case-control study of patients with T2DM was conducted between June 2016 and July 2019. Healthy individuals were recruited as controls. The patients were grouped according to coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebral infarction (CI), diabetic nephropathy (DN), and neurological complications. The ApoE genotype was determined using a commercial gene chip. Compared with controls, the frequencies of genotype (20.8% vs. 11.7%,  = 0.04) and allele (14.3% vs. 8.3%,  = 0.03) of patients with T2DM were higher. The frequency of genotype was higher in the T2DM with CHD group (30.4% vs. 17.4%,  = 0.01 vs. non-CHD) and in T2DM with CI (29.2% vs. 18.1%,  = 0.045 vs. non-CI). The frequency of genotype was higher in the T2DM with DN group (19.3% vs. 9.1%,  = 0.01 vs. non-DN). There were no significant differences between T2DM with and without neuropathy ( > 0.05). The ApoE allele may be a risk factor for T2DM, CHD in T2DM, and CI in T2DM, while the ApoE allele may be a risk factor for DN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/gtmb.2020.0130DOI Listing
February 2021

A Review of the Polymer for Cryogenic Application: Methods, Mechanisms and Perspectives.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Jan 20;13(3). Epub 2021 Jan 20.

State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Faculty of Vehicle Engineering and Mechanics, School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China.

Recently, the application of polymer-based composites at cryogenic conditions has become a hot topic, especially in aerospace fields. At cryogenic temperature, the polymer becomes more brittle, and the adverse effect of thermal stress induced by temperature is more remarkable. In this paper, the research development of thermoset and thermoplastic polymers for cryogenic applications are all reviewed. This review considers the literature concerning: (a) the cryogenic performance of modified thermoset polymers and the improving mechanisms of the reported modification methods; (b) the cryogenic application potential of some commercial thermoplastic polymers and the cryogenic performance of modified thermoplastic polymers; (c) the recent advance in the use of polymer for special cryogenic environment-liquid oxygen. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the research development of the polymer for cryogenic application. Moreover, future research directions have been proposed to facilitate its practical applications in aerospace.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13030320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7863936PMC
January 2021

Laser-Assisted Fabrication of Microphotocapacitors with High Energy Density and Output Voltage.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jan 1;13(1):419-428. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Key Laboratory of Photoelectronic/Electrophotonic Conversion Materials, Key Laboratory of Cluster Science, Ministry of Education of China, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, P. R. China.

Self-powered devices have great potential in daily applications ranging from portable electronics to wearable body sensors, yet their working lifetime and performance are normally limited by the low energy density of the power unit as well as additional resistive losses induced by connections between electronic and power moieties. Herein, we report an effective programmable laser-assisted fabrication of facilely integrated microphotocapacitors (integrated devices of solar cells and microsupercapacitors, mPCs) exhibiting high output voltage and energy density (32.3 μWh cm). An mPC pack (8 mPCs in series within a size of 3 × 3 cm) delivers an excellent of 7.3 V, and an output voltage of 90 V can be obtained with an array of 14 mPC packs when tested outdoors under solar illumination (63 mW cm), setting a new benchmark for integrated self-charging power packs. These devices have also shown good stability (stable operation over 2000 cycles, 2.1 × 10 s) and performance under low- or intermittent-intensity light illuminations, highlighting their abilities to work indoors or under cloudy weather.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c16677DOI Listing
January 2021

Dynamic pneumatic rails enabled microdroplet manipulation.

Lab Chip 2021 01;21(1):105-112

Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 29 Zhongguancun East Road, Haidu District, Beijing 10019, China.

