Publications by authors named "Chadwick D Miller"

77 Publications

EMS blood collection from patients with acute chest pain reduces emergency department length of stay.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 Apr 26;47:248-252. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, USA.

Background: Expediting the measurement of serum troponin by leveraging EMS blood collection could reduce the diagnostic time for patients with acute chest pain and help address Emergency Department (ED) overcrowding. However, this practice has not been examined among an ED chest pain patient population in the United States.

Methods: A prospective observational cohort study of adults with non-traumatic chest pain without ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction was conducted in three EMS agencies between 12/2016-4/2018. During transport, paramedics obtained a patient blood sample that was sent directly to the hospital core lab for troponin measurement. On ED arrival HEART Pathway assessments were completed by ED providers as part of standard care. ED providers were blinded to troponin results from EMS blood samples. To evaluate the potential impact on length of stay (LOS), the time difference between EMS blood draw and first clinical ED draw was calculated. To determine the safety of using troponin measures from EMS blood samples, the diagnostic performance of the HEART Pathway for 30-day major adverse cardiac events (MACE: composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), coronary revascularization) was determined using EMS troponin plus arrival ED troponin and EMS troponin plus a serial 3-h ED troponin.

Results: The use of EMS blood samples for troponin measures among 401 patients presenting with acute chest pain resulted in a mean potential reduction in LOS of 72.5 ± SD 35.7 min. MACE at 30 days occurred in 21.0% (84/401), with 1 cardiac death, 78 MIs, and 5 revascularizations without MI. Use of the HEART Pathway with EMS and ED arrival troponin measures yielded a NPV of 98.0% (95% CI: 89.6-100). NPV improved to 100% (95% CI: 92.9-100) when using the EMS and 3-h ED troponin measures.

Conclusions: EMS blood collection used for core lab ED troponin measures could significantly reduce ED LOS and appears safe when integrated into the HEART Pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2021.04.073DOI Listing
April 2021

Variability in sedation assessment among intubated patients in the emergency department.

Acad Emerg Med 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acem.14259DOI Listing
March 2021

The Impact of Accelerated Diagnostic Protocol Implementation on Chest Pain Observation Unit Utilization.

Crit Pathw Cardiol 2021 Feb 2. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC.

Background: Data evaluating the impact of the History, ECG, Age, Risk factors, and Troponin (HEART) Pathway on Observation Unit (OU) use is limited. The objective of this study is to determine how HEART Pathway implementation affects OU use.

Methods: An analysis of OU registry data from 10/2012-10/2016, 2 years before and after HEART Pathway implementation at an academic medical center, was conducted. Adult patients placed in the OU for chest pain were included. The proportion of patients placed in the OU chest pain protocol per total OU volume and hospitalization and myocardial infarction (MI) rates were determined. Proportions before vs after implementation were compared using Chi-Squared Tests and age was compared using a Mann-Whitney U Test.

Results: During the study period, 1,688 patients with chest pain before HEART Pathway implementation and 1,692 after were included. The proportion of chest pain patients in the OU per total OU volume decreased following implementation from (57% [1,688/2968] to 43.6% [1,692/3,882]; p<0. 001). Before HEART Pathway implementation the hospitalization rate was 10.4% (175/1688) versus 12.4% (210/1692) after (p=0.07). More patients were diagnosed with MI following implementation (0.8% [14/1,665] vs. 2.0% [33/1686]; p=0. 008). Median age was older post-implementation (52 years [IQR: 45-59 years] vs 54 years [IQR: 48-64 years]; p<0. 001).

Conclusion: HEART Pathway implementation resulted in management of higher risk patients in the OU. Following implementation, OU chest pain patients were older and were more likely to be hospitalized or diagnosed with MI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HPC.0000000000000254DOI Listing
February 2021

Sex and race differences in safety and effectiveness of the HEART pathway accelerated diagnostic protocol for acute chest pain.

Am Heart J 2021 02 6;232:125-136. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine (WFSOM), Winston-Salem, NC; Departments of Implementation Science and Epidemiology and Prevention, WFSOM, Winston-Salem, NC.

Background: The HEART Pathway is an accelerated diagnostic protocol for Emergency Department patients with possible acute coronary syndrome. The objective was to compare the safety and effectiveness of the HEART Pathway among women vs men and whites vs non-whites.

