Publications by authors named "Chaitra S Ujjani"

20 Publications

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Dose-dense brentuximab vedotin plus ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide for second-line treatment of relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma: a single centre, phase 1/2 study.

Lancet Haematol 2021 Aug;8(8):e562-e571

Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma could be treated with multiagent salvage chemotherapy followed by autologous haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. The aim of this study is to establish the safety and activity of dose-dense brentuximab vedotin combined with ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide (BV-ICE) chemotherapy in second-line treatment of classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

Methods: We conducted a single-arm, open-label, phase 1/2 study of dose-dense BV-ICE at the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, University of Washington (Seattle, WA, USA). Eligibility criteria were age 18 years or older; diagnosis of first relapse, primary refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma after one previous line of therapy; measurable disease of at least 1 cm in the longest axis, CT of chest, abdomen, and pelvis with PET within the past 28 days; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-1; and adequate organ function. A 3 + 3 dose escalation study was done for the phase 1 part of the trial to establish the maximum tolerated dose to be used for the phase 2 study. Brentuximab vedotin was delivered on days 1 and 8 at either 1·2 mg/kg (dose level 1) or 1·5 mg/kg (dose level 2) intravenously (capped at 150 mg) with standard dosing of ICE on days 1-3 (ifosfamide 5 g/m plus mesna 5 g/m intravenously over 24 h on day 2, carboplatin area under the curve 5 on day 2 in one intravenous injection, and etoposide 100 mg/m on days 1-3 in one intravenous injection per day) for two 21-day cycles. The primary endpoint was to establish the recommended phase 2 dose (phase 1 part) and complete response rate after two cycles, with a prespecified target of 78% (phase 2 part). Safety analysis was done in all enrolled participants and the primary activity analysis was done in all patients with evaluable response data. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02227199); enrolment and study treatment are complete.

Findings: Between Oct 16, 2014, and Feb 10, 2020, we enrolled 45 patients with a median age of 31 years (IQR 28-45). The recommended phase 2 dose of brentuximab vedotin was established to be 1·5 mg/kg. After a median follow-up of 3·1 years (IQR 1·7-4·1), 32 (74%; 95% CI 58·8-86·5) of 43 evaluable patients had complete responses after two cycles of treatment. Grade 3-4 haematological toxic effects were common, including neutropenia (33 [73%]), anaemia (six [13%]), and thrombocytopenia (36 [80%]). The most common grade 3-4 non-haematological toxic effects were febrile neutropenia (four [9%]), sepsis (six [13%]), increased alanine aminotransferase (five [11%]), hyperglycaemia (three [7%]), pulmonary embolism (two [4%]), and increased aspartate aminotransferase (two [4%]). There was one (2%) on-treatment death due to multisystem organ failure that was considered treatment related. Serious adverse events occurred in 13 (29%) patients.

Interpretation: Our data suggest that dose-dense BV-ICE is a rapidly administered and active salvage regimen for patients with relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma despite a complete response in this trial lower than the prespecified phase 2 target. Although cross-trial comparisons should be made with caution, activity results seem to be similar to previously presented brentuximab vedotin chemotherapy salvage combinations delivered over much longer durations and can be considered in young (<60 years), transplantation-eligible patients for second-line therapy.

Funding: Seagen, Lymphoma Research Foundation, National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute, and generous philanthropic donations to the University of Washington from numerous individuals and families in support of lymphoma research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(21)00170-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8457616PMC
August 2021

Immunogenicity of a heterologous COVID-19 vaccine after failed vaccination in a lymphoma patient.

Cancer Cell 2021 08 26;39(8):1037-1038. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA; University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Seattle, WA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2021.06.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8233960PMC
August 2021

Efficacy of bendamustine and rituximab in unfit patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Indirect comparison with ibrutinib in a real-world setting. A GIMEMA-ERIC and US study.

Cancer Med 2020 11 24;9(22):8468-8479. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Hematology, Niguarda Cancer Center, ASST Grande Ospedale Metropolitano Niguarda, Milan, Italy.

