Publications by authors named "Chaitanya Rojulpote"

33 Publications

Venous thromboembolism detected by FDG-PET/CT in cancer patients: a common, yet life-threatening observation.

Am J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2021 15;11(2):99-106. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Radiology, Hospital of The University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Cancer patients are at markedly increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Early detection of VTE may decrease morbidity and mortality in this population. We conducted this study to evaluate the ability of FDG-PET/CT to detect thrombosis in cancer patients. This retrospective study included 131 cancer patients with a history of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE) referred for 2-deoxy-2-[F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT). All subjects underwent PET/CT imaging 60 minutes after FDG injection. Images were visually assessed for increased FDG uptake within the venous lumen. For positive cases, clinical follow-up and Doppler ultrasonography and/or contrast-enhanced CT scans were reviewed. FDG-PET/CT revealed abnormal uptake in the venous system of 26 (19.8%) patients. Eighteen (69.2%) had a history of DVT, and 13 (50%) had a history of PE. The most common site of thrombosis was the inferior vena cava (IVC) (n=14, 53.8%), followed by lower extremities veins (n=9, 34.6%), jugular veins (n=2, 7.7%), and superior vena cava (n=1, 3.8%). The presence of thrombi was confirmed by reviewing clinical follow-up in 6 (23.1%) patients. Among this group, thrombosis was detected in lower extremity veins (n=4, 15.8%), jugular veins (n=1, 3.8%), and IVC (n=1, 3.8%). Our study demonstrates that thrombi prior to their clinical manifestation can be detected by FDG-PET/CT in cancer patients. Moving forward, physicians must carefully consider the venous system when reporting FDG-PET/CT for cancer patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8165725PMC
April 2021

Incremental prognostic value of visually estimated coronary artery calcium in patients undergoing positron emission tomography imaging.

Open Heart 2021 May;8(1)

Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

Objective: Visually estimated coronary artery calcium (VECAC) from chest CT or attenuation correction (AC)/CT obtained during positron emission tomography (PET)-myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is feasible. Our aim was to determine the prognostic value of VECAC beyond conventional risk factors and PET imaging parameters, including coronary flow reserve (CFR).

Methods: We analysed 608 patients without known coronary artery disease who underwent PET-MPI between 2012 and 2016 and had AC/CT and/or chest CT images. We used Cox regression to estimate the association of VECAC categories (≤10, 11-400, >400 Agatston units (AU)) with the primary outcome of all-cause death, acute coronary syndrome or stroke (mean follow-up 4.3±1.8 years). C-statistics assessed the relationship between PET parameters and VECAC with the primary outcome.

Results: Mean age was 58±11 years, 65% were women and 67% were black. VECAC ≤10, 11-400 and >400 AU was observed in 68%, 12% and 20% of subjects, respectively. Compared with VECAC ≤10, VECAC categories 11-400 (HR 2.25, 95% CI 1.24 to 4.08) and >400 AU (HR 3.05, 95% CI 1.87 to 4.98) were associated with the primary outcome after adjusting for traditional risk factors, MPI findings and CFR. Adding VECAC to a model that included PET-MPI, CFR and clinical risk factors improved the prognostic value for the primary outcomes (c-statistic 0.71 to 0.75 with VECAC, p=0.01).

Conclusions: VECAC is a potent predictor of events beyond traditional risk factors and PET imaging markers, including CFR. These data further support the importance for routine VECAC implementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/openhrt-2021-001648DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8108688PMC
May 2021

Emerging role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in Castleman disease: a review.

Insights Imaging 2021 Mar 11;12(1):35. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Castleman disease (CD) describes a group of rare hematologic conditions involving lymphadenopathy with characteristic histopathology and a spectrum of clinical abnormalities. CD is divided into localized or unicentric CD (UCD) and multicentric CD (MCD) by imaging. MCD is further divided based on etiological driver into human herpesvirus-8-associated MCD, POEMS-associated MCD, and idiopathic MCD. There is notable heterogeneity across MCD, but increased level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, particularly interleukin-6, is an established disease driver in a portion of patients. FDG-PET/CT can help determine UCD versus MCD, evaluate for neoplastic conditions that can mimic MCD clinico-pathologically, and monitor therapy responses. CD requires more robust characterization, earlier diagnosis, and an accurate tool for both monitoring and treatment response evaluation; FDG-PET/CT is particularly suited for this. Moving forward, future prospective studies should further characterize the use of FDG-PET/CT in CD and specifically explore the utility of global disease assessment and dual time point imaging.Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02817997, Registered 29 June 2016, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02817997.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13244-021-00963-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7952491PMC
March 2021

An understanding of the atherosclerotic molecular calcific heterogeneity between coronary, upper limb, abdominal, and lower extremity arteries as assessed by NaF PET/CT.

Am J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2021 15;11(1):40-45. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, United States.

We aimed to quantify the heterogeneity of atherosclerosis in upper and lower limb vessels using F-NaF-PET/CT and compare calcification in coronary arteries to peripheral arteries. 68 healthy controls (42±13.5 years, 35 females, 33 males) and 40 patients at-risk for cardiovascular disease (55±11.9 years, 22 females, 18 males) underwent PET/CT imaging 90 minutes after the injection of F-NaF (2.2 Mbq/Kg). The following arteries were examined: coronary artery (CA), ascending aorta (AS), arch of aorta (AR), descending aorta (DA), abdominal aorta (AA), common iliac artery (CIA), external iliac artery (EIA), femoral artery (FA), popliteal artery (PA). Average SUVmean (aSUVmean) was calculated for each arterial segment. A paired t-test compared the aSUVmean between CA vs. AS, AR, DA, AA, CIA, EIA, FA, and PA. CA aSUVmean in the at-risk group was higher than the healthy control group (0.74±0.04 vs. 0.67±0.04, P=0.03). Furthermore, the F-NaF uptake in the CA was lower than in AS, AR, DA, AA, CIA, EIA, FA, and PA in both healthy (all P≤0.0001) and at-risk (all P≤0.0001). Higher F-NaF uptake in non-cardiac arteries in both healthy controls and patients at-risk suggests CA calcification is a late manifestation of atherosclerosis. This differential expression of atherosclerosis is likely due to interaction of hemodynamic parameters specific to the vascular bed and systemic factors related to the development of atherosclerosis.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936246PMC
February 2021

F-FDG-PET/CT in the assessment of atherosclerosis in lung cancer.