Methods: A subgroup analysis of the HEART Pathway Implementation Study was conducted. Adults with chest pain were accrued from November 2013 to January 2016 from 3 Emergency Departments in North Carolina. The primary outcomes were death and myocardial infarction (MI) and hospitalization rates at 30 days. Logistic regression evaluated for interactions of accelerated diagnostic protocol implementation with sex or race and changes in outcomes within subgroups.

Results: A total of 8,474 patients were accrued, of which 53.6% were female and 34.0% were non-white. The HEART Pathway identified 32.6% of females as low-risk vs 28.5% of males (P = 002) and 35.6% of non-whites as low-risk vs 28.0% of whites (P < .0001). Among low-risk patients, death or MI at 30 days occurred in 0.4% of females vs 0.5% of males (P = .70) and 0.5% of non-whites vs 0.3% of whites (P = .69). Hospitalization at 30 days was reduced by 6.6% in females (aOR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.64-0.85), 5.1% in males (aOR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75-1.02), 8.6% in non-whites (aOR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60-0.86), and 4.5% in whites (aOR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.73-0.94). Interactions were not significant.

Conclusion: Women and non-whites are more likely to be classified as low-risk by the HEART Pathway. HEART Pathway implementation is associated with decreased hospitalizations and a very low death and MI rate among low-risk patients regardless of sex or race.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2020.11.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7952042PMC
February 2021

Identification of very low-risk acute chest pain patients without troponin testing.

Emerg Med J 2020 Nov 4;37(11):690-695. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Emergency Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA.

Background: The HEART Pathway combines a History ECG Age Risk factor (HEAR) score and serial troponins to risk stratify patients with acute chest pain. However, it is unclear whether patients with HEAR scores of 1 require troponin testing. The objective of this study is to measure the major adverse cardiac event (MACE) rate among patients with 1 HEAR scores and determine whether serial troponin testing is needed to achieve a miss rate <1%.

Methods: A secondary analysis of the HEART Pathway Implementation Study was conducted. HEART Pathway risk assessments (HEAR scores and serial troponin testing at 0 and 3 hours) were completed by the providers on adult patients with chest pain from three US sites between November 2014 and January 2016. MACE (composite of death, myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary revascularisation) at 30 days was determined. The proportion of patients with HEAR scores of 1 diagnosed with MACE within 30 days was calculated. The impact of troponin testing on patients with HEAR scores of 1 was determined using Net Reclassification Improvement Index (NRI).

Results: Providers completed HEAR assessments on 4979 patients and HEAR scores<1 occurred in 9.0% (447/4979) of patients. Among these patients, MACE at 30 days occurred in 0.9% (4/447; 95% CI 0.2% to 2.3%) with two deaths, two MIs and 0 revascularisations. The sensitivity and negative predictive value for MACE in the HEAR 1 was 97.8% (95%CI 94.5% to 99.4%) and 99.1% (95% CI 97.7% to 99.8%), respectively, and were not improved by troponin testing. Troponin testing in patients with HEAR 1 correctly reclassified two patients diagnosed with MACE, and was elevated among seven patients without MACE yielding an NRI of 0.9% (95%CI -0.7 to 2.4%).

Conclusion: These data suggest that patients with HEAR scores of 0 and 1 represent a very low-risk group that may not require troponin testing to achieve a missed MACE rate <1%. NCT02056964.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2020-209698DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7952041PMC
November 2020

HEART Pathway Implementation Safely Reduces Hospitalizations at One Year in Patients With Acute Chest Pain.

Ann Emerg Med 2020 11 28;76(5):555-565. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Departments of Emergency Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC; Implementation Science and Epidemiology and Prevention, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC.

Study Objective: We determine whether implementation of the HEART (History, ECG, Age, Risk Factors, Troponin) Pathway is safe and effective in emergency department (ED) patients with possible acute coronary syndrome through 1 year of follow-up.

Methods: A preplanned analysis of 1-year follow-up data from a prospective pre-post study of 8,474 adult ED patients with possible acute coronary syndrome from 3 US sites was conducted. Patients included were aged 21 years or older, evaluated for possible acute coronary syndrome, and without ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Accrual occurred for 12 months before and after HEART Pathway implementation, from November 2013 to January 2016. The HEART Pathway was integrated into the electronic health record at each site as an interactive clinical decision support tool. After integration, ED providers prospectively used the HEART Pathway to identify patients with possible acute coronary syndrome as low risk (appropriate for early discharge without stress testing or angiography) or nonlow risk (appropriate for further inhospital evaluation). Safety (all-cause death and myocardial infarction) and effectiveness (hospitalization) at 1 year were determined from health records, insurance claims, and death index data.