This study presented a convenient method of gathering, splitting, merging, and sorting microdroplets by dynamic pneumatic rails in double-layered microfluidic devices. In these devices, the pneumatic rails were placed below the droplet channel, with a thin elastic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film between them. The PDMS film would sag down to the rail channel, forming a groove pattern at the bottom of the droplet channel, when the fluid pressure in the droplet channel was higher than the air pressure in the rail channel. The groove could capture the flattened droplets and guide the flow path of them due to the lowered surface energy when they extended into the groove. We have designed different components consisting of pneumatic rails to split, merge and sort droplets, and demonstrated that the components maintained good performance in manipulating droplets only by controlling the air pressure. Furthermore, a pneumatic rail-based sorter has been successfully used to sort out single-cell droplets. The pneumatic rail can be integrated into pneumatic valve-based microfluidic devices to be a flexible tool for droplet-based biological and chemical analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0lc00805bDOI Listing
January 2021

Identification and Validation of New Stable QTLs for Grain Weight and Size by Multiple Mapping Models in Common Wheat.

Front Genet 2020 11;11:584859. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

KeyLaboratory of Wheat Biology and Genetic Improvement on Southern Yellow and Huai River Valley, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, College of Agronomy, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, China.

Improvement of grain weight and size is an important objective for high-yield wheat breeding. In this study, 174 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between Jing 411 and Hongmangchun 21 were used to construct a high-density genetic map by specific locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq). Three mapping methods, including inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM), genome-wide composite interval mapping (GCIM), and a mixed linear model performed with forward-backward stepwise (NWIM), were used to identify QTLs for thousand grain weight (TGW), grain width (GW), and grain length (GL). In total, we identified 30, 15, and 18 putative QTLs for TGW, GW, and GL that explain 1.1-33.9%, 3.1%-34.2%, and 1.7%-22.8% of the phenotypic variances, respectively. Among these, 19 (63.3%) QTLs for TGW, 10 (66.7%) for GW, and 7 (38.9%) for GL were consistent with those identified by genome-wide association analysis in 192 wheat varieties. Five new stable QTLs, including 3 for TGW (, , and ) and 2 for GL ( and ), were detected by the three aforementioned mapping methods across environments. Subsequently, five cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers corresponding to these QTLs were developed and validated in 180 Chinese mini-core wheat accessions. In addition, 19 potential candidate genes for in a 0.31-Mb physical interval were further annotated, of which and encode a plasma membrane H-ATPase and a serine/threonine-protein kinase, respectively. These new QTLs and CAPS markers will be useful for further marker-assisted selection and map-based cloning of target genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.584859DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7686802PMC
November 2020

Retrospective respiratory motion correction in cardiac cine MRI reconstruction using adversarial autoencoder and unsupervised learning.

NMR Biomed 2021 02 30;34(2):e4433. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

The aim of this study was to develop a deep neural network for respiratory motion compensation in free-breathing cine MRI and evaluate its performance. An adversarial autoencoder network was trained using unpaired training data from healthy volunteers and patients who underwent clinically indicated cardiac MRI examinations. A U-net structure was used for the encoder and decoder parts of the network and the code space was regularized by an adversarial objective. The autoencoder learns the identity map for the free-breathing motion-corrupted images and preserves the structural content of the images, while the discriminator, which interacts with the output of the encoder, forces the encoder to remove motion artifacts. The network was first evaluated based on data that were artificially corrupted with simulated rigid motion with regard to motion-correction accuracy and the presence of any artificially created structures. Subsequently, to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach in vivo, our network was trained on respiratory motion-corrupted images in an unpaired manner and was tested on volunteer and patient data. In the simulation study, mean structural similarity index scores for the synthesized motion-corrupted images and motion-corrected images were 0.76 and 0.93 (out of 1), respectively. The proposed method increased the Tenengrad focus measure of the motion-corrupted images by 12% in the simulation study and by 7% in the in vivo study. The average overall subjective image quality scores for the motion-corrupted images, motion-corrected images and breath-held images were 2.5, 3.5 and 4.1 (out of 5.0), respectively. Nonparametric-paired comparisons showed that there was significant difference between the image quality scores of the motion-corrupted and breath-held images (P < .05); however, after correction there was no significant difference between the image quality scores of the motion-corrected and breath-held images. This feasibility study demonstrates the potential of an adversarial autoencoder network for correcting respiratory motion-related image artifacts without requiring paired data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nbm.4433DOI Listing
February 2021

Rehabilitation Therapy for Vocal Fold Paralysis Caused by Lung Cancer: A Case Report.

