Publications by authors named "Chanee Lynch"

7 Publications

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Methodology for altering omega-3 EPA+DHA and omega-6 linoleic acid as controlled variables in a dietary trial.

Clin Nutr 2021 Jun 12;40(6):3859-3867. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Background & Aims: Increasing dietary intake of n-3 EPA+DHA and lowering dietary n-6 LA is under investigation as a therapeutic diet for improving chronic pain syndromes as well as other health outcomes. Herein we describe the diet methodology used to modulate intake of n-3 and n-6 PUFA in a free living migraine headache population and report on nutrient intake, BMI and diet acceptability achieved at week 16 of the intensive diet intervention and week 22 follow-up time-point.

Methods: A total of 178 participants were randomized and began one of three diet interventions: 1) a high n-3 PUFA, average n-6 PUFA (H3) diet targeting 1500 mg EPA+DHA/day and 7% of energy (en%) from n-6 linoleic acid (LA), 2) a high-n-3 PUFA, low-n-6 PUFA (H3L6) targeting 1500 mg EPA+DHA/day and <1.8 en% n-6 LA or 3) a Control diet with typical American intakes of both EPA+DHA (<150 mg/day) and 7 en% from n-6 LA. Methods used to achieve diet change to week 16 include diet education, diet counseling, supply of specially prepared foods, self-monitoring and access to online diet materials. Only study oils and website materials were provided for the follow-up week 16 to week 22 periods. Diet adherence was assessed by multiple 24 h recalls administered throughout the trial. Diet acceptability was assessed in a subset of participants at 4 time points by questionnaire.

Results: At week 16 H3 and H3L6 diet groups significantly increased median n-3 EPA+DHA intake from 48 mg/2000 kcals at baseline to 1484 mg/2000 kcals (p < 0.0001) and from 44 mg/2000 kcals to 1341 mg/2000 kcals (p < 0.0001), respectively. In the Control group, EPA+DHA intake remained below the typical American intake with baseline median at 60 mg/2000 kcals and 80 mg/2000 kcals (p = 0.6) at week 16. As desired, LA intake was maintained in the H3 and Control group with baseline median of 6.5 en% to 7.1 en% (p = 0.4) at week 16 and from 6.5 en% to 6.8 en% (p = 1.0) at week 16, respectively. In the H3L6 group, n-6 LA decreased from 6.3 en% at baseline to 3.2 en% (p < 0.0001) at week 16. There were no significant changes in BMI or diet acceptability throughout the trial or between diet groups.

Conclusions: We find this diet method to be acceptable to research participants and successful in altering dietary n-3 EPA+DHA with and without concurrent decreases in n-6 LA. If n-6 LA of less than 3 en% is desired, additional techniques to limit LA may need to be employed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.04.050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8293619PMC
June 2021

A Mixed-Methods, Randomized Clinical Trial to Examine Feasibility of a Mindfulness-Based Stress Management and Diabetes Risk Reduction Intervention for African Americans with Prediabetes.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2019 14;2019:3962623. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

Program on Integrative Medicine, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

African Americans have disproportionately high rates of stress-related conditions, including diabetes and diabetes-related morbidity. Psychological stress may negatively influence engagement in risk-reducing lifestyle changes (physical activity and healthy eating) and stress-related physiology that increase diabetes risk. This study examined the feasibility of conducting a randomized trial comparing a novel mindfulness-based stress management program combined with diabetes risk-reduction education versus a conventional diabetes risk-reduction education program among African American adults with prediabetes and self-reported life stress. Participants were recruited in collaboration with community partners and randomized to the mindfulness-based diabetes risk-reduction education program for prediabetes (MPD;  = 38) or the conventional diabetes risk-reduction education program for prediabetes (CPD;  = 30). The mindfulness components were adapted from the Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction Program. The diabetes risk-reduction components were adapted from the Program and the . Groups met for eight weeks for 2.5 hours, with a half-day retreat and six-monthly boosters. . Psychological, behavioral, and metabolic data were collected before the intervention and at three and six months postintervention to examine within-group change and feasibility of collecting such data in future clinical efficacy research. Participants reported acceptability, credibility, and cultural relevance of the intervention components. Enrollment of eligible participants (79%), intervention session attendance (76.5%), retention (90%), and postintervention data collection attendance (83%, 82%, and 78%, respectively) demonstrated feasibility, and qualitative data provided information to further enhance feasibility in future studies. Both groups exhibited an A1C reduction. MPD participants had reductions in perceived stress, BMI, calorie, carbohydrate and fat intake, and increases in spiritual well-being. Considering the high prevalence of diabetes and diabetes-related complications in African Americans, these novel findings provide promising guidance to develop a larger trial powered to examine efficacy of a mindfulness-based stress management and diabetes risk-reduction education program for African Americans with prediabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/3962623DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6710811PMC
August 2019