Am J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2021 15;11(1):1-9. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA, USA.

The aim of this study was to assess the risk of atherosclerosis in patients with lung cancer compared to patients with extrapulmonary malignancies using F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT). We hypothesized that patients with lung cancer would demonstrate increased FDG uptake in the thoracic aorta compared to patients with extrapulmonary cancers. Thirty-four lung cancer patients (21 male, 13 female, 64.1 ± 12.9 yo) were retrospectively compared to seventy-eight patients with extrapulmonary malignancies (46 male, 32 female, 59.6 ± 12.8 yo). Average maximum standardized uptake value (avgSUVmax) and maximum target-to-blood pool ratio (TBRmax) were measured by mapping regions of interest of the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta. Two-tailed Student's t-test was used to assess the differences in avgSUVmax and TBRmax between the two groups and between smokers and non-smokers. Age and gender distribution between the groups were not statistically different. AvgSUVmax and TBRmax were statistically significant increase in lung cancer patients compared to extrapulmonary cancer patients in the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta, suggesting a lung cancer-associated increased risk of atherosclerosis development. AvgSUVmax was not significantly different between smokers and non-smokers in all sections of the thoracic aorta. Moving forward, large, prospective studies that directly compare PET data between different malignancies of different stages will help determine the role of FDG-PET/CT in assessing paraneoplastic vascular disease.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936247PMC
February 2021

The neurological manifestations of COVID-19 - A case series.

J Clin Transl Res 2020 Nov 17;6(4):187-189. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

Geisinger Community Medical Center, Scranton, PA, USA.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a fatal respiratory illness caused by the coronavirus (CoV). The first known case was reported in 2002, later coined as SARS-CoV. Over the last two decades, the CoV has periodically emerged in the general population, causing a varying degree of pneumonia. The most recent outbreak, now known as coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19), has been on an exponential rise. Similar to its predecessors, COVID-19 causes a fatal form of pneumonia; however, in a small percentage of patients, COVID-19 has shown to cause neurological symptoms. Given that SARS-CoV and the new CoV strain share similar viral structures, COVID-19 may have the capability to invade the neurological system. We present a series of patients with COVID-19, the first of which presented with a seizure, whereas our second patient developed seizures during their hospital course. Neither patient had a previous history of epilepsy.

Relevance For Patients: COVID-19 has rapidly evolved since it was first reported and has proven to be a fatal infective process. The last several months have been challenging for the medical community as we try to understand the complexities of this virus. Clinicians have attempted to assess the most common presenting symptoms based on reported cases. The purpose of this study was to help understand how COVID-19 presents itself when the neurological system is involved. This case series describes the common and uncommon neurological manifestations of COVID-19. By doing so, we hope to provide clinicians with additional information to help diagnose COVID-19 in this unprecedented time and to also be wary of the uncommon presenting features.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7821746PMC
November 2020

Prevalence and Determinants of Atrial Fibrillation-Associated In-Hospital Ischemic Stroke in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

Am J Cardiol 2021 04 29;144:1-7. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Cardiology, University of Connecticut, Farmington, Connecticut.

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an established risk factor ischemic stroke (IS) and is commonly encountered in patient hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Uncommonly, IS can occur as a complication resulting from percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). There is limited real world data regarding AF-associated in-hospital IS (IH-IS) in patients admitted with AMI undergoing PCI. We queried the National Inpatient Sample database from January 2010 to December 2014 to identify patients admitted with AMI who underwent PCI. In this cohort, we determined the prevalence of AF associated IH-IS and compared risk factors for IH-IS between patients with AF and without AF using multivariable logistic regression models. IH-IS was present in 0.46% (n = 5,938) of the patients with AMI undergoing PCI (n = 1,282,829). Prevalence of IH-IS in patients with AF was higher compared with patients without AF (1.05% vs 0.4%; adjusted odds ratio: 1.634, 95% confidence interval: 1.527 to 1.748, p <0.001). Regardless of AF status, prevalence and risk of IH-IS was higher in females and increased with advancing age. There was significant overlap among risk-factors associated with increased risk of IH-IS in AF and non-AF cohorts, except for obesity in AF patients (adjusted odds ratio: 1.268, 95% confidence interval: 1.023 to 1.572, p = 0.03) in contrast to renal disease, malignancy, and peripheral vascular disease in non-AF patients. In conclusion, IH-IS is a rare complication affecting patients undergoing PCI for AMI and is more likely to occur in AF patients, females, and older adults, with heterogeneity among risk factors in patients with and without AF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2020.12.066DOI Listing
April 2021

Association between atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk score estimated by pooled cohort equation and coronary plaque burden as assessed by NaF-PET/CT.