Phys Ther 2020 12;100(12):2198-2204

Rehabilitation Department, Daping Hospital, Army Medical University, Chongqing 400042 China.

Objective: Unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) can be caused by iatrogenic injury or tumor-induced damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Studies of comprehensive rehabilitation therapies for patients suffering from severe UVFP are limited. The purpose of this case report is to describe an improvement in complete aphonia after comprehensive rehabilitation therapies in a patient with severe UVFP due to a lung tumor.

Methods: An 81-year-old woman with a history of bronchial adenoma had complete aphonia due to compression of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve by the tumor. Dynamic fibrolaryngoscope revealed paralysis of the left vocal fold. The patient was treated with interferential current therapy, vocal training, and kinesiology taping. Indicators of voice recovery were scored according to the grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, strain scale, and the voice handicap index.

Results: After 10 days of comprehensive rehabilitation treatment, the patient recovered from complete aphonia to normal communication. The hoarseness and breathiness of patient were significantly improved. In addition, the grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, strain, and the voice handicap index scores changed from severe to mild or absent.

Conclusion: This case provided a novel comprehensive treatment for a patient with UVFP, which was safe, cost-effective, and easy to implement in clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ptj/pzaa167DOI Listing
December 2020

Comparison of different protein concentrations of human milk fortifier for promoting growth and neurological development in preterm infants.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020 11 20;11:CD007090. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

SAHMRI Women and Kids, South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, Australia.

Background: Human milk alone may provide inadequate amounts of protein to meet the growth requirements of preterm infants because of restrictions in the amount of fluid they can tolerate. It has become common practice to feed preterm infants with breast milk fortified with protein and other nutrients but there is debate about the optimal concentration of protein in commercially available fortifiers.

Objectives: To compare the effects of different protein concentrations in human milk fortifier, fed to preterm infants, on growth and neurodevelopment.

Search Methods: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search CENTRAL (2019, Issue 8), Ovid MEDLINE and CINAHL on 15 August 2019. We also searched clinical trials databases and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials.

Selection Criteria: We included all published and unpublished randomised, quasi-randomised and cluster-randomised trials comparing two different concentrations of protein in human milk fortifier. We included preterm infants (less than 37 weeks' gestational age). Participants may have been exclusively fed human milk or have been supplemented with formula. The concentration of protein was classified as low (< 1g protein/100 mL expressed breast milk (EBM)), moderate (≥ 1g to < 1.4g protein/100 mL EBM) or high (≥ 1.4g protein/100 mL EBM). We excluded trials that compared two protein concentrations that fell within the same category.

Data Collection And Analysis: We undertook data collection and analyses using the standard methods of Cochrane Neonatal. Two review authors independently evaluated trials. Primary outcomes included growth, neurodevelopmental outcome and mortality. Data were synthesised using risk ratios (RR), risk differences and mean differences (MD), with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of the evidence.