A sixteen-week three-armed, randomized, controlled trial investigating clinical and biochemical effects of targeted alterations in dietary linoleic acid and n-3 EPA+DHA in adults with episodic migraine: Study protocol.

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2018 01 16;128:41-52. Epub 2017 Nov 16.

Lipid Mediators, Inflammation, and Pain Unit, Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, National Institute on Aging, NIH, 251 Bayview Blvd., Baltimore, MD 21224, United States; Intramural Program of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, United States; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, UNC School of Medicine, 171 Wing D, C.B.#7200, 170 Manning Drive, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, United States. Electronic address:

Migraine is a prevalent neurological disorder, affecting over 16% of adult women and 7% of adult men in the U.S., causing significant pain, disability, and medical expense, with incomplete benefits from conventional medical management. Migraine, as a chronic pain syndrome, provides a practical model for investigating the impact of dietary modifications in omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids. This paper reports the protocol of a trial to assess whether targeted dietary modifications designed to increase n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), with or without concurrent reduction in n-6 linoleic acid (LA), will alter nociceptive lipid mediators and mediate decreases in frequency and severity of migraine. This prospective, randomized, controlled trial in 153 male and female adult subjects, ages 18-99, with diagnosed and actively managed episodic migraine tests the efficacy, safety, and biochemical effects of targeted, controlled alterations in dietary omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Participants are masked to diet hypotheses and all assessors are masked to treatment assignment. Following a four-week baseline period, participants with migraine headache frequency of 5-20 per month are randomized to one of three intensive dietary regimens for 16 additional weeks followed by a less intensive observation period. Dietary intervention arms include: 1) increased n-3 EPA+DHA with low n-6 linoleic acid (H3 L6); 2) increased n-3 EPA+DHA with usual US dietary intake of n-6 linoleic acid (H3 H6); and 3) usual US dietary content of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (L3 H6). During the actual intervention, subjects receive content-specific study oils and foods sufficient for two meals and two snacks per day, as well as dietary counseling. Biochemical and clinical outcome measures are performed at intervals throughout this period. This randomized controlled trial is designed to determine whether targeted alterations in dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids can alter nociceptive lipid mediators in a manner that decreases headache pain and enhances quality of life and function in adults with frequent migraines.

Trial Registration: NCT02012790.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2017.11.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6269096PMC
January 2018

Targeted alteration of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids for the treatment of chronic headaches: a randomized trial.

Pain 2013 Nov 22;154(11):2441-2451. Epub 2013 Jul 22.

Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Program on Integrative Medicine, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, NC, USA Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Nutrition Research and Metabolism Core, North Carolina Translational Clinical Sciences Institute, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA School of Medicine and Pharmacology, Royal Perth Hospital, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Department of Neurology, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Omega-3 and n-6 fatty acids are biosynthetic precursors to lipid mediators with antinociceptive and pronociceptive properties. We conducted a randomized, single-blinded, parallel-group clinical trial to assess clinical and biochemical effects of targeted alteration in dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids for treatment of chronic headaches. After a 4-week preintervention phase, ambulatory patients with chronic daily headache undergoing usual care were randomized to 1 of 2 intensive, food-based 12-week dietary interventions: a high n-3 plus low n-6 (H3-L6) intervention, or a low n-6 (L6) intervention. Clinical outcomes included the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6, primary clinical outcome), Headache Days per month, and Headache Hours per day. Biochemical outcomes included the erythrocyte n-6 in highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) score (primary biochemical outcome) and bioactive n-3 and n-6 derivatives. Fifty-six of 67 patients completed the intervention. Both groups achieved targeted intakes of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. In intention-to-treat analysis, the H3-L6 intervention produced significantly greater improvement in the HIT-6 score (-7.5 vs -2.1; P<0.001) and the number of Headache Days per month (-8.8 vs -4.0; P=0.02), compared to the L6 group. The H3-L6 intervention also produced significantly greater reductions in Headache Hours per day (-4.6 vs -1.2; P=0.01) and the n-6 in HUFA score (-21.0 vs -4.0%; P<0.001), and greater increases in antinociceptive n-3 pathway markers 18-hydroxy-eicosapentaenoic acid (+118.4 vs +61.1%; P<0.001) and 17-hydroxy-docosahexaenoic acid (+170.2 vs +27.2; P<0.001). A dietary intervention increasing n-3 and reducing n-6 fatty acids reduced headache pain, altered antinociceptive lipid mediators, and improved quality-of-life in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pain.2013.07.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3850757PMC
November 2013