Am J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2020 15;10(6):312-318. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Pooled Cohort Equations (PCE) combines metabolic and non-metabolic parameters to predict the 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Therefore, we hypothesize that ASCVD risk score is correlated to global cardiac microcalcification, as assessed by F-sodium fluoride-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (NaF-PET/CT). Sixty-one individuals (53.4±8.9 years, 32 females, 100% Caucasian) without known ASCVD underwent NaF-PET/CT imaging. Global cardiac average SUVmean (aSUVmean), also known as the Alavi-Carlsen Calcification Score, was calculated across manually defined regions of interest on each axial slice for each individual. The 10-year ASCVD risk score was determined for each individual using the PCE as per ACC/AHA guidelines, and then individuals were categorized into low-, borderline-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups based on their score. Linear regression analysis was applied to compare each individual's ASCVD score and aSUVmean. Global cardiac aSUVmean stratified by groups estimated by 10-year ASCVD risk score were 0.67±0.09 for low risk (n=32), 0.70±0.11 for borderline risk (n=10), 0.72±0.10 for intermediate risk (n=17), and 0.78±0.10 for high risk (n=2). ASCVD risk score was significantly correlated to aSUVmean (r=0.27, P=0.03). This is among the first studies to compare ASCVD risk scores to cardiac plaque burden as assessed by NaF-PET/CT. Large, prospective studies are needed to further investigate the potential of NaF uptake in ASCVD.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7724277PMC
December 2020

Utilization of NaF-PET/CT in assessing global cardiovascular calcification using CHADS and CHADS-VASc scoring systems in high risk individuals for cardiovascular disease.

Am J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2020 15;10(6):293-300. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, United States.

CHADS and CHADS-VASc scores are used to estimate the risk of strokes in patients with atrial fibrillation. We sought to determine the global quantification of cardiovascular molecular calcification in high risk individuals by NaF-PET/CT and compare it with CHADS and CHADS-VASc scores. We identified 40 high risk individuals for cardiovascular disease from the Cardiovascular Molecular Calcification Assessed by F-NaF PET CT (CAMONA) trial and calculated CHADS and CHADS-VASc scores for each. Ninety minutes after NaF injection (2.2 Mbq/kg), PET/CT imaging was performed. CT imaging was done for attenuation correction and anatomic correlation. The global cardiac uptake was calculated from regions of interest manually drawn on axial PET/CT images made in OsirixMD. Global cardiac average SUVmean (aSUVmean) values were calculated, and linear regression analysis was employed for statistical purposes. Subjects had mean age of 55 ± 11.9 SD years, (Range: 23-73 years), female 55%. The sample consisted of subjects with a mean aSUVmax of 2.9 ± 1.4, aSUVmean was 0.8 ± 0.2, CHADS 0.9 ± 0.6 (Range: 0-3), CHADS-VASc 1.8 ± 1.3 (Range: 0-5). Based on the linear regression models, we found a direct correlation between global cardiac aSUVmean and CHADS score (r=0.58, P≤0.0001) and also between global cardiac aSUVmean and CHADS-VASc (r=0.37, P=0.01). Based on the results of our study we conclude that patients with a higher CHADS and CHADS-VASc scores had a higher atherosclerotic burden and could be at greater risk of cardiovascular events. These scoring systems can help with risk stratification for predicting future adverse atherosclerotic events.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7724281PMC
December 2020

Comparison of atherosclerotic burden in non-lower extremity arteries in patients with and without peripheral artery disease using F-NaF-PET/CT imaging.

Am J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2020 15;10(6):272-278. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, United States.

Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of peripheral artery disease (PAD). We compared the atherosclerotic burden in non-lower extremity arteries in patients with and without PAD using F-sodium fluoride (NaF)-PET/CT. We identified five individuals (61.8±6.6 years, one male, four females) with PAD and matched to five individuals without PAD based on age and gender from the unfavorable cardiovascular risk profile group of the CAMONA trial (60±7.2 years, one male, four females). Individuals underwent PET/CT imaging 90 minutes after the injection of NaF (2.2 Mbq/Kg). CT imaging was conducted to account for attenuation correction and anatomic referencing. The NaF uptake was measured by manually defining regions of interest on each axial slice on the following arteries: coronary artery (CA), carotid artery (CR), ascending aorta (AS), arch of aorta (AR), descending aorta (DA), and abdominal aorta (AA). Average SUVmean (aSUVmean) was calculated for each segment. Wilcoxon's signed rank test was used for statistical analysis. The total aSUVmean was higher in the PAD group compared to the non-PAD group (6.54±0.9 vs. 5.03±0.45, P=0.043). Comparison revealed higher NaF uptake in CR, AS, AR, and DA in the PAD group compared to the non-PAD group (0.93±0.25 vs. 0.54±0.14, P=0.01; 1.28±0.20 vs. 0.86±1.19, P<0.01; 1.18±0.17 vs. 0.90±0.19, P=0.03; 1.32±0.24 vs. 0.91±0.15, P=0.01). The NaF uptake in CA and AA was similar between the two groups (0.77±0.04 vs. 0.71±0.05, P=0.11; 1.07±0.28 vs. 1.12±0.30, P=0.82). We found individuals with PAD had higher atherosclerotic burden in the carotid arteries and thoracic aorta compared to non-PAD subjects.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7724274PMC
December 2020

Global brain glucose uptake on 18F-FDG-PET/CT is influenced by chronic cardiovascular risk.

Nucl Med Commun 2021 Apr;42(4):444-450

Department of Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania.

Purpose: The goal of this study was to assess global cerebral glucose uptake in subjects with known cardiovascular risk factors by employing a quantitative 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) technique. We hypothesized that at-risk subjects would demonstrate decreased global brain glucose uptake compared to healthy controls.