Main Results: We identified nine trials involving 861 infants. There is one trial awaiting classification, and nine ongoing trials. The trials were mostly conducted in infants born < 32 weeks' gestational age or < 1500 g birthweight, or both. All used a fortifier derived from bovine milk. Two trials fed infants exclusively with mother's own milk, three trials gave supplementary feeds with donor human milk and four trials supplemented with preterm infant formula. Overall, trials were small but generally at low or unclear risk of bias. High versus moderate protein concentration of human milk fortifier There was moderate certainty evidence that a high protein concentration likely increased in-hospital weight gain compared to moderate concentration of human milk fortifier (MD 0.66 g/kg/day, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.82; trials = 6, participants = 606). The evidence was very uncertain about the effect of high versus moderate protein concentration on length gain (MD 0.01 cm/week, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.03; trials = 5, participants = 547; very low certainty evidence) and head circumference gain (MD 0.00 cm/week, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.02; trials = 5, participants = 549; very low certainty evidence). Only one trial reported neonatal mortality, with no deaths in either group (participants = 45). Moderate versus low protein concentration of human milk fortifier A moderate versus low protein concentration fortifier may increase weight gain (MD 2.08 g/kg/day, 95% CI 0.38 to 3.77; trials = 2, participants = 176; very low certainty evidence) with little to no effect on head circumference gain (MD 0.13 cm/week, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.26; I² = 85%; trials = 3, participants = 217; very low certainty evidence), but the evidence is very uncertain. There was low certainty evidence that a moderate protein concentration may increase length gain (MD 0.09 cm/week, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.14; trials = 3, participants = 217). Only one trial reported mortality and found no difference between groups (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.05 to 5.17; participants = 112). No trials reported long term growth or neurodevelopmental outcomes including cerebral palsy and developmental delay.

Authors' Conclusions: Feeding preterm infants with a human milk fortifier containing high amounts of protein (≥ 1.4g/100 mL EBM) compared with a fortifier containing moderate protein concentration (≥ 1 g to < 1.4 g/100 mL EBM) results in small increases in weight gain during the neonatal admission. There may also be small increases in weight and length gain when infants are fed a fortifier containing moderate versus low protein concentration (< 1 g protein/100 mL EBM). The certainty of this evidence is very low to moderate; therefore, results may change when the findings of ongoing studies are available. There is insufficient evidence to assess the impact of protein concentration on adverse effects or long term outcomes such as neurodevelopment. Further trials are needed to determine whether modest increases in weight gain observed with higher protein concentration fortifiers are associated with benefits or harms to long term growth and neurodevelopment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD007090.pub2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8092673PMC
November 2020

The impact of individual lifestyle and status on the acquisition of COVID-19: A case-Control study.

PLoS One 2020 5;15(11):e0241540. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Suzhou Dushu Lake Hospital (Dushu Lake Hospital Affiliated to Soochow University), Suzhou, Jiangsu, China.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread to the world. Whether there is an association between lifestyle behaviors and the acquisition of COVID-19 remains unclear.

Methods: In this case-control study, we recruited 105 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection as a case group from the Wuhan Tongji Hospital (Wuhan, China). For each case two control subjects were recruited. Participants were randomly selected from communities in Wuhan and matched for sex, age (± 2yrs), and pre-existing comorbidities (hypertension and diabetes).

Results: A total of 105 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and 210 controls were included. Compared with control group, the case group had higher proportions of lack of sleep (30.5% vs. 14.8%, P = 0.001) and increased physical activities (56.2% vs. 32.9%, P < 0.001). And patients in the case group were more likely to have alopecia (28.6% vs. 10.0%, P < 0.001) than people from the control group. Overall, we found that lack of sleep [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-2.39)], physical activities (≥ 5 times a week) (adjusted OR 2.05, 95%CI 1.39-3.02) and alopecia (adjusted OR 1.73, 95%CI 1.13-2.66) were independent risk factors for COVID-19 infection. Conversely, low-dose alcohol intake (<100g alcohol per week), hand hygiene, and fruits intake (daily) were significantly associated with a decrease in morbidity.

Conclusions: Individual lifestyle behaviors and health status can affect the occurrence of COVID-19.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0241540PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7643946PMC
November 2020

Identification of the wheat C3H gene family and expression analysis of candidates associated with seed dormancy and germination.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2020 Nov 7;156:524-537. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

College of Agronomy, Anhui Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Wheat Biology and Genetic Improvement on Southern Yellow & Huai River Valley, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Hefei, 230036, Anhui, China.

