Publications by authors named "Chaman Ara"

7 Publications

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Evaluation of sex steroid hormones and reproductive irregularities in diethyl phthalate-exposed premature mice: modulatory effect of raw honey against potential anomalies.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Institute of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

Phthalates, plasticizing chemicals, are top-rated environmental contaminants. Diethyl phthalate (DEP), a chief member of this family, was declared a potent endocrine disruptor and carcinogen in animals and humans. The current study was designed to explore the probable reproductive damage induced by DEP and the therapeutic efficacy of raw honey in male albino mice. Four-week-old 50 male mice were randomized equally in five groups, as control (C) received 0.1 ml distilled water; vehicle control (VC) received corn oil (0.1 ml/mouse); DEP (3mg/g/BW) dissolved in corn oil; honey control (HC) administered with honey (0.2 mg/g/day); and phthalate plus honey (P+H) administered with DEP and honey (3mg and 0.2 mg/g/BW/day respectively). Mice were treated through oral gavage for 54 days routinely, acclimatized for 6 days, and dissected. In the first instance, the antioxidant potential and total phenolic contents (TPC) of honey were analyzed through ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and Folin-Ciocalteu assay to confirm the antioxidant capacity of honey. The morphological, morphometric, histological, micrometric, sperm count, and hormonal analyses, and antioxidant capacity test in tissue homogenates were conducted by using tissues (testis, epididymis) and blood samples of mice. Mice exposed to DEP have a significant increase in body weight, LH level, and seminiferous tubule lumen diameter and decrease in the gonado-somatic index, testosterone level, sperm count, and seminiferous tubule diameter. Additionally, histopathology of testes showed interstitial space dilations, exfoliations, Leydig cell atrophy, germ cell degenerations, and spermatid retention in DEP-exposed testes sections. However, concomitant use of honey and DEP had shown a significant improvement in histopathological lesions, steroid hormone levels, and healthy sperm count. By these results, it is concluded that honey possessed antioxidant potential that can efficiently protect DEP-induced anomalies in male mice.
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June 2021

Evaluation of Cadmium Chloride-Induced Toxicity in Chicks Via Hematological, Biochemical Parameters, and Cadmium Level in Tissues.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Sep 30;199(9):3457-3469. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Department of Zoology, The University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, Pakistan.

Cadmium is a heavy metal and a non-biodegradable environmental contaminant, and its omnipresence ensures its recurrent exposure to humans and animals. Its intake by chicks leads to fatal implications. Cadmium chloride (CdCl) because of its bio-accumulative nature is an emerging threat to the poultry industry as well as to the humans which consumes these cadmium-intoxicated chickens. In the current study, the target was to elucidate the toxic effects of CdClon body weight, hematological, and biochemical parameters as well as its bioaccumulation in different organs of broiler chicks. Various concentrations of CdCl (0, 12, 24, 38, and 48 mg/kg body weight) were administered orally to five groups (A, B, C, D, and E) of broiler chicks, respectively. The biometric screening of the exposed birds was carried out by hematological parameters such as packed cell volume (PCV), total erythrocyte count (TEC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), total protein, white blood cells (WBC), and hemoglobin (Hb), as well as biochemical parameters superoxide dismutase (SOD), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) with commercially available kits. Metal accumulation in different organs was detected using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The compound exposure produced a varied impact on broiler birds. Hematological parameters showed a significant decrease except for WBC. Biochemical parameters also decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. However, it was revealed that the body weight of chickens was not affected considerably after CdCl exposure. A direct relationship was detected between the accumulation of metal within tissues (lungs, heart, and flesh) and exposure frequency. It can be deduced that an increase in Cd deposition in tissues may lead to an alteration in hematological-biochemical markers which may significantly contribute to systemic toxicity in broilers.
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September 2021

Abnormal steroidogenesis, oxidative stress, and reprotoxicity following prepubertal exposure to butylparaben in mice and protective effect of Curcuma longa.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Feb 28;28(5):6111-6121. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Developmental Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, 54000, Pakistan.