Methods: We compared 35 healthy male controls and 14 male subjects at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) as assessed by the systematic coronary risk evaluation (SCORE) tool. All subjects were grouped into two age-matched cohorts: younger (<50 years) and older (≥50 years). The global standardized uptake value mean (Avg SUVmean) was measured by mapping regions of interest of the entire brain across the supratentorial structures and cerebellum. Wilcoxon's rank-sum test was used to assess the differences in Avg SUVmean between controls and at-risk subjects.

Results: Younger subjects demonstrated higher brain Avg SUVmean than older subjects. In addition, in both age strata, the 10-year risk for fatal CVD according to the SCORE tool was significantly greater in the at-risk groups than in healthy controls (younger: P = 0.0304; older: P = 0.0436). In the younger cohort, at-risk subjects demonstrated significantly lower brain Avg SUVmean than healthy controls (P = 0.0355). In the older cohort, at-risk subjects similarly had lower Avg SUVmean than controls (P = 0.0343).

Conclusions: Global brain glucose uptake appears to be influenced by chronic cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, FDG-PET/CT may play a role in determining the importance of CVD on brain function and has potential for monitoring the efficacy of various therapeutic interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MNM.0000000000001349DOI Listing
April 2021

Magnetic resonance imaging-based partial volume-corrected 18F-sodium fluoride positron emission tomography in the femoral neck.

Nucl Med Commun 2021 Apr;42(4):416-420

Department of Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania.

Objectives: 18F-sodium fluoride (NaF) is a radiotracer used in PET that reflects calcium metabolism and osteoblastic activity. In this study, we assessed the construct validity of a novel application of global assessment to measure NaF uptake in the femoral neck as a method of evaluating physiologic changes in osteoblastic metabolism with age.

Methods: Whole-body NaF-PET/computed tomography (CT) images and MRI of 24 male patients with a history of nonmetastatic prostate cancer between the ages of 36 and 82 years (67.8 ± 9.6) were analyzed. A region of interest delineated the entire femoral neck on the PET/CT image to determine the mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean). Correction for the partial volume effect was performed by measuring the volume of inert yellow bone marrow by MRI segmentation. Multiple linear regression was used to assess the relationship of uptake with age and body weight.

Results: The SUVmean with and without partial volume correction decreased with respect to age (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). Body weight was not significantly related to any measured PET parameter.

Conclusion: Our results support the use of global NaF uptake with magnetic resonance-derived partial volume correction in the femoral neck. Because osteoblastic metabolism is known to decrease with normal aging, the observed decrease in NaF uptake constitutes evidence for convergent validity, indicating that the proposed methodology likely reflects systemic osteoblastic activity. Future studies of this methodology are warranted in other instances of varying osteoblastic activity such as in metabolic bone diseases and for the evaluation of therapy targeting osteoblastic metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MNM.0000000000001344DOI Listing
April 2021

Diagnostic accuracy of SPECT and PET myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with left bundle branch block or ventricular-paced rhythm.

J Nucl Cardiol 2020 Oct 20. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Civic Center Blvd, 11-154 South Pavilion, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Background: The difference in diagnostic accuracy of coronary artery disease (CAD) between vasodilator SPECT and PET myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) or ventricular-paced rhythm (VPR) is unknown.

Methods: We identified patients with LBBB or VPR who underwent either vasodilator SPECT or PET MPI and subsequent coronary angiography. LBBB/VPR-related septal and anteroseptal defects were defined as perfusion defects involving those regions in the absence of obstructive CAD in the left anterior descending artery or left main coronary artery.

Results: Of the 55 patients who underwent coronary angiography, 38 (69%) underwent SPECT and 17 patients (31%) underwent PET. PET compared to SPECT demonstrated higher sensitivity (88% vs 60%), specificity (56% vs 14%), positive predictive value (64% vs 20%), negative predictive value (83% vs 50%), and overall superior diagnostic accuracy (AUC .72 (95% CI .50-.93) vs .37 (95% CI .20-.54), P = .01) to detect obstructive CAD. LBBB/VPR-related septal and anteroseptal defects were more common with SPECT compared to PET (septal: 72% vs 17%, P = .001; anteroseptal: 47% vs 8%, P = .02).

Conclusions: PET has higher diagnostic accuracy when compared to SPECT for the detection of obstructive CAD in patients with LBBB or VPR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12350-020-02398-5DOI Listing
October 2020

Delirium is an important predictor of mortality in elderly patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: insight from National Inpatient Sample database.

Coron Artery Dis 2020 12;31(8):665-670

Department of Medicine, Calhoun Cardiology Center, University of Connecticut, Farmington, Connecticut.

Objective: Delirium is a frequently encountered clinical condition in hospitalized patients and is known to be associated with poor outcomes. This study aims to assess the impacts of delirium in elderly patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) following ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Methods: We queried the National Inpatient Samples from 2010 to 2014 to identify all patients aged 65 and older, and admitted with a primary diagnosis of STEMI undergoing PCI by using the International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Edition-Clinical Modification diagnosis codes. The patients with delirium from this cohort were further evaluated. Multivariate regression model with SPSS Statistics 25.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, New York, USA) was used to study the association between delirium and clinical outcomes including in-hospital mortality and length of stay (LOS).

Results: Out of weighted 42 980 patients aged ≥65 years with STEMI and PCI, delirium was present in 774 patients, accounting for 1.8% of this cohort. These patients were found to be older and had more underlying co-morbidities, compared to those without delirium [Median Charlson score 2 (1; 3) vs. 0 (0; 2); P < 0.001]. In-hospital mortality in STEMI patients with delirium was significantly higher than those without delirium [42.7% vs. 7.6%; unadjusted odds ratio (OR) 9.07; 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.55-12.57; P < 0.001; adjusted OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.13-3.04; P = 0.014].