C3H zinc finger transcription factors play important roles in managing various biotic/abiotic stresses in Aarabidopsis, rice, and maize. The functions of these factors in wheat, however, remain largely unclear. We identified 88 TaC3H genes that were divided into four subfamilies in this analysis. Gene structure and conserved domain analyses indicate that most members of the same subfamily have similar structures. A total of 76 paralogous and 48 orthologous pairs were identified and Ka/Ks values were used to analyze replication relationships amongst wheat, rice, and Arabidopsis. Gene ontology (GO) annotation analysis showed that most TaC3H genes possessed molecular functions, while transcriptome results showed that the 88 TaC3H genes responded to water imbibition. Microarray data for 53 TaC3H genes were obtained and heat maps were generated; these results indicate that these genes are expressed in 13 wheat tissues. Subcellular localization prediction analysis indicates that most TaC3H genes are located in the nucleus. Promoter analysis indicates that most TaC3H genes contained cis-elements including ABRE, GARE-motif, and MBS, indicating that these can respond to various biotic/abiotic stresses. Transcriptome data and quantitative real-time PCR analysis of wheat cultivars with contrasting seed dormancy phenotypes show that five genes TaC3H4/-18/-37/-51/-72 were very likely involved in seed dormancy and germination. Exogenous ABA treatment further indicated that these five genes were responsive to ABA, suggesting that there may be a crosstalk between these genes and ABA signaling pathway in controlling seed dormancy and germination. These results provide a theoretical basis for subsequent studies on TaC3H gene function and also contribute to studies on the C3H gene in other species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.09.032DOI Listing
November 2020

Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy: Glomerular Pathological Pattern Caused by Extrarenal Immunity Activity.

Front Immunol 2020 16;11:1846. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) is a pathological pattern of glomerular damage caused by an autoimmune response. Immune complex deposition, thickness of glomerular basement membrane, and changes in the podocyte morphology are responsible for the development of proteinuria, which is caused by the targeted binding of auto-antibodies to podocytes. Several auto-antigens have recently been identified in IMN, including M-type receptor for secretory phospholipase A2 (PLA2R1), thrombospondin type-1 domain-containing 7A (THSD7A), and neural epidermal growth factor-like 1 protein (NELL-1). The measurement of peripheral circulating antibodies has become an important clinical reference index. However, some clinical features of IMN remain elusive and need to be further investigated, such as the autoimmunity initiation, IgG4 predominance, spontaneous remission, and the unique glomerular lesion. As these unresolved issues are closely related to clinical practice, we have proposed a hypothetical pathogenesis model of IMN. Induced by environmental stimuli or other causes, the PLA2R1 antigen and/or THSD7A antigen exposed to extrarenal tissues, such as lungs, then produce the auto-antibodies that target and cause damage to the podocytes in circulation. In this review, we highlighted the potential association between environmental stimuli, immune activity, and glomerular lesions, the underlying basis for spontaneous immune and proteinuria remission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01846DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7524879PMC
April 2021

Correction: Melittin-encapsulating peptide hydrogels for enhanced delivery of impermeable anticancer peptides.

Biomater Sci 2020 Nov 1;8(21):6100. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Oncology, Wuhan Fourth Hospital; PuAi Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430034, China.

Correction for 'Melittin-encapsulating peptide hydrogels for enhanced delivery of impermeable anticancer peptides' by Jue-Ping Feng et al., Biomater. Sci., 2020, 8, 4559-4569, DOI: .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0bm90081hDOI Listing
November 2020

Alleviation by Mahuang Fuzi and Shenzhuo Decoction in High Glucose-Induced Podocyte Injury by Inhibiting the Activation of Wnt/-Catenin Signaling Pathway, Resulting in Activation of Podocyte Autophagy.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 3;2020:7809427. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Department of Nephrology, Shunyi Hospital, Beijing Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Station East 5, Shunyi District, Beijing 101300, China.