Results: Preimplementation and postimplementation cohorts included 3,713 and 4,761 patients, respectively. The HEART Pathway identified 30.7% of patients as low risk; 97.5% of them were free of death and myocardial infarction within 1 year. Hospitalization at 1 year was reduced by 7.0% in the postimplementation versus preimplementation cohort (62.1% versus 69.1%; adjusted odds ratio 0.70; 95% confidence interval 0.63 to 0.78). Rates of death or myocardial infarction at 1 year were similar (11.6% versus 12.4%; adjusted odds ratio 1.00; 95% confidence interval 0.87 to 1.16).

Conclusion: HEART Pathway implementation was associated with decreased hospitalizations and low adverse event rates among low-risk patients at 1-year follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2020.05.035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7988839PMC
November 2020

Comparison of accelerated diagnostic pathways for acute chest pain risk stratification.

Heart 2020 07 8;106(13):977-984. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Emergency Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA.

Background: The History Electrocardiogram Age Risk factor Troponin (HEART) Pathway and Emergency Department Assessment of Chest pain Score (EDACS) are validated accelerated diagnostic pathways designed to risk stratify patients presenting to the emergency department with chest pain. Data from large multisite prospective studies comparing these accelerated diagnostic pathways are limited.

Methods: The HEART Pathway Implementation is a prospective three-site cohort study, which accrued adults with symptoms concerning for acute coronary syndrome. Physicians completed electronic health record HEART Pathway and EDACS risk assessments on participants. Major adverse cardiac events (death, myocardial infarction and coronary revascularisation) at 30 days were determined using electronic health record, insurance claims and death index data. Test characteristics for detection of major adverse cardiac events were calculated for both accelerated diagnostic pathways and McNemar's tests were used for comparisons.

Results: 5799 patients presenting to the emergency department were accrued, of which HEART Pathway and EDACS assessments were completed on 4399. Major adverse cardiac events at 30 days occurred in 449/4399 (10.2%). The HEART Pathway identified 38.4% (95% CI 37.0% to 39.9%) of patients as low-risk compared with 58.1% (95% CI 56.6% to 59.6%) identified as low-risk by EDACS (p<0.001). Major adverse cardiac events occurred in 0.4% (95% CI 0.2% to 0.9%) of patients classified as low-risk by the HEART Pathway compared with 1.0% (95% CI 0.7% to 1.5%) of patients identified as low-risk by EDACS (p<0.001). Thus, the HEART Pathway had a negative predictive value of 99.6% (95% CI 99.1% to 99.8%) for major adverse cardiac events compared with a negative predictive value of 99.0% (95% CI 98.5% to 99.3%) for EDACS.

Conclusions: EDACS identifies a larger proportion of patients as low-risk than the HEART Pathway, but has a higher missed major adverse cardiac events rate at 30 days. Physicians will need to consider their risk tolerance when deciding whether to adopt the HEART Pathway or EDACS accelerated diagnostic pathway.

Trial Registration Number: NCT02056964.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2019-316426DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7962144PMC
July 2020