Conclusion: Older age and comorbidities are known predisposing factors for delirium, which is in turn associated with higher in-hospital mortality and increased LOS in elderly patients with STEMI who undergo PCI. This study underscores the role of delirium and implicates the importance of further studies in recognition and targeted care of delirium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCA.0000000000000978DOI Listing
December 2020

COVID-19 and the Heart.

Colomb Med (Cali) 2020 Jun 30;51(2):e4320. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

University of Pennsylvania, Departments of Medicine and Radiology, Philadelphia, United States.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in a global health crisis. Prior to the arrival of this viral pandemic, the world was already plagued with a significant burden of cardiovascular disease. With the introduction of the novel virus, the world now faces a double jeapordy. Early reports have suggested an increased risk of death in individuals with underlying cardio-metabolic disorders. The exact effects of COVID-19 on the cardiovascular system are not well determined, however lessons from prior viral epidemics suggest that such infections can trigger acute coronary syndromes, arrhythmias and heart failure via direct and indirect mechanisms. In this article, we aimed to discuss the effects and potential underlying mechanisms of COVID -19 as well as potential implications of treatments targeted against this virus on the cardiovascular system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.25100/cm.v51i2.4320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7518726PMC
June 2020

A population based analysis of trends, risk factors and outcomes associated with gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with left ventricular assist devices.

Am J Cardiovasc Dis 2020 15;10(3):247-257. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Department of Cardiology, University of Connecticut Farmington, CT, USA.

Prior to the utilization of continuous flow (CF) devices in 2010, Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding was a common adverse event related to left ventricular assist device (LVADs) that was found to be even more frequent when CF devices were first introduced. Given the drastic increase in the use of new CF-LVADs, we sought to determine if CF-LVADs are associated with an increased number of GI bleeds and higher mortality. We analysed the data from a national inpatient sample database using the ICD-9 procedure code for LVAD use in end-stage heart failure among patients > 18 years. The total sample consisted of 2,359 patients (=55 ± 13.7 years). A majority of the sample was male (77%) and Caucasian (59%). The Incidence of GI bleeding from 2010 to 2014 was 7.46% with no significant change in yearly incidence over five-year period (P=.793). After controlling for age, sex, and length of stay, multivariate logistic regression revealed that significant predictors of GI bleed were acute kidney injury (AOR=1.87, 95% CI=1.26, 2.80), peripheral vascular disease (AOR=1.77, 95% CI=1.02, 2.94), body mass index ≥ 25 (AOR=.46, 95% CI=.22, .87), hemiplegia or paraplegia (AOR=3.01, 95% CI=1.17, 7.05), moderate or severe liver disease (AOR=2.40, 95% CI=.97, 5.34), peptic ulcer disease (AOR=18.13, 95% CI=7.86, 42.38), surgical aortic valve replacement (AOR=2.46, 95% CI=1.12, 5.15), and venous thromboembolism (AOR=2.58, 95% CI=1.57, 4.15). The results of the study show that GI bleeding is highly prevalent in patients with LVADs and there was no improvement in rates of GI bleed over five years since the CF-LVADs were initially introduced and is associated with an increased likelihood of mortality.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7486528PMC
August 2020

Association of triglyceride to high density lipoprotein ratio with global cardiac microcalcification to evaluate subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in non-diabetic individuals.

Am J Cardiovasc Dis 2020 15;10(3):241-246. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, United States.

Objective: Triglycerides (TG) to high density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio has been proposed as a marker of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. We hypothesize that TG/HDL ratio correlates positively with global cardiac microcalcification as assessed by NaF-PET/CT as a surrogate marker for coronary atherosclerosis in healthy non-diabetic individuals.

Method: We identified 68 healthy, non-diabetic individuals (age 41.7 ± 13.5 years; 35/33 female/male) from the CAMONA trial. All underwent PET/CT imaging 90 minutes after NaF injection (2.2 Mbq/Kg). Global cardiac average SUVmean (aSUVmean) was calculated by a trained physician for each individual. Fasting plasma lipid profile (total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), HDL, and TG) and fasting plasma glucose were recorded. TG/HDL ratio was calculated for every individual. Univariate and multivariate linear regression models were used to assess the association between TG/HDL ratio and global cardiac aSUVmean.

Result: On univariate analysis, there was a positive linear association of TG/HDL ratio and global cardiac aSUVmean (r=0.244, B=0.047, P=0.045). On multivariate analysis adjusted for age, gender, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, smoking status, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and fasting plasma glucose, TG/HDL ratio was found to be independently associated with global cardiac aSUVmean (B=0.060, 95% CI: 0.007-0.114, P=0.027).

Conclusion: There was a positive correlation between TG/HDL ratio with global cardiac microcalcification assessed by NaF-PET/CT imaging.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7486520PMC
August 2020

An Update on the Role of Total-Body PET Imaging in the Evaluation of Atherosclerosis.

PET Clin 2020 Oct 21;15(4):477-485. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:

Fused PET/computed tomography has demonstrated success in the detection and quantification of atherosclerotic plaques. Recently, total-body PET imaging has demonstrated increased sensitivity and specificity in atherosclerosis. This article reviews the literature regarding this novel imaging technique. Moreover, evidence that has pointed toward 18F-sodium fluoride as the radiotracer of choice over 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose for evaluation of plaque burden is discussed. Finally, a global disease assessment is introduced as an adjunct tool for vascular PET imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpet.2020.06.006DOI Listing
October 2020

Diagnosis and Monitoring of Osteoporosis with Total-Body F-Sodium Fluoride-PET/CT.