Background: Organ fibrosis is a common endpoint of a variety of diseases. Many studies have shown that the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is related to the excessive activation of the Wnt/-catenin signaling pathway on podocytes, so the treatment of DKD starts from this signaling pathway. At the same time, DKD, as a metabolic disease, has many connections related to podocyte autophagy.

Objectives: We experimented the effects of Mahuang Fuzi and Shenzhuo decoction (MFSD) which is the combination of Mahuang Fuzi decoction and Shenzhuo decoction in traditional Chinese medicine compounds used "The Golden Chamber" in high glucose-induced podocytes, determined whether this effect was related to Wnt/-catenin signaling pathway, and further investigated the relationship between this effect and autophagy.

Methods: The mice podocytes were stimulated by using 30 mmol/L of high glucose and serum containing MFSD or Wnt/-catenin signaling pathway inhibitor DKK1 (100 ng/ml) was used to intervene podocytes before high glucose stimulation. Podocyte injury-related proteins, Wnt/-catenin signaling pathway-related proteins, and autophagy-related proteins were detected by using western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis.

Results: Our results showed that DKK1 and MFSD treatment significantly upregulated the protein expressions of nephrin, podocin, podocalyxin, and podoplanin in high glucose-induced podocytes and downregulated the -catenin protein expression. Furthermore, the protein expressions of beclin1, LC3B, and P62 were also significantly increased in high glucose-induced podocytes.

Conclusion: Our experiments confirmed that the destruction of podocytes in DKD is related to the excessive activation of Wnt/-catenin signaling pathway and the inhibition of autophagy after activation. MFSD treatment can inhibit the activation of Wnt/-catenin signaling pathway in podocytes stimulated by high glucose and helpful in reducing the podocyte injury. This protective mechanism can be related to the enhancement of podocyte autophagy by MFSD treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/7809427DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7486640PMC
September 2020

Popular Computational Tools Used for miRNA Prediction and Their Future Development Prospects.

Interdiscip Sci 2020 Dec 21;12(4):395-413. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Key Laboratory of Big Data Mining and Precision Drug Design of Guangdong Medical University, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Diagnostics, Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan, Guangdong, 523808, China.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 19-24 nucleotide (nt)-long noncoding, single-stranded RNA molecules that play significant roles in regulating the gene expression, growth, and development of plants and animals. From the year that miRNAs were first discovered until the beginning of the twenty-first century, researchers used experimental methods such as cloning and sequencing to identify new miRNAs and their roles in the posttranscriptional regulation of protein synthesis. Later, in the early 2000s, informatics approaches to the discovery of new miRNAs began to be implemented. With increasing knowledge about miRNA, more efficient algorithms have been developed for computational miRNA prediction. The miRNA research community, hoping for greater coverage and faster results, has shifted from cumbersome and expensive traditional experimental approaches to computational approaches. These computational methods started with homology-based comparisons of known miRNAs with orthologs in the genomes of other species; this method could identify a known miRNA in new species. Second-generation sequencing and next-generation sequencing of mRNA at different developmental stages and in specific tissues, in combination with a better search and alignment algorithm, have accelerated the process of predicting novel miRNAs in a particular species. Using the accumulated annotated miRNA sequence information, researchers have been able to design ab initio algorithms for miRNA prediction independent of genome sequence knowledge. Here, the methods recently used for miRNA computational prediction are summarized and classified into the following four categories: homology-based, target-based, scoring-based, and machine-learning-based approaches. Finally, the future developmental directions of miRNA prediction methods are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12539-020-00387-3DOI Listing
December 2020

Ways of coping mediate the relationship between self-efficacy for managing HIV and acceptance of illness among people living with HIV.

J Adv Nurs 2020 Nov 6;76(11):2945-2954. Epub 2020 Sep 6.

Johns Hopkins School of Nursing, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-efficacy for managing HIV and acceptance of illness and to identify the potential mediation effect of active coping and passive coping on this relationship.