Point-of-Care Troponin Testing during Ambulance Transport to Detect Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Prehosp Emerg Care 2020 Nov-Dec;24(6):751-759. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Use of point-of-care (POC) troponin (cTn) testing in the Emergency Department (ED) is well established. However, data examining POC cTn measurement in the prehospital setting, during ambulance transport, are limited. The objective of this study was to prospectively test the performance of POC cTn measurement by paramedics to detect myocardial infarction (MI) among patients transported to the ED for acute chest pain. A prospective cohort study of adults with non-traumatic chest pain was conducted in three Emergency Medical Services agencies (December 2016 to January 2018). Patients with ST-elevation MI on ECG were excluded. During ambulance transport paramedics initiated intravenous access, collected blood, and used a POC device (i-STAT; Abbott Laboratories) to measure cTn. Following ED arrival, participants received standard evaluations including clinical blood draws for cTn measurement in the hospital central lab (AccuTnI +3 assay; Beckman Coulter, or cTnI-Ultra assay; Siemens). Blood collected during ambulance transport was also analyzed for cTn in the central lab. Index visit MI was adjudicated by 3 experts using central lab cTn measures from the patient's clinical blood draws. Test characteristics (sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values) for detection of MI were calculated for POC and central lab cTn measurement of prehospital blood and compared with McNemar's test. During the study period prehospital POC cTn results were obtained on 421 patients, of which 5.0% (21/421) had results >99th percentile upper reference limit. MI was adjudicated in 16.2% (68/421) during the index visit. The specificity and positive predictive value of the POC cTn measurement were 99.2% (95% CI 97.5-99.8%) and 85.7% (95% CI 63.7-97.0%) for MI. However, the sensitivity and NPV of prehospital POC cTn were 26.5% (95% CI 16.5-38.6%) and 87.5% (95% CI 83.9-90.6%). Compared to POC cTn, the central lab cTn measurement of prehospital blood resulted in a higher sensitivity of 67.9% (95% CI 53.7-80.1%,  < 0.0001), but lower specificity of 92.4% (95% CI 88.4-95.4%,  = 0.0001). Prehospital POC i-STAT cTn measurement in patients transported with acute chest pain was highly specific for MI but had low sensitivity. This suggests that prehospital i-STAT POC cTn could be useful to rule-in MI, but should not be used to exclude MI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10903127.2020.1721740DOI Listing
May 2021

ACES (Accelerated Chest Pain Evaluation With Stress Imaging) Protocols Eliminate Testing Disparities in Patients With Chest Pain.

Crit Pathw Cardiol 2019 03;18(1):5-9

Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC.

Background: Patients from racial and ethnic minority groups presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) with chest pain experience lower odds of receiving stress testing compared with nonminorities. Studies have demonstrated that care pathways administered within the ED can reduce health disparities, but this has yet to be studied as a strategy to increase stress testing equity.

Methods: A secondary analysis from 3 randomized clinical trials involving ED patients with acute chest pain was performed to determine whether a care pathway, ACES (Accelerated Chest pain Evaluation with Stress imaging), reduces the racial disparity in index visit cardiac testing between African American (AA) and White patients. Three hundred thirty-four participants with symptoms and findings indicating intermediate to high risk for acute coronary syndrome were enrolled in 3 clinical trials. Major exclusions were ST-segment elevation, initial troponin elevation, and hemodynamic instability. Participants were randomly assigned to receive usual inpatient care, or ACES. The ACES care pathway includes placement in observation for serial cardiac markers, with an expectation for stress imaging. The primary outcome was index visit objective cardiac testing, compared among AA and White participants.

Results: AA participants represented 111/329 (34%) of the study population, 80/220 (36%) of the ACES group and 31/109 (28%) of the usual care group. In usual care, objective testing occurred less frequently among AA (22/31, 71%) than among White (69/78, 88%, P = 0.027) participants, primarily driven by cardiac catheterization (3% vs. 24%; P = 0.012). In ACES, testing rates did not differ by race [AA 78/80 (98%) vs. White 138/140 (99%); P = 0.623]. At 90 days, death, MI, and revascularization did not differ in either group between AA and White participants.

Conclusions: A care pathway with the expectation for stress imaging eliminates the racial disparity among AA and White participants with chest pain in the acquisition of index-visit cardiovascular testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HPC.0000000000000161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6375104PMC
March 2019

Safely Identifying Emergency Department Patients With Acute Chest Pain for Early Discharge.

Circulation 2018 11;138(22):2456-2468

Department of Emergency Medicine (S.A.M., B.C.H., C.D.M.), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC.

Background: The HEART Pathway (history, ECG, age, risk factors, and initial troponin) is an accelerated diagnostic protocol designed to identify low-risk emergency department patients with chest pain for early discharge without stress testing or angiography. The objective of this study was to determine whether implementation of the HEART Pathway is safe (30-day death and myocardial infarction rate <1% in low-risk patients) and effective (reduces 30-day hospitalizations) in emergency department patients with possible acute coronary syndrome.

Methods: A prospective pre-post study was conducted at 3 US sites among 8474 adult emergency department patients with possible acute coronary syndrome. Patients included were ≥21 years old, investigated for possible acute coronary syndrome, and had no evidence of ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction on ECG. Accrual occurred for 12 months before and after HEART Pathway implementation from November 2013 to January 2016. The HEART Pathway accelerated diagnostic protocol was integrated into the electronic health record at each site as an interactive clinical decision support tool. After accelerated diagnostic protocol integration, ED providers prospectively used the HEART Pathway to identify patients with possible acute coronary syndrome as low risk (appropriate for early discharge without stress testing or angiography) or non-low risk (appropriate for further in-hospital evaluation). The primary safety and effectiveness outcomes, death, and myocardial infarction (MI) and hospitalization rates at 30 days were determined from health records, insurance claims, and death index data.