PET Clin 2020 Oct 4;15(4):487-496. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Department of Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Division of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

In recent years, F-Sodium Fluoride (NaF)-PET/CT has seen its role in the detection and management of osteoporosis increase. This article reviews the extent of this application in the literature, its efficacy compared with other comparable imaging tools, and how total-body PET/CT combined with global disease assessment can revolutionize measurement of total osteoporotic disease activity. NaF-PET/CT eventually can be the modality of choice for metabolic bone disorders, especially with these advances in technology and computation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpet.2020.06.011DOI Listing
October 2020

A critical review of radiotracers in the positron emission tomography imaging of traumatic brain injury: FDG, tau, and amyloid imaging in mild traumatic brain injury and chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2021 02 21;48(2):623-641. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce St, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) has been widely utilized in the study of traumatic brain injury (TBI) for decades. While most applications of PET have attempted to assess neuronal function after TBI, more recently, novel radiotracers have sought to image biomarkers in the context of TBI and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE).

Methods: This review will begin with an overview of TBI and CTE along with the acute and chronic pathophysiological consequences of TBI. Next, glycolysis, beta-amyloid, and tau protein radiotracers will be critically assessed in light of the most recent imaging studies available.

Conclusions: Based on the scientific relevance of such radiotracers to the molecular processes of TBI and CTE along with the broader evidence of radiotracer specificity and selectivity, this review will weigh the strengths and weaknesses of each radiotracer. Nonetheless, the evidence indicates that PET will continue to be a powerful modality in the diagnosis of TBI-related conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-020-04926-4DOI Listing
February 2021

NaF-PET/CT global assessment in detecting and quantifying subclinical cardiac atherosclerosis and its association with blood pressure in non-dyslipidemic individuals.

Am J Cardiovasc Dis 2020 15;10(2):101-107. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States.

Background: We used F-sodium fluoride (NaF) to assess early atherosclerosis in the global heart in asymptomatic individuals with a coronary calcium score of zero and without a formal diagnosis of hypertension. We hypothesized that these individuals might present with subclinical atherosclerosis that correlates with systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure (SBP, DBP, and MAP).

Methods: We identified 20 asymptomatic individuals (41.6 ± 13.8 years, 8 females) from the CAMONA trial with C-reactive protein ≥3 mg/L, no smoking history, diabetes (fasting blood glucose <126 mg/dl) and dyslipidemia per the Adult Treatment Panel III Guidelines: untreated LDL <160 mg/dL, total cholesterol <240 mg/dL, HDL >40 mg/dL. All underwent PET/CT imaging 90 minutes after NaF injection (2.2 Mbq/Kg). The global cardiac average SUVmean (aSUVmean) was calculated for each individual. Correlation coefficients and linear regression models were employed for statistical analysis.

Results: Significant positive correlation was revealed between global cardiac NaF uptake and all blood pressures: SBP (r=0.44, P=0.05), DBP (r=0.64, P=0.002), and MAP (r=0.59, P=0.007). After adjusting for age and gender, DBP and MAP were independent predictors of higher global cardiac NaF uptake.

Conclusion: NaF-PET/CT for detecting and quantifying subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic individuals revealed that cardiac NaF uptake correlated independently with DBP and MAP.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7364275PMC
June 2020

An Unusual Case of Tricuspid Valve Infective Endocarditis Caused by Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae.

Cureus 2020 May 3;12(5):e7942. Epub 2020 May 3.

Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is an omnipresent commensal in the environment, studied for over a century. It is a zoonotic pathogen known to cause infections in animals and humans. Cases of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in humans have been classified into three distinct entities: localized skin infections, diffuse skin infections, and systemic organ involvement. This particular pathogen is an uncommon cause of endocarditis, with an affinity for the aortic valve. We present a case of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in a patient with involvement of the tricuspid valve.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7942DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7266562PMC
May 2020

Gender Differences in Rates of Arrhythmias, Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices, and Diagnostic Modalities Among Sarcoidosis Patients.

Cureus 2020 Apr 14;12(4):e7667. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.

Introduction Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease with multiorgan involvement. Cardiac involvement may be asymptomatic or present clinically as heart failure, arrhythmias, or even sudden cardiac death. In this study, we compared gender differences in the prevalence of arrhythmias and associated outcomes in patients with sarcoidosis without established coronary artery disease. Methods The United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample was queried from 2010 to 2014 to identify patients with sarcoidosis using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnosis code in patients >18 years. We excluded patients with a prior history of myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary intervention, and coronary artery bypass graft. The chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Results The sample consisted of 308,064 patients (mean age = 55.65 ± 11.28 years); they were mostly women (65.2%) and black (46.7%). In-hospital mortality in this cohort was 2.5%. The most common arrhythmia was atrial fibrillation (9.7%). The prevalence of ventricular fibrillation was 0.2%, ventricular tachycardia 2%, complete heart block 0.5%, and second-degree Mobitz type II (0.1%). Sudden cardiac death occurred in 0.7%. Rates of various cardiac devices implanted were: implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) (0.5%), cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator (CRT-D) (0.2%), pacemaker (0.4%). Rates of endomyocardial biopsy (EMB), radionuclide imaging, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were 0.2%, 0.3%, and 0.1%, respectively. Based on gender (male vs. female), the rates of arrhythmias, cardiac device implantation, and utilization of diagnostic modalities were: atrial fibrillation (41% vs 59%; p<0.001), ventricular fibrillation (50% vs 50%; p=0.983), ventricular tachycardia (55% vs 45%; p<0.001), complete heart block (48% vs 52%; p=0.3), second-degree Mobitz type II (37% vs 63%; p=0.706), sudden cardiac death (38% vs 62%; p<0.171), ICD (56% vs 44%; p<0.001), CRT-D (58% vs 42%; p=0.025), permanent pacemaker (40% vs 60%; p=0.066), EMB (55% vs 45%; p<0.001), radionuclide imaging (32% vs 68%; p=0.403), and cardiac MRI (41% vs 59%; p=0.396). In-hospital mortality was higher in females (64% vs 36%; p<0.001). Conclusion In our study, in-hospital death was more common in females. Females had higher rates of atrial fibrillation as compared to males, who were found to have a higher burden of ventricular tachycardia. Males had higher rates of ICD and CRT-D placement. Males also had EMB performed more commonly than females.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7667DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7226665PMC
April 2020

Global quantification of pulmonary artery atherosclerosis using F-sodium fluoride PET/CT in at-risk subjects.