Design: The study used a cross-sectional survey.

Methods: A sample of 555 people living with HIV were recruited from September-December 2018 in the HIV clinic of a tertiary general hospital in Changsha, China. Survey data were collected through face-to-face interviews that included measures of sociodemographic and HIV-related clinical characteristics, Acceptance of Illness Scale, the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire and the Self-efficacy for Managing Chronic Disease Scale. Step-by-step linear regression models combined with bootstrap testing were used to test the relationships when controlling for gender and HIV diagnosis duration.

Results: Self-efficacy was positively related to acceptance of illness and this relationship was partially mediated by both active coping and passive coping. Acceptance of illness increased by 0.175 for every point increase in self-efficacy indirectly through active coping, while acceptance of illness decreased by 0.034 for every point increase in self-efficacy via passive coping.

Conclusion: The findings highlighted the importance of self-efficacy for managing HIV and ways of coping, especially active coping, for illness acceptance.

Impact: The findings suggested that interventions that improve confidence in managing HIV and active coping may enhance the illness acceptance of people living with HIV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jan.14488DOI Listing
November 2020

Free Fatty Acid Concentration in Expressed Breast Milk Used in Neonatal Intensive Care Units.

Breastfeed Med 2020 11 26;15(11):718-723. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, University of Adelaide, Urrbrae, Australia.

Preterm and sick term infants are commonly fed with expressed breast milk (EBM) that has been subjected to various storage and handling conditions before feeding that may cause lipase-mediated elevation of free fatty acids (FFA). This study was designed to describe the variation, between mothers' and within the same mother over time, in the concentration of FFA in EBM used in an Australian neonatal unit. A total of 256 EBM samples, 149 freshly expressed in the unit cot-side and 87 expressed at home and brought in to the unit, were collected from 32 mothers with an infant admitted to the neonatal intensive and/or special care units at the Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide. Among the fresh EBM samples collected cot-side, the average total fat content was 29.78 ± 9.28 mg/mL, and the FFA concentration was 1.70% of total fats (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.17-2.37%). Among the 10 mothers who provided fresh EBM at different stages of lactation, the concentration of FFA remained low overall, with some day-to-day variation (min 0.58% and max 5.0% of total fats within the same mother). The average total fat content of home collected EBM was similar to the cot-side collected samples, at 27.37 ± 8.23 mg/mL, and the FFA concentration was slightly higher at 2.49% of total fats (IQR: 1.74-3.29%). Overall, the FFA concentration of breast milk in the neonatal unit before and even after a short period of cold storage and handling is universally low.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/bfm.2020.0100DOI Listing
November 2020

Identification and Structural Analysis of Spirostanol Saponin from by Integrating Silica Gel Column Chromatography and Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Analysis.

Molecules 2020 Aug 24;25(17). Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of TCM Chemistry and Analysis, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 10 Poyanghu Road, West Area, Tuanbo New Town, Jinghai District, Tianjin 301617, China.

Roezl (Mojave), a kind of ornamental plant belonging to the genus (Agavaceae), whose extract exhibits important roles in food, beverage, cosmetic and feed additives owing to its rich spirostanol saponins. To provide a comprehensive chemical profiling of the spirostanol saponins in it, this study was performed by using a multi-phase liquid chromatography method combining a reversed phase chromatography T column with a normal phase chromatography silica column for the separation and an ESI-Q-Exactive-Orbitrap MS in positive ion mode as the detector. By comparing the retention time and ion fragments with standards, thirty-one spirostanol saponins were identified. In addition, according to the summary of the chromatographic retention behaviors and the MS/MS cleavage patterns and biosynthetic pathway, another seventy-nine spirostanol saponins were speculatively identified, forty ones of which were potentially new ones. Moreover, ten novel spirostanol saponins (three pairs of (25)-spirostanol saponin isomer mixtures) were targeted for isolation to verify the speculation. Then, the comprehensive chemical profiling of spirostanol saponins from was reported here firstly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25173848DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7504267PMC
August 2020

High-Flow Nasal Oxygen in Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patients With Acute Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure: A Multicenter, Retrospective Cohort Study.