Mammalian reproduction is a highly regulated process that can be distorted following exposure to synthetic antimicrobial preservatives like butylparaben (BP). Besides, studies have not investigated the potential antioxidant effects of turmeric on BP-provoked reprotoxicity. The present research was planned on prepubertal mice, orally treated with BP (150 μg/g body weight/day) with and without Curcuma longa (turmeric) (400 μg/mice/day) from postnatal day 35 to 65 routinely. Results showed an insignificant reduction in body weight of both sexes but contrary to these, gonadal weight increased significantly in PB-exposed mice. Additionally, elevated levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone while decreased estrogen levels were observed in BP-treated females against control. Sperm count and motility were disturbed, coupled with abnormal sperm morphology in BP-intoxicated group. These findings were synchronized with a decreased testosterone levels in the same group as compared with control. The follicular count revealed reduction in the number of antral follicles while an increase in empty follicles. The BP also significantly increased lipid peroxidation and decreased glutathione content, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities, while the morphometric, biochemical, and histological deviations were less pronounced in the group, which was co-administered with BP and turmeric. Results indicated that turmeric has antioxidant potential to protect BP-induced oxidative stress and reprotoxicity in mice.
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February 2021

The correlations of mental health literacy with psychological aspects of general health among Iranian female students.

Int J Ment Health Syst 2019 27;13:59. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

4Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Mental health literacy has been defined as knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders which aid their recognition, management, or prevention. This study aimed to examine the correlations of mental health literacy specific to depression and general health in a sample of high school students in Iran.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during the first 6 months of 2018 among the students of an Iranian high school. A total of 65 students contributed to the study. The required data were gathered using two valid questionnaires, Goldberg and Hillier's version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), to measure psychological quality of life, and the Depression Literacy Questionnaire (D-Lit). The data were analysed with descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation coefficients using SPSS version 22.

Results: Neither the general health total scale nor any of its subscales showed statistically significant correlations with depression-related literacy.

Conclusion: Correlation of mental health literacy with general psychological health was not confirmed in this study. Also, due to the contextual differences of different societies, the generalisation of our findings should be done with caution.
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August 2019

A Study Of Agreement Between Visual Inspection With Acetic Acid Of Cervix And Pap Smear For Cervical Cancer Screening.

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2018 Oct-Dec;30(Suppl 1)(4):S668-S670

Department of Pathology (Microbiology) Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, KMU, Peshawar.

Background: One of the common causes of mortality and morbidity among young women is cervical cancer. Following a wash of cervix through acetic acid, the Papanicolaou (PAP) smears and the visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), are compared. Objective of the study was to check the level of agreement between the PAP smear for cancer of cervix and VIA.

Methods: It is a cross-sectional study and was carried out in Obstetrics and Gynaecology department, Sheikh Zaid Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. All patients were put in lithotomy position and vaginal speculum was applied and pap smear taken followed by 5% acetic acid application to cervix and changes in the cervix noted down.

Results: Patients with mean age 48±7.795 years were included. In 30 (12%) and 61 (24.4%) patients diagnosis of cervical cancer was positive on PAP smear and VIA respectively. The agreement between two test was significant with Kappa value = 0.322 and p-value ≤ 0.00.

Conclusion: Our study revealed that agreement of PAP smear is almost 80%. VIA on the other hand can be used when there is no access to PAP smear.
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April 2019

Vaginal progesterone vs intramuscular 17α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate for prevention of recurrent spontaneous preterm birth in singleton gestations: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2017 Mar 6;49(3):315-321. Epub 2017 Feb 6.

Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Objective: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have recently compared intramuscular 17α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC) with vaginal progesterone for reducing the risk of spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB) in singleton gestations with prior SPTB. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of vaginal progesterone compared with 17-OHPC in prevention of SPTB in singleton gestations with prior SPTB.

Methods: Searches of electronic databases were performed to identify all RCTs of asymptomatic singleton gestations with prior SPTB that were randomized to prophylactic treatment with either vaginal progesterone (intervention group) or intramuscular 17-OHPC (comparison group). No restrictions for language or geographic location were applied. The primary outcome was SPTB < 34 weeks. Secondary outcomes were SPTB < 37 weeks, < 32 weeks, < 28 weeks and < 24 weeks, maternal adverse drug reaction and neonatal outcomes. The summary measures were reported as relative risk (RR) with 95% CI. Risk of bias for each included study was assessed.