Limited information is available on the efficacy of front-line bendamustine and rituximab (BR) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with reduced renal function or coexisting conditions. We therefore analyzed a cohort of real-world patients and performed a matched adjusted indirect comparison with a cohort of patients treated with ibrutinib. One hundred and fifty-seven patients with creatinine clearance (CrCl) <70 mL/min and/or CIRS score >6 were treated with BR. The median age was 72 years; 69% of patients had ≥2 comorbidities and the median CrCl was 59.8 mL/min. 17.6% of patients carried TP53 disruption. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 45 months; TP53 disruption was associated with a shorter PFS (P = 0.05). The overall survival (OS) at 12, 24, and 36 months was 96.2%, 90.1%, and 79.5%, respectively. TP53 disruption was associated with an increased risk of death (P = 0.01). Data on 162 patients ≥65 years treated with ibrutinib were analyzed and compared with 165 patients ≥65 years treated with BR. Factors predicting for a longer PFS at multivariable analysis in the total patient population treated with BR and ibrutinib were age (HR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.10, P < 0.01) and treatment with ibrutinib (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.33-0.93, P = 0.03). In a post hoc analysis of patients in advanced stage, a significant PFS advantage was observed in patient who had received ibrutinib (P = 0.03), who showed a trend for OS advantage (P = 0.08). We arrived at the following conclusions: (a) BR is a relatively effective first-line regimen in a real-world population of unfit patients without TP53 disruption, (b) ibrutinib provided longer disease control than BR in patients with advanced disease stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7666748PMC
November 2020

Outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with CLL: a multicenter international experience.

Blood 2020 09;136(10):1134-1143

Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University, Chicago, IL.

Given advanced age, comorbidities, and immune dysfunction, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients may be at particularly high risk of infection and poor outcomes related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Robust analysis of outcomes for CLL patients, particularly examining effects of baseline characteristics and CLL-directed therapy, is critical to optimally manage CLL patients through this evolving pandemic. CLL patients diagnosed with symptomatic COVID-19 across 43 international centers (n = 198) were included. Hospital admission occurred in 90%. Median age at COVID-19 diagnosis was 70.5 years. Median Cumulative Illness Rating Scale score was 8 (range, 4-32). Thirty-nine percent were treatment naive ("watch and wait"), while 61% had received ≥1 CLL-directed therapy (median, 2; range, 1-8). Ninety patients (45%) were receiving active CLL therapy at COVID-19 diagnosis, most commonly Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors (BTKi's; n = 68/90 [76%]). At a median follow-up of 16 days, the overall case fatality rate was 33%, though 25% remain admitted. Watch-and-wait and treated cohorts had similar rates of admission (89% vs 90%), intensive care unit admission (35% vs 36%), intubation (33% vs 25%), and mortality (37% vs 32%). CLL-directed treatment with BTKi's at COVID-19 diagnosis did not impact survival (case fatality rate, 34% vs 35%), though the BTKi was held during the COVID-19 course for most patients. These data suggest that the subgroup of CLL patients admitted with COVID-19, regardless of disease phase or treatment status, are at high risk of death. Future epidemiologic studies are needed to assess severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection risk, these data should be validated independently, and randomized studies of BTKi's in COVID-19 are needed to provide definitive evidence of benefit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020006965DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7472711PMC
September 2020

Assessment of the Efficacy of Therapies Following Venetoclax Discontinuation in CLL Reveals BTK Inhibition as an Effective Strategy.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 07 20;26(14):3589-3596. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Division of Malignant Hematology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida.

Purpose: Venetoclax-based therapy is a standard-of-care option in first-line and relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Patient management following venetoclax discontinuation remains nonstandard and poorly understood.

Experimental Design: To address this, we conducted a large international study to identify a cohort of 326 patients who discontinued venetoclax and have been subsequently treated. Coprimary endpoints were overall response rate (ORR) and progression-free survival for the post-venetoclax treatments stratified by treatment type [Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor (BTKi), PI3K inhibitor (PI3Ki), and cellular therapies].

Results: We identified patients with CLL who discontinued venetoclax in the first-line (4%) and relapsed/refractory settings (96%). Patients received a median of three therapies prior to venetoclax; 40% were BTKi naïve ( = 130), and 81% were idelalisib naïve ( = 263). ORR to BTKi was 84% ( = 44) in BTKi-naïve patients versus 54% ( = 30) in BTKi-exposed patients. We demonstrate therapy selection following venetoclax requires prior novel agent exposure consideration and discontinuation reasons.

Conclusions: For BTKi-naïve patients, selection of covalently binding BTKis results in high ORR and durable remissions. For BTKi-exposed patients, covalent BTK inhibition is not effective in the setting of BTKi resistance. PI3Kis following venetoclax do not appear to result in durable remissions. We conclude that BTKi in naïve or previously responsive patients and cellular therapies following venetoclax may be the most effective strategies..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-3815DOI Listing
July 2020

Pembrolizumab with R-CHOP in previously untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: potential for biomarker driven therapy.