Am J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2020 15;10(2):119-126. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Radiology, Hospital of The University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA, USA.

The goal of this study was to assess pulmonary artery calcification in healthy controls and subjects with suspicion of stable angina pectoris through the usage of quantitative F-sodium fluoride positron emission tomography/computed tomography (NaF-PET/CT). We hypothesized that these 'at-risk subjects' would demonstrate increase pulmonary artery NaF uptake compared to healthy controls. Retrospectively, 15 healthy controls were compared to 15 at-risk subjects, all of whom underwent full-body NaF-PET/CT scans. The healthy controls and at-risk patients were all randomly sampled from larger datasets. The two sampled groups were male-dominated and similar in age. The global mean standard uptake value (SUVmean), the max standard uptake value (SUVmax), and the mean target-to-background ratio (TBRmean) were acquired through mapping of regions of interest (ROI's) around the pulmonary artery of the subjects. A two-tailed Mann-Whitney test was used to determine the significance of difference between the two groups. For global SUVmean (0.79 compared to 0.58), global TBRmean (1.15 compared to 0.93), and global SUVmax (1.78 compared to 1.60), the NaF uptake was significantly higher in the at-risk patients compared to the controls (all ). NaF-PET/CT is a suitable imaging modality for quantification of molecular calcification in the pulmonary artery. Additionally, the connection between atherosclerosis and the risk factor of angina pectoris is further reinforced. We believe that future studies are needed to validate our proof-of-concept, and better confirm the clinical future of NaF-PET/CT as a tracer of atherosclerotic plaques.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218698PMC
April 2020

F-sodium fluoride: An emerging tracer to assess active vascular microcalcification.

J Nucl Cardiol 2020 May 10. Epub 2020 May 10.

Department of Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12350-020-02138-9DOI Listing
May 2020

Predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with left ventricular assist device.

Ir J Med Sci 2020 Nov 9;189(4):1275-1281. Epub 2020 May 9.

Department of Cardiology, Calhoun Cardiology Center University of Connecticut, Farmington, CT, USA.

Background: A left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is used to support patients with end-stage heart failure.

Aims: To examine the role of comorbidities and complications in predicting in-hospital mortality since the introduction of continuous flow (CF)-LVAD.

Methods: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was queried from 2010 to 2014 using International Classification of Disease-9 code for LVAD among patients 18 years or older. The sample consisted of 2,359 patients (mean age = 55 ± 13.7 years, 76.8% men, 59.3% Caucasian).

Results: Comparative analysis revealed mortality did not differ from 2010 to 2014 (p = 0.653). Increases in comorbidities of atrial fibrillation, acute kidney injury, mechanical ventilation, body mass index ≥ 25, cerebrovascular disease, and mild liver disease were evidenced over the 5-year period (p values ≤ 0.049). Multivariate analysis showed that significant predictors of mortality were comorbid hemodialysis (AOR = 7.62, 95% CI [4.78, 12.27]), cerebrovascular disease (AOR = 5.38, 95% CI [3.49, 8.26]), mechanical ventilation (AOR = 3.83, 95% CI [2.84, 5.18]), mild liver disease (AOR = 1.96, 95% CI [1.38, 2.76]), and acute kidney injury (AOR = 1.62, 95% CI [1.16, 2.28]). Predictive complications included disseminated intravascular coagulation (AOR = 6.41, 95% CI [2.79, 6.84]), sepsis (AOR = 4.37, 95% CI [2.79, 6.84]), septic shock (AOR = 3.9, 95% CI [2.11, 7.59]), and gastrointestinal bleed (AOR = 1.81, 95% CI [1.11, 2.93]).

Conclusions: CF-LVADs have not reduced mortality, possibly due to utilization in patients with comorbid conditions. Future trials are necessary for improved patient selection and reduced post-procedural complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11845-020-02246-yDOI Listing
November 2020

Trends, Outcomes, and Predictors of Sepsis and Severe Sepsis in Patients with Left Ventricular Assist Devices.

Cureus 2020 Apr 3;12(4):e7523. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.

Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is used in end-stage heart failure that is refractory to medical treatment. However, there is a paucity of data looking at the rates of sepsis and severe sepsis (SSS). Therefore, this study was conceived with the purpose of analyzing the SSS burden and outcomes associated with LVAD implantation. The national inpatient sample database was queried from 2010 to 2014 using ICD-9 procedure code for LVAD use among patients 18 years or older and 2359 patients were identified. During the five-year study period, the average incidence of SSS was 11.8% and it was noted that cases with SSS were associated with an increased likelihood of mortality, greater length of hospital stay (LOS), and higher hospital-related charges (p < .001) compared to controls. Controlling for age, sex, and LOS, hierarchical multivariate logistic regression revealed that significant predictors of SSS were acute kidney injury [Adjusted odd's ratio (AOR) = 2.75, 95% CI = 1.87, 4.14)], mechanical ventilation (AOR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.70, 3.23), venous thromboembolism (AOR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.12, 2.75), gastrointestinal bleed (AOR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.12, 2.76), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (AOR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.40, 0.77), acute myocardial infarction (AOR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.36, 0.80) and mild liver disease (AOR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.55, 3.06). The rate of incidence of sepsis has remained constant and is often associated with a worse clinical outcome. This provides a basis to identify high-risk groups and helps argue for earlier detection of such patients and better patient selection so as to reduce infectious complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7523DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7198074PMC
April 2020

Conned by Conn's: The Manifestation of Conn's Syndrome Post-renal Transplant in a Patient with Polycystic Kidney Disease.