Results: Three RCTs (680 women) were included. The mean gestational age at randomization was about 16 weeks. Women were given progesterone until 36 weeks or delivery. Regarding vaginal progesterone, one study used 90 mg gel daily, one used 100 mg suppository daily and one used 200 mg suppository daily. All included RCTs used 250 mg intramuscular 17-OHPC weekly in the comparison group. Women who received vaginal progesterone had significantly lower rates of SPTB < 34 weeks (17.5% vs 25.0%; RR, 0.71 (95% CI, 0.53-0.95); low quality of evidence) and < 32 weeks (8.9% vs 14.5%; RR, 0.62 (95% CI, 0.40-0.94); low quality of evidence) compared with women who received 17-OHPC. There were no significant differences in the rates of SPTB < 37 weeks, < 28 weeks and < 24 weeks. The rate of women who reported adverse drug reactions was significantly lower in the vaginal progesterone group compared with the 17-OHPC group (7.1% vs 13.2%; RR, 0.53 (95% CI, 0.31-0.91); very low quality of evidence). Regarding neonatal outcomes, vaginal progesterone was associated with a lower rate of neonatal intensive care unit admission compared with 17-OHPC (18.7% vs 23.5%; RR, 0.63 (95% CI, 0.47-0.83); low quality of evidence). For the comparison of 17-OHPC vs vaginal progesterone, the quality of evidence was downgraded for all outcomes by at least one degree due to imprecision (the optimal information size was not reached) and by at least one degree due to indirectness (different interventions).

Conclusions: Daily vaginal progesterone (either suppository or gel) started at about 16 weeks' gestation is a reasonable, if not better, alternative to weekly 17-OHPC injection for prevention of SPTB in women with singleton gestations and prior SPTB. However, the quality level of the summary estimates was low or very low as assessed by GRADE, indicating that the true effect may be, or is likely to be, substantially different from the estimate of the effect. Copyright © 2016 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. COMPARACIÓN ENTRE LA PROGESTERONA VAGINAL Y EL 17Α-HIDROXIPROGESTERONA CAPROATO INTRAMUSCULAR PARA LA PREVENCIÓN DEL PARTO PRETÉRMINO ESPONTÁNEO RECURRENTE EN EMBARAZOS CON FETO ÚNICO: REVISIÓN SISTEMÁTICA Y METAANÁLISIS DE ENSAYOS CONTROLADOS ALEATORIOS: RESUMEN OBJETIVO: Recientemente se han realizado varios ensayos controlados aleatorios (ECA) que comparaban el caproato de 17α-hidroxiprogesterona (17-OHPC, por sus siglas en inglés) por vía intramuscular con la progesterona por vía vaginal para la reducción del riesgo de parto pretérmino espontáneo (PPTE) en embarazos con feto único de gestantes con historial de PPTE. El objetivo de esta revisión sistemática y metaanálisis fue evaluar la eficacia de la progesterona vaginal en comparación con la 17-OHPC en la prevención de embarazos con feto único de gestantes con historial de PPTE. MÉTODOS: Se realizaron búsquedas en bases de datos electrónicas para identificar todos los ECA con embarazos de feto único asintomáticos con historial de PPTE antes de ser asignados al azar a un tratamiento profiláctico, ya fuera con progesterona vaginal (grupo de intervención) o con 17-OHPC intramuscular (grupo de control). No se aplicaron restricciones respecto al idioma o la ubicación geográfica. El resultado primario fue PPTE < 34 semanas. Los resultados secundarios fueron PPTE <37 semanas, < 32 semanas, < 28 semanas y < 24 semanas, la reacción materna adversa al fármaco y los resultados neonatales. Las medidas del resumen se reportaron como riesgo relativo (RR) con IC del 95%. Para cada estudio incluido se evaluó el riesgo de sesgo.

Resultados: Se incluyeron tres ECA (680 mujeres). La media de la edad gestacional en el momento de la aleatorización fue de 16 semanas. A las mujeres se les administró progesterona hasta la semana 36 o hasta el parto. Con respecto a la progesterona vaginal, un estudio utilizó gel de 90 mg diariamente, otro utilizó un supositorio diario de 100 mg y el otro utilizó un supositorio diario de 200 mg. Todos los ECA incluidos en el grupo de comparación utilizaron 250 mg semanales de 17-OHPC por vía intramuscular. Las mujeres que recibieron progesterona vaginal tuvieron tasas significativamente más bajas de PPTE < 34 semanas (17,5% vs. 25,0%; RR 0,71 (IC 95%, 0,53-0,95); calidad de la evidencia baja) y < 32 semanas (8,9% vs. 14,5%; RR 0,62 (IC 95%, 0,40-0,94); calidad de evidencia baja), en comparación con las mujeres que recibieron 17-OHPC. No hubo diferencias significativas en las tasas de PPTE < 37 semanas, < 28 semanas y < 24 semanas. La tasa de mujeres que reportaron reacciones adversas a los medicamentos fue significativamente menor en el grupo de progesterona vaginal en comparación con el grupo de 17-OHPC (7,1% vs. 13,2%; RR 0,53 (IC 95%, 0,31-0,91); calidad de la evidencia muy baja). En cuanto a los resultados neonatales, la progesterona vaginal se asoció a una menor tasa de admisiones en la unidad neonatal de cuidados intensivos en comparación con la 17-OHPC (18,7% vs. 23,5%; RR 0,63 (IC 95%, 0,47-0,83); calidad de evidencia baja). Para la comparación del 17-OHPC con la progesterona vaginal se rebajó la calidad de las pruebas para todos los resultados en al menos un grado debido a imprecisiones (no se alcanzó el tamaño óptimo de la información) y en al menos un grado debido al carácter indirecto de los estudios (diferentes intervenciones).