Br J Haematol 2020 06 6;189(6):1119-1126. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Tumor programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is associated with inferior outcomes. The first-line immunologically-replete setting may be an opportune time for PD-1 inhibition. We evaluated pembrolizumab in combination with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) in untreated patients with DLBCL. Eligible patients were age 18 or older, had adequate organ function, and had DLBCL requiring full-course therapy. Patients received pembrolizumab 200 mg/cycle with R-CHOP, primarily to assess toxicity. Response assessment utilized standard criteria, and PD-L1 staining was performed at a validated central laboratory. Among 30 patients, toxicity was comparable to standard R-CHOP but with two grade ≥3 immune related adverse events (rash, pneumonitis). The overall and complete response rate was 90% and 77%. With 25·5 months of median follow-up, 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) is 83%. PD-L1 expression was associated with non-GCB subtype, and improved PFS and survival. Pembrolizumab can safely be added to R-CHOP, and is associated with a high CR rate and 2-year PFS. Improved PFS with PR-CHOP in PD-L1 expressing tumors contradicts historical data in R-CHOP treated patients, supporting evaluation of PD-L1 as a biomarker to identify DLBCL patients who may benefit from this first-line strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16494DOI Listing
June 2020

The efficacy and safety of venetoclax therapy in elderly patients with relapsed, refractory chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

Br J Haematol 2020 03 4;188(6):918-923. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

Leukemia Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Elderly chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients treated outside of trials have notably greater toxicity with the Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib compared to younger patients. It is not known whether the same holds true for the B-cell lymphoma 2 inhibitor venetoclax. We provide a comprehensive analysis of key safety measures and efficacy in 342 patients comparing age categories ≥75 and <75 years treated in the relapsed, refractory non-trial setting. We demonstrate that venetoclax has equivalent efficacy and safety in relapsed/refractory CLL patients who are elderly, the majority of whom are previous ibrutinib-exposed and therefore may otherwise have few clear therapeutic options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16271DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7528953PMC
March 2020

A retrospective comparison of venetoclax alone or in combination with an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody in R/R CLL.

Blood Adv 2019 05;3(10):1568-1573

Swedish Cancer Center, Seattle, WA.

Venetoclax (VEN) is approved for relapsed/refractory (R/R) chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) as monotherapy (VENmono) or in combination with rituximab. Whether VEN plus anti-CD20 (VENcombo) is superior to VENmono is unknown. We conducted a multicenter, retrospective cohort analysis comparing 321 CLL patients treated with VENmono vs VENcombo across the United States and the United Kingdom. We examined demographics, baseline characteristics, dosing, adverse events, response rates, and outcomes. The primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), estimated by Kaplan-Meier method, in patients treated with VENmono vs VENcombo. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed with COX regression. Three hundred twenty-one CLL patients were included (3 median prior treatments, 78% prior ibrutinib). The overall response rates (ORRs) were similar (VENmono, 81% ORR, 34% complete remission [CR] vs VENcombo, 84% ORR, 32% CR). With a median follow-up of 13.4 months, no differences in PFS and OS were observed between the groups. In unadjusted analyses, the hazard ratios (HRs) for PFS and OS for VENmono vs VENcombo were HR 1.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.6-1.8; = .7) and HR 1.2 (95% CI, 0.6-2.3; = .5), respectively. When adjusting for differences between the cohorts, the addition of an anti-CD20 antibody in combination with VEN did not impact PFS (HR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.5-2.0; = .9) or OS (HR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.4-2.6; = .8). We demonstrate comparable efficacy between VENmono and VENcombo in a heavily pretreated, high-risk, retrospective cohort, in terms of both response data and survival outcomes. Prospective studies are needed to validate these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6538868PMC
May 2019

Tumor Lysis, Adverse Events, and Dose Adjustments in 297 Venetoclax-Treated CLL Patients in Routine Clinical Practice.

Clin Cancer Res 2019 07 19;25(14):4264-4270. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire.

Purpose: Clinical trials of venetoclax reported negligible rates of clinical tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) when using an extended dose escalation schedule. We aimed to understand TLS prophylaxis, rates of select adverse events (AE), and impact of dosing modifications in routine clinical practice.

Experimental Design: This retrospective cohort study included 297 CLL venetoclax-treated patients outside of clinical trials in academic and community centers. Demographics, baseline disease characteristics, venetoclax dosing, TLS risk and prophylaxis, and AEs were collected.