Results: Preimplementation and postimplementation cohorts included 3713 and 4761 patients, respectively. The HEART Pathway identified 30.7% as low risk; 0.4% of these patients experienced death or MI within 30 days. Hospitalization at 30 days was reduced by 6% in the postimplementation versus preimplementation cohort (55.6% versus 61.6%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.71-0.87). During the index visit, more MIs were detected in the postimplementation cohort (6.6% versus 5.7%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.12-1.65). Rates of death or MI during follow-up were similar (1.1% versus 1.3%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.58-1.33).

Conclusions: HEART Pathway implementation was associated with decreased hospitalizations, increased identification of index visit MIs, and a very low death and MI rate among low-risk patients. These findings support use of the HEART Pathway to identify low-risk patients who can be safely discharged without stress testing or angiography.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT02056964.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.036528DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6309794PMC
November 2018

Prospective Assessment of the Feasibility of a Trial of Low-Tidal Volume Ventilation for Patients with Acute Respiratory Failure.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2019 03;16(3):356-362

18 Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, Massachusetts.

Rationale: Low-tidal volume ventilation (LTVV; 6 ml/kg) benefits patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and may aid those with other causes of respiratory failure. Current early ventilation practices are poorly defined.

Objectives: We observed patients with acute respiratory failure to assess the feasibility of a pragmatic trial of LTVV and to guide experimental design.

Methods: We prospectively enrolled consecutive patients with acute respiratory failure admitted to intensive care units expected to participate in the proposed trial. We collected clinical data as well as information on initial and daily ventilator settings and inpatient mortality. We estimated the benefit of LTVV using predictive linear and nonlinear models. We simulated models to estimate power and feasibility of a cluster-randomized trial of LTVV versus usual care in acute respiratory failure.

Results: We included 2,484 newly mechanically ventilated patients (31% with acute respiratory distress syndrome) from 49 hospitals. Hospital mortality was 28%. Mean initial tidal volume was 7.1 ml/kg predicted body weight (95% confidence interval, 7.1-7.2), with 78% of patients receiving tidal volumes less than or equal to 8 ml/kg. Our models estimated a mortality benefit of 0-2% from LTVV compared with usual care. Simulation of a stepped-wedged cluster-randomized trial suggested that enrollment of 106,361 patients would be necessary to achieve greater than 90% power.

Conclusions: Use of initial tidal volumes less than 8 ml/kg predicted body weight was common at hospitals participating in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Prevention and Early Treatment of Acute Lung Injury (PETAL) Network. After considering the size and budgetary requirement for a cluster-randomized trial of LTVV versus usual care in acute respiratory failure, the PETAL Network deemed the proposed trial infeasible. A rapid observational study and simulations to model anticipated power may help better design trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1513/AnnalsATS.201807-459OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6394119PMC
March 2019

Usefulness of Serial 12-Lead Electrocardiograms in Predicting 30-Day Outcomes in Patients With Undifferentiated Chest Pain (the ASAP CATH Study).

Am J Cardiol 2018 08 1;122(3):374-380. Epub 2018 May 1.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Wake Forest Baptist Health, Cincinnati, Ohio.

An initial electrocardiogram (ECG) and serial troponin measurements are both independently and incrementally predictive of acute coronary syndrome in patients presenting with undifferentiated chest pain in the Emergency Department (ED). However, it is unclear if serial (ECGs) add significant to the contemporary diagnostic evaluation of this patient group. The ASAP CATH study was a single center, prospective study that enrolled patients presenting to an ED with undifferentiated chest pain. In addition to standard clinical evaluation, serial ECGs were performed at 90-minute intervals to evaluate whether serial changes suggestive of ischemia developed (Q waves, ST elevation or depression, or T-wave inversion). Total 365 subjects were enrolled from March 2014 to May 2015. Serial ECG changes developed in 6.6% (n = 24 of 365), the most common being the development of T-wave inversion (66.7%, n = 16 of 24). The sensitivity and positive predictive value of serial ECG changes were poor (<30%), with a less areas under the curve (0.55) compared with serial troponins alone (0.83). The addition of serial ECG changes to Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction risk scoring showed a decrease in the net reclassification index for major adverse cardiovascular events (-0.04, p <0.1) and was not significant for the prediction of major adverse cardiovascular events and/or acute coronary syndrome in 30 days (-0.003, p = 0.94). In conclusion, routine serial ECG evaluation for patients presenting with undifferentiated chest pain in the ED may not significantly improved diagnostic prognosis beyond current standard evaluation modalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2018.04.031DOI Listing
August 2018

The HEART Pathway Randomized Controlled Trial One-year Outcomes.