Cureus 2020 Apr 2;12(4):e7512. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.

We present the case of a 66-year-old African-American male with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) secondary to polycystic kidney disease (PCKD), with well-controlled hypertension. He was placed on peritoneal dialysis for two years before successfully undergoing a cadaveric renal transplant. There was an immediate graft function with no relevant postoperative complications. On regular follow-ups two months later, the patient now presents with worsening control of hypertension despite an increase in anti-hypertensive medications. Common causes of new-onset hypertension, such as renal artery stenosis, anti-calcineurin therapy, and allograft injury, were excluded. The patient's biochemistry revealed the presence of hypokalemia, which was absent in previous reports. In light of this, plasma aldosterone and renin levels were sent and were found to be elevated: aldosterone: 50.4 ng/dL, renin: 0.4 ng/dL, aldosterone-renin Ratio (ARR): 126. In retrospect, a routine CT (computed tomography) scan performed in 2017 revealed an adrenal adenoma of 17 x 13 mm, which was diagnosed as an incidental finding at that time. A repeat CT scan was performed and showed no change in the size of the adenoma. In view of the new symptoms, the patient was started on spironolactone with little to no improvement in blood pressure and potassium levels. We present a case of Conn's syndrome in a patient with PCKD manifesting only after a renal transplant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7195196PMC
April 2020

Assessing the feasibility of NaF-PET/CT versus FDG-PET/CT to detect abdominal aortic calcification or inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

Ann Nucl Med 2020 Jun 10;34(6):424-431. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Department of Radiology, Hospital of University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce St, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Objective: We aimed to determine whether NaF-PET/CT or FDG-PET/CT can detect abdominal aortic molecular calcification and inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Methods: In this study, 18 RA patients (4 women, 14 men; mean age 56.0 ± 11.7) and 18 healthy controls (4 women, 14 men; mean age 55.8 ± 11.9) were included. The controls were matched to patients by sex and age (± 4 years). All subjects of this study underwent NaF-PET/CT scanning 90 min following the administration of NaF. FDG-PET/CT imaging was performed 180 min following intravenous FDG injection. Using OsiriX software, the global mean standardized uptake value (global SUVmean) in abdominal aorta was calculated for both FDG and NaF. The NaF SUVmean and FDG SUVmean were divided by the blood pool activity providing target-to-background ratios (TBR) namely, NaF-TBRmean and FDG-TBRmean. The CT calcium volume score was obtained using a growing region algorithm based on Hounsfield units.

Results: The average NaF-TBRmean score among RA patients was significantly greater than that of healthy controls (median 1.61; IQR 1.49-1.88 and median 1.40; IQR 1.23-1.52, P = 0.002). The average CT calcium volume score among RA patients was also significantly greater than that of healthy controls (median 1.96 cm; IQR 0.57-5.48 and median 0.004 cm; IQR 0.04-0.05, P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the average FDG-TBRmean scores in the RA patients when compared to healthy controls (median 1.29; IQR 1.13-1.52 and median 1.29; IQR 1.13-1.52, respectively, P = 0.98).

Conclusion: Quantitative assessment with NaF-PET/CT identifies increased molecular calcification in the wall of the abdominal aorta among patients with RA as compared with healthy controls, while quantitative assessment with FDG-PET/CT did not identify a difference in aortic vessel wall FDG uptake between the RA and healthy control groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12149-020-01463-wDOI Listing
June 2020

F-FDG-PET/CT in the quantification of photon radiation therapy-induced vasculitis.

Am J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2020 25;10(1):66-73. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Radiation therapy (RT) is an important component of care for head and neck cancers (HNC). Photon RT vasculitis is a complication of incidental dose delivery to nearby vascular structures. However, optimal methods for early diagnosis are not clearly established. The aim of this study was to evaluate F-FDG-PET/CT in detecting radiation-induced vasculitis of the left common carotid (LCC) and the arch of the aorta (AoA) in patients treated for HNC. F-FDG-PET/CT scans obtained before RT (Pre-RT) and 3 months after RT (Post-RT) were retrospectively reviewed in 30 HNC patients (25 males, 5 females; average age 57.9±8.1 years) treated with photon RT. All subjects underwent F-FDG-PET/CT imaging 60 minutes after 5.0 MBq/kg F-FDG injection. Average standard uptake values (Avg SUVmean) of the LCC and AoA were obtained by global assessment. A two-tailed paired t-test was used to assess the difference in Avg SUVmean between pre- and post-RT imaging. Subjects demonstrated significant increased Avg SUVmean within the LCC post-RT (pre = 1.42, post = 1.65, P<0.001), with a mean increase of 0.23 SUV. Similarly, subjects exhibited higher F-FDG uptake in the AoA post-RT (pre = 1.44, post = 1.69, P<0.01), with a mean increase of 0.23 SUV. F-FDG-PET/CT may be used to detect and quantify photon RT vasculitis in HNC patients. Further investigation is warranted to evaluate the clinical implications of this pathology and the role for alternative treatment strategies in minimizing tissue toxicity.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7076303PMC
February 2020