Results: The group was 69% male, 96% had relapsed/refractory CLL, 45% had deletion chromosome 17p, 84% had unmutated , 80% received venetoclax monotherapy, and median age was 67. TLS risk was categorized as low (40%), intermediate (32%), or high (28%), and 62% had imaging prior to venetoclax initiation. Clinical TLS occurred in 2.7% of patients and laboratory TLS occurred in 5.7%. Pre-venetoclax TLS risk group and creatinine clearance independently predict TLS development in multivariable analysis. Grade 3/4 AEs included neutropenia (39.6%), thrombocytopenia (29.2%), infection (25%), neutropenic fever (7.9%), and diarrhea (6.9%). Twenty-two patients (7.4%) discontinued venetoclax due to an AE. Progression-free survival was similar regardless of number of dose interruptions, length of dose interruption, and stable venetoclax dose.

Conclusions: These data provide insights into current use of venetoclax in clinical practice, including TLS rates observed in clinical practice. We identified opportunities for improved adherence to TLS risk stratification and prophylaxis, which may improve safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-0361DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8020996PMC
July 2019

Eligibility for CAR T-cell therapy: An analysis of selection criteria and survival outcomes in chemorefractory DLBCL.

Am J Hematol 2019 04 4;94(4):E117-E116. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, University of Washington Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, DC.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25411DOI Listing
April 2019

Concurrent Diagnosis of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia and Follicular Lymphoma: An Unreported Presentation.

Case Rep Hematol 2018 9;2018:7493601. Epub 2018 Sep 9.

Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Hematology and Oncology, MedStar Georgetown University Hospital, 3800 Reservoir Rd. NW, Washington, DC 20007, USA.

Lymphadenopathy in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is usually due to extramedullary involvement with accelerated or blast phases of the disease. The occurrence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) as a synchronous malignancy with CML is rare. We report a case of a 73-year-old male who presented with dyspnea and right-sided lower extremity edema in the setting of leukocytosis. Bone marrow evaluation indicated a chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), confirmed by molecular testing. Imaging of the chest for persistent dyspnea revealed supraclavicular and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Biopsy of the cervical node showed expanded lymphoid follicles with atypical germinal centers that were positive for CD10, BCL-2, and BCL-6, consistent with follicular lymphoma (FL). Nodal PCR demonstrated clonal IGH and IGK gene rearrangements, and FISH analysis was positive for IGH-BCL-2 fusion. Together, these tests supported the diagnosis of FL. Additionally, the lymph node showed paracortical expansion by maturing pan-hematopoietic elements, no blastic groups, and positive RT-PCR analysis for BCR-ABL1, indicating concomitant involvement by chronic phase-CML. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a patient with a concurrent diagnosis of CML and FL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/7493601DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6151199PMC
September 2018

Outcomes of front-line ibrutinib treated CLL patients excluded from landmark clinical trial.

Am J Hematol 2018 11 26;93(11):1394-1401. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Cardinal Health, Dublin, Ohio.

Ibrutinib demonstrated superior response rates and survival for treatment-naïve chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients in a pivotal study that excluded patients younger than 65 (<65) and/or with chromosome 17p13 deletion (del[17p13]). We examined outcomes and toxicities of CLL patients who would have been excluded from the pivotal study, specifically <65 and/or those with del[17p13]. This multicenter, retrospective cohort study examined CLL patients treated with front-line ibrutinib at 20 community and academic centers, categorizing them based on key inclusion criteria for the RESONATE-2 trial: <65 vs ≥65 and present vs absent del[17p13]. Of 391 included patients, 57% would have been excluded from the pivotal study. Forty-one percent of our cohort was <65, and 30% had del(17p13). Patients <65 were more likely to start 420 mg of ibrutinib daily; those who started at reduced doses had inferior PFS. The most common adverse events were arthralgias, fatigue, rash, bruising, and diarrhea. Twenty-four percent discontinued ibrutinib at 13.8 months median follow-up; toxicity was the most common reason for discontinuation, though progression and/or transformation accounted for a larger proportion of discontinuations in <65 and those with del(17p13). Response rates were similar for <65 and those with del(17p13). However, patients with del(17p13) had inferior PFS and OS. Ibrutinib in the front-line setting has extended beyond the population in which it was initially studied and approved. This study highlights and compares important differences in ibrutinib dosing, treatment interruptions, toxicities, reasons for discontinuation, and survival outcomes in two important patient populations not studied in RESONATE-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25261DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7552812PMC
November 2018

Real-world outcomes and management strategies for venetoclax-treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients in the United States.