Acad Emerg Med 2019 01 19;26(1):41-50. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC.

Objective: The objective was to determine the impact of the HEART Pathway on health care utilization and safety outcomes at 1 year in patients with acute chest pain.

Methods: Adult emergency department (ED) patients with chest pain (N = 282) were randomized to the HEART Pathway or usual care. In the HEART Pathway arm, ED providers used the HEART score and troponin measures (0 and 3 hours) to risk stratify patients. Usual care was based on American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE-cardiac death, myocardial infarction [MI], or coronary revascularization), objective testing (stress testing or coronary angiography), and cardiac hospitalizations and ED visits were assessed at 1 year. Randomization arm outcomes were compared using Fisher's exact tests.

Results: A total of 282 patients were enrolled, with 141 randomized to each arm. MACE at 1 year occurred in 10.6% (30/282): 9.9% in the HEART Pathway arm (14/141; 10 MIs, four revascularizations without MI) versus 11.3% in usual care (16/141; one cardiac death, 13 MIs, two revascularizations without MI; p = 0.85). Among low-risk HEART Pathway patients, 0% (0/66) had MACE, with a negative predictive value (NPV) of 100% (95% confidence interval = 93%-100%). Objective testing through 1 year occurred in 63.1% (89/141) of HEART Pathway patients compared to 71.6% (101/141) in usual care (p = 0.16). Nonindex cardiac-related hospitalizations and ED visits occurred in 14.9% (21/141) and 21.3% (30/141) of patients in the HEART Pathway versus 10.6% (15/141) and 16.3% (23/141) in usual care (p = 0.37, p = 0.36).

Conclusions: The HEART Pathway had a 100% NPV for 1-year safety outcomes (MACE) without increasing downstream hospitalizations or ED visits. Reduction in 1-year objective testing was not significant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acem.13504DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6934171PMC
January 2019

Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 as a Predictor of Coronary Atherosclerosis in Patients Receiving Coronary Angiography.

Crit Pathw Cardiol 2018 06;17(2):105-110

From the Department of Emergency Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC.

Background: Animal studies suggest that monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a promising biomarker for coronary artery atherosclerosis (CAA), but human studies have been inconclusive.

Objective: To determine potential relationships between plasma MCP-1 and CAA in patients with acute chest pain.

Methods: A secondary analysis of 150 patients enrolled in emergency department chest pain risk stratification clinical investigations was conducted. Participants with stored blood and known coronary phenotypes (determined by coronary angiography) were selected using stratified randomization such that 50 patients were included into 3 groups: (1) no angiographic evidence of CAA, (2) nonobstructive CAA, and (3) obstructive CAA (stenosis ≥ 70%). Plasma MCP-1 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The association between MCP-1 and obstructive CAA or any CAA was modeled using logistic regression. Variables in the unreduced model included age, sex, race, prior diagnosis of CAA or acute coronary syndrome, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and cardiac troponin I measurement.

Results: Among the 150 participants, 65.3% (98/150) had invasive coronary angiography and 34.7% (52/150) had coronary computed tomographic angiography. Myocardial infarction occurred in 27.3% (41/150) and coronary revascularization occurred in 26% (39/150) of the participants. Each 10 pg/mL increase in MCP-1 measurement was associated with an odds ratio of 1.12 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.19) for obstructive CAA. MCP-1 remained a significant predictor of obstructive CAA and any CAA after adjustment for age, sex, race, traditional cardiac risk factors, and cardiac troponin I.

Conclusions: MCP-1 is independently associated with CAA among emergency department patients with chest pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HPC.0000000000000140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5959046PMC
June 2018

Liberal Versus Restrictive Intravenous Fluid Therapy for Early Septic Shock: Rationale for a Randomized Trial.