Crit Care Med 2020 11;48(11):e1079-e1086

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China.

Objectives: An ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 is spreading globally. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure is the most common complication of coronavirus disease 2019. However, the clinical effectiveness of early high-flow nasal oxygen treatment in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure has not been explored. This study aimed to analyze the effectiveness of high-flow nasal oxygen treatment and to identify the variables predicting high-flow nasal oxygen treatment failure in coronavirus disease 2019 patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure.

Design: A multicenter, retrospective cohort study.

Setting: Three tertiary hospitals in Wuhan, China.

Patients: Forty-three confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 adult patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure treated with high-flow nasal oxygen.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: Mean age of the enrolled patients was 63.0 ± 9.7 years; female patients accounted for 41.9%. High-flow nasal oxygen failure (defined as upgrading respiratory support to positive pressure ventilation or death) was observed in 20 patients (46.5%), of which 13 (30.2%) required endotracheal intubation. Patients with high-flow nasal oxygen success had a higher median oxygen saturation (96.0% vs 93.0%; p < 0.001) at admission than those with high-flow nasal oxygen failure. High-flow nasal oxygen failure was more likely in patients who were older (p = 0.030) and male (p = 0.037), had a significant increase in respiratory rate and a significant decrease in the ratio of oxygen saturation/FIO2 to respiratory rate index within 3 days of high-flow nasal oxygen treatment. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis model, male and lower oxygen saturation at admission remained independent predictors of high-flow nasal oxygen failure. The hospital mortality rate of the cohort was 32.5%; however, the hospital mortality rate in patients with high-flow nasal oxygen failure was 65%.

Conclusions: High-flow nasal oxygen may be effective for treating coronavirus disease 2019 patients with mild to moderate acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. However, high-flow nasal oxygen failure was associated with a poor prognosis. Male and lower oxygenation at admission were the two strong predictors of high-flow nasal oxygen failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000004558DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7467042PMC
November 2020

Role of microRNA-33a in malignant cells.

Oncol Lett 2020 Sep 9;20(3):2537-2556. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Key Laboratory for Research and Development of Natural Drugs of Guangdong Province, School of Pharmacy, Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan, Guangdong 523808, P.R. China.

Cancer causes most of the mortality and morbidity worldwide, with a significant increase in incidence during recent years. MicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) are non-coding small RNAs capable of regulating gene expression. They regulate crucial cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, metastasis and apoptosis. Therefore, abnormal miRNA expression is associated with multiple diseases, including cancer. There are two types of cancer-associated miRNAs, oncogenic and tumor suppressor miRNAs, depending on their roles and expression patterns in cancer. Accordingly, miRNAs are considered to be targets for cancer prevention and treatment. miR-33a controls cellular cholesterol uptake and synthesis, which are both closely associated with carcinogenesis. The present review thoroughly describes the roles of miR-33a in more than a dozen types of cancer and the underlying mechanisms. Accordingly, the present review may serve as a guide for researchers studying the involvement of miR-33a in diverse cancer settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2020.11835DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7399786PMC
September 2020

How Does Herbal Medicine Treat Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy?

Front Pharmacol 2020 3;11:994. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Nephropathy, Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) has made increasing progress in mechanism and treatment research. Herbal medicine is gradually being accepted as an alternative therapy in treating IMN. However, the intervention mechanism of herbal medicine in the treatment of membranous nephropathy is still unclear. In this review, we summarize some achievements of herb medicine in treating IMN and discuss the research direction of herb in IMN. Finally, we propose the dilemma about the study on the treatment of IMN with herb medicine. We hope that this article can bring some thoughts for clinical and scientific researchers on the treatment of IMN with herb medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00994DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7350518PMC
July 2020
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