Haematologica 2018 09 7;103(9):1511-1517. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

CLL Program, Leukemia Service, Division of Hematologic Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Venetoclax is a BCL2 inhibitor approved for 17p-deleted relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia with activity following kinase inhibitors. We conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort analysis of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia treated with venetoclax to describe outcomes, toxicities, and treatment selection following venetoclax discontinuation. A total of 141 chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients were included (98% relapsed/refractory). Median age at venetoclax initiation was 67 years (range 37-91), median prior therapies was 3 (0-11), 81% unmutated , 45% del(17p), and 26.8% complex karyotype (≥ 3 abnormalities). Prior to venetoclax initiation, 89% received a B-cell receptor antagonist. For tumor lysis syndrome prophylaxis, 93% received allopurinol, 92% normal saline, and 45% rasburicase. Dose escalation to the maximum recommended dose of 400 mg daily was achieved in 85% of patients. Adverse events of interest included neutropenia in 47.4%, thrombocytopenia in 36%, tumor lysis syndrome in 13.4%, neutropenic fever in 11.6%, and diarrhea in 7.3%. The overall response rate to venetoclax was 72% (19.4% complete remission). With a median follow up of 7 months, median progression free survival and overall survival for the entire cohort have not been reached. To date, 41 venetoclax treated patients have discontinued therapy and 24 have received a subsequent therapy, most commonly ibrutinib. In the largest clinical experience of venetoclax-treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, the majority successfully completed and maintained a maximum recommended dose. Response rates and duration of response appear comparable to clinical trial data. Venetoclax was active in patients with mutations known to confer ibrutinib resistance. Optimal sequencing of newer chronic lymphocytic leukemia therapies requires further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2018.193615DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6119152PMC
September 2018

Toxicities and outcomes of 616 ibrutinib-treated patients in the United States: a real-world analysis.

Haematologica 2018 05 1;103(5):874-879. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Hematology/Oncology, Georgetown University Hospital, Washington DC, USA.

Clinical trials that led to ibrutinib's approval for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia showed that its side effects differ from those of traditional chemotherapy. Reasons for discontinuation in clinical practice have not been adequately studied. We conducted a retrospective analysis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients treated with ibrutinib either commercially or on clinical trials. We aimed to compare the type and frequency of toxicities reported in either setting, assess discontinuation rates, and evaluate outcomes. This multicenter, retrospective analysis included ibrutinib-treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients at nine United States cancer centers or from the Connect® Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Registry. We examined demographics, dosing, discontinuation rates and reasons, toxicities, and outcomes. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. Six hundred sixteen ibrutinib-treated patients were identified. A total of 546 (88%) patients were treated with the commercial drug. Clinical trial patients were younger (mean age 58 61 years, =0.01) and had a similar time from diagnosis to treatment with ibrutinib (mean 85 87 months, =0.8). With a median follow-up of 17 months, an estimated 41% of patients discontinued ibrutinib (median time to ibrutinib discontinuation was 7 months). Notably, ibrutinib toxicity was the most common reason for discontinuation in all settings. The median progression-free survival and overall survival for the entire cohort were 35 months and not reached (median follow-up 17 months), respectively. In the largest reported series on ibrutinib- treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, we show that 41% of patients discontinued ibrutinib. Intolerance as opposed to chronic lymphocytic leukemia progression was the most common reason for discontinuation. Outcomes remain excellent and were not affected by line of therapy or whether patients were treated on clinical studies or commercially. These data strongly argue in favor of finding strategies to minimize ibrutinib intolerance so that efficacy can be further maximized. Future clinical trials should consider time-limited therapy approaches, particularly in patients achieving a complete response, in order to minimize ibrutinib exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2017.182907DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5927982PMC
May 2018

Outcomes of CLL patients treated with sequential kinase inhibitor therapy: a real world experience.

Blood 2016 11 6;128(18):2199-2205. Epub 2016 Sep 6.

Tufts University Medical Center, Boston, MA; and.