Ann Emerg Med 2018 10 10;72(4):457-466. Epub 2018 May 10.

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA.

Prompt intravenous fluid therapy is a fundamental treatment for patients with septic shock. However, the optimal approach for administering intravenous fluid in septic shock resuscitation is unknown. Two competing strategies are emerging: a liberal fluids approach, consisting of a larger volume of initial fluid (50 to 75 mL/kg [4 to 6 L in an 80-kg adult] during the first 6 hours) and later use of vasopressors, versus a restrictive fluids approach, consisting of a smaller volume of initial fluid (≤30 mL/kg [≤2 to 3 L]), with earlier reliance on vasopressor infusions to maintain blood pressure and perfusion. Early fluid therapy may enhance or maintain tissue perfusion by increasing venous return and cardiac output. However, fluid administration may also have deleterious effects by causing edema within vital organs, leading to organ dysfunction and impairment of oxygen delivery. Conversely, a restrictive fluids approach primarily relies on vasopressors to reverse hypotension and maintain perfusion while limiting the administration of fluid. Both strategies have some evidence to support their use but lack robust data to confirm the benefit of one strategy over the other, creating clinical and scientific equipoise. As part of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Prevention and Early Treatment of Acute Lung Injury Network, we designed a randomized clinical trial to compare the liberal and restrictive fluids strategies, the Crystalloid Liberal or Vasopressor Early Resuscitation in Sepsis trial. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature on approaches to early fluid resuscitation in adults with septic shock and outline the rationale for the upcoming trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2018.03.039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6380679PMC
October 2018

Acute Aortic Dissection: Is There Something Better than Physician Gestalt?

Acad Emerg Med 2018 04 25;25(4):464-466. Epub 2018 Mar 25.

Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acem.13398DOI Listing
April 2018

Prehospital Modified HEART Score Predictive of 30-Day Adverse Cardiac Events.

Prehosp Disaster Med 2018 Feb 10;33(1):58-62. Epub 2018 Jan 10.

1Wake Forest School of Medicine,Winston-Salem,North CarolinaUSA.

Introduction The History, Electrocardiogram (ECG), Age, Risk Factors, and Troponin (HEART) score is a decision aid designed to risk stratify emergency department (ED) patients with acute chest pain. It has been validated for ED use, but it has yet to be evaluated in a prehospital setting. Hypothesis A prehospital modified HEART score can predict major adverse cardiac events (MACE) among undifferentiated chest pain patients transported to the ED.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study of patients with chest pain transported by two county-based Emergency Medical Service (EMS) agencies to a tertiary care center was conducted. Adults without ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were included. Inter-facility transfers and those without a prehospital 12-lead ECG or an ED troponin measurement were excluded. Modified HEART scores were calculated by study investigators using a standardized data collection tool for each patient. All MACE (death, myocardial infarction [MI], or coronary revascularization) were determined by record review at 30 days. The sensitivity and negative predictive values (NPVs) for MACE at 30 days were calculated.

Results: Over the study period, 794 patients met inclusion criteria. A MACE at 30 days was present in 10.7% (85/794) of patients with 12 deaths (1.5%), 66 MIs (8.3%), and 12 coronary revascularizations without MI (1.5%). The modified HEART score identified 33.2% (264/794) of patients as low risk. Among low-risk patients, 1.9% (5/264) had MACE (two MIs and three revascularizations without MI). The sensitivity and NPV for 30-day MACE was 94.1% (95% CI, 86.8-98.1) and 98.1% (95% CI, 95.6-99.4), respectively.

Conclusions: Prehospital modified HEART scores have a high NPV for MACE at 30 days. A study in which prehospital providers prospectively apply this decision aid is warranted. Stopyra JP , Harper WS , Higgins TJ , Prokesova JV , Winslow JE , Nelson RD , Alson RL , Davis CA , Russell GB , Miller CD , Mahler SA . Prehospital modified HEART score predictive of 30-day adverse cardiac events. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(1):58-62.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1049023X17007154DOI Listing
February 2018

Impact of Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography Findings on Initiation of Cardioprotective Medications.

Circulation 2017 11;136(22):2195-2197

Department of Emergency Medicine, Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (A.M.C., J.EH.).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.029994DOI Listing
November 2017

In Reply.

Acad Emerg Med 2017 09 31;24(9):1171-1172. Epub 2017 Jul 31.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acem.13239DOI Listing