Conclusiones: La progesterona vaginal administrada diariamente (ya fuera como supositorio o como gel) desde la semana 16 de gestación es una alternativa razonable, si no mejor, a una inyección semanal de 17-OHPC para la prevención de PPTE en mujeres con embarazos de feto único e historial de PPTE. Sin embargo, el nivel de calidad de las estimaciones del resumen fue bajo o muy bajo según lo evaluado por GRADE, lo que indica que el verdadero efecto puede ser, o es probable que sea, sustancialmente diferente de la estimación del efecto. 17Α-:META: : (randomized controlled trials,RCTs)(spontaneous preterm birth,SPTB)17α-(intramuscular 17α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate,17-OHPC)SPTB。metaSPTB17-OHPCSPTB。 : ,SPTBRCTs,RCTs()17-OHPC()。。34SPTB。37、32、2824SPTB,。(relative risk,RR)95%CI。。 : 3RCTs(680)。16。,36。,90 mg,100 mg,200 mg。,RCTs250 mg 17-OHPC。17-OHPC,34 [17.5%25.0%;RR,0.71(95% CI,0.53 ~ 0.95);]32[8.9%14.5%;RR,0.62(95% CI,0.40 ~ 0.94);]SPTB。37、2824SPTB。17-OHPC,[7.1%13.2%;RR,0.53(95% CI,0.31 ~ 0.91);]。,17-OHPC,[18.7%23.5%;RR,0.63(95% CI,0.47 ~ 0.83);]。17-OHPC,(),()。 : SPTBSPTB,16()17-OHPC,。,GRADE,,。.
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March 2017

Dilatation and curettage effect on the endometrial thickness.

Iran Red Crescent Med J 2013 Apr 5;15(4):350-5. Epub 2013 Apr 5.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, IR Iran.

Background: Endometrial receptivity is required for successful implantation and pregnancy. Despite the remaining controversy, many studies have shown that ultrasonographic endometrial thickness can be considered as an indicator of endometrial receptivity.

Objective: The study objective was to investigate the effect of dilatation and curettage on the endometrial thickness.

Materials And Methods: Enrolled in the study were 444 patients visited in Obstetrics & Gynecology clinic of Shahid Sadoughi hospital between Jan. 2011 to Sep. 2012. Only patients whose menstrual cycle was regular were included in study. Patients with myoma, adenomyosis, endometrial polyps or other uterine anomaly, those who smoked, whose BMI was greater than 30 and who were taking medications that could affect endometrial thickness were excluded. Endometrial thickness was measured one day before evolution (n = 444) and 5-7 days after it (n = 444) using transvaginal ultrasonography. The endometrial thicknesses were correlated to the patients' history of dilatation and curettage. Data analysis was done through SPSS software version 16 and using descriptive statistics, independent T-test and Anova.

Results: Endometrial thickness in patients who had 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 D&C were 10.00 ± 0.58, 9.83 ± 0.47, 8.90 ± 0.92, 7.42 ± 0.18 and 7.40 ± 0.07, respectively one day before ovulation (spearman's correlation coefficient = -0.33) and 10.62 ± 0.68, 9.64 ± 0.49, 8.48 ± 0.96, 6.32 ± 0.15 and 6.90 ± 0.04, respectively, 5-7 days after ovulation (spearman's correlation coefficient = -0.66) estradiol and progesterone levels, measured in the day of 2nd ultrasonography had not statistic relation with endometrial thickness (P = 0.27 and 0.31). The relation of endometrial thickness and age was not significant (P = 0.54 and 0.06).

Conclusions: Dilatation and curettage has a significant effect on the endometrial thinning.
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April 2013