B-cell receptor kinase inhibitor (KI) therapy represents a paradigm shift in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) management, but data on practice patterns after KI discontinuation and optimal sequencing are limited. We conducted a multicenter, retrospective, comprehensive analysis on 178 patients with CLL (ibrutinib = 143; idelalisib = 35) who discontinued KI therapy. We examined responses, toxicity, post-KI therapies, and overall survival (OS). Patients had a median of 3 prior therapies (range 0-11); del17p (34%), p53 mutation (27%), del11q (33%), and complex karyotype (29%). Overall response rate (ORR) to first KI was 62% (complete response 14%). The most common reasons for KI discontinuation were toxicity (51%), CLL progression (29%), and Richter transformation (RT) (8%). Median progression-free survival (PFS) and OS from KI initiation were 10.5 and 29 months, respectively. Notably, initial KI choice did not impact PFS or OS; however, RT portended significantly inferior OS (P = .0007). One hundred fourteen patients received subsequent salvage therapy following KI discontinuation with an ORR to subsequent KI at 50% and a median PFS of 11.9 months. Median PFS in KI-intolerant patients treated with an alternate KI was not reached vs 7 months for patients with CLL progression. In summary, these data demonstrate that toxicity was the most common reason for KI discontinuation, that patients who discontinue KI due to toxicity can respond to an alternate KI, and that these responses may be durable. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02717611 and #NCT02742090.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2016-05-716977DOI Listing
November 2016

Phase 1 trial of rituximab, lenalidomide, and ibrutinib in previously untreated follicular lymphoma: Alliance A051103.

Blood 2016 11 3;128(21):2510-2516. Epub 2016 Oct 3.

Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medstar Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC.

Chemoimmunotherapy in follicular lymphoma is associated with significant toxicity. Targeted therapies are being investigated as potentially more efficacious and tolerable alternatives for this multiply-relapsing disease. Based on promising activity with rituximab and lenalidomide in previously untreated follicular lymphoma (overall response rate [ORR] 90%-96%) and ibrutinib in relapsed disease (ORR 30%-55%), the Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology conducted a phase 1 trial of rituximab, lenalidomide, and ibrutinib. Previously untreated patients with follicular lymphoma received rituximab 375 mg/m on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 of cycle 1 and day 1 of cycles 4, 6, 8, and 10; lenalidomide as per cohort dose on days 1 to 21 of 28 for 18 cycles; and ibrutinib as per cohort dose daily until progression. Dose escalation used a 3+3 design from a starting dose level (DL) of lenalidomide 15 mg and ibrutinib 420 mg (DL0) to DL2 (lenalidomide 20 mg, ibrutinib 560 mg). Twenty-two patients were enrolled; DL2 was determined to be the recommended phase II dose. Although no protocol-defined dose-limiting toxicities were reported, a high incidence of rash was observed (all grades 82%, grade 3 36%). Eleven patients (50%) required dose reduction, 7 because of rash. The ORR for the entire cohort was 95%, and the 12-month progression-free survival was 80% (95% confidence interval, 57%-92%). Five patients developed new malignancies; 3 had known risk factors before enrollment. Given the increased toxicity and required dose modifications, as well as the apparent lack of additional clinical benefit to the rituximab-lenalidomide doublet, further investigation of the regimen in this setting seems unwarranted. The study was registered with www.ClinicalTrials.gov as #NCT01829568.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2016-06-718106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5123195PMC
November 2016

Overestimated value of FDG-PET based bone marrow evaluation in lymphoma: Response to Adams and Kwee.

Br J Haematol 2017 10 8;179(2):337-339. Epub 2016 Jul 8.

Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medstar Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.14216DOI Listing
October 2017

(18) F-FDG PET-CT and trephine biopsy assessment of bone marrow involvement in lymphoma.

Br J Haematol 2016 08 20;174(3):410-6. Epub 2016 Apr 20.

Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medstar Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC, USA.

The ability of positron emission tomography-computerized tomography (PET-CT) to accurately detect bone marrow involvement (BMI) has been suggested in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), but its abilities in other histologies is less established. The aim of this retrospective study was to confirm the role of PET-CT in detecting BMI in DLBCL and HL, and to explore its usefulness in other subtypes. Of the 149 newly diagnosed patients, common subtypes included DLBCL, follicular lymphoma (FL) and HL. In DLBCL, the sensitivity and specificity of PET-CT at diagnosis were 75% and 92%. In FL, the sensitivity and specificity of PET-CT were 67% and 85% at diagnosis, and 73% and 89% at relapse. In HL, the sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 74%. PET-CT was able to detect BMI in patients with negative biopsies. Most of the patients in which PET-CT failed to identify BMI were already advanced stage by imaging. In this analysis, PET-CT was highly accurate for detecting BMI at diagnosis in DLBCL and HL and highly specific in FL at diagnosis and relapse. Results also suggested the diagnostic advantage of PET-CT over bone marrow biopsy in detecting BMI. Prospective evaluation is necessary and may eliminate biopsies in future patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.14071DOI Listing
August 2016
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