Mind-body interventions for treatment of phantom limb pain in persons with amputation.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2012 Aug;91(8):701-14

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a significant source of chronic pain in most persons with amputation at some time in their clinical course. Pharmacologic therapies for this condition are often only moderately effective and may produce unwanted adverse effects. There is growing empirical evidence of the therapeutic effectiveness of mind-body therapies for the relief of chronic pain; therefore, an exploration of their role in relieving amputation-related chronic pain is warranted. We undertook a focused literature review on mind-body interventions for patients with amputation who experience PLP. Because of study heterogeneity, only descriptive presentations of the studies are presented. Only studies of hypnosis, imagery, and biofeedback, including visual mirror feedback, were found; studies on meditation, yoga, and tai chi/qigong were missing from the literature. Few studies of specific mind-body therapies were dedicated to management of PLP, with the exception of mirror visual therapy. Overall, studies were largely exploratory and reflect considerable variability in the application of mind-body techniques, making definitive conclusions inadvisable. Nevertheless, the weight of existing findings indicates that a mind-body approach to PLP pain management is promising and that specific methods may offer either temporary or long-term relief, either alone or in combination with conventional therapies. The authors discuss the potential for usefulness of specific mind-body therapies and the relevance of their mechanisms of action to those of PLP, including targeting cortical reorganization, autonomic nervous system deregulation, stress management, coping ability, and quality-of-life. The authors recommend more and better quality research exploring the efficacy and mechanisms of action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PHM.0b013e3182466034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6457458PMC
August 2012

Low omega-6 vs. low omega-6 plus high omega-3 dietary intervention for chronic daily headache: protocol for a randomized clinical trial.

Trials 2011 Apr 15;12:97. Epub 2011 Apr 15.

Section on Nutritional Neurosciences, Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics, NIAAA, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Targeted analgesic dietary interventions are a promising strategy for alleviating pain and improving quality of life in patients with persistent pain syndromes, such as chronic daily headache (CDH). High intakes of the omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) may promote physical pain by increasing the abundance, and subsequent metabolism, of LA and AA in immune and nervous system tissues. Here we describe methodology for an ongoing randomized clinical trial comparing the metabolic and clinical effects of a low n-6, average n-3 PUFA diet, to the effects of a low n-6 plus high n-3 PUFA diet, in patients with CDH. Our primary aim is to determine if: A) both diets reduce n-6 PUFAs in plasma and erythrocyte lipid pools, compared to baseline; and B) the low n-6 plus high n-3 diet produces a greater decline in n-6 PUFAs, compared to the low n-6 diet alone. Secondary clinical outcomes include headache-specific quality-of-life, and headache frequency and intensity.

Methods: Adults meeting the International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria for CDH are included. After a 6-week baseline phase, participants are randomized to a low n-6 diet, or a low n-6 plus high n-3 diet, for 12 weeks. Foods meeting nutrient intake targets are provided for 2 meals and 2 snacks per day. A research dietitian provides intensive dietary counseling at 2-week intervals. Web-based intervention materials complement dietitian advice. Blood and clinical outcome data are collected every 4 weeks.

Results: Subject recruitment and retention has been excellent; 35 of 40 randomized participants completed the 12-week intervention. Preliminary blinded analysis of composite data from the first 20 participants found significant reductions in erythrocyte n-6 LA, AA and %n-6 in HUFA, and increases in n-3 EPA, DHA and the omega-3 index, indicating adherence.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01157208).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1745-6215-12-97DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3096579PMC
April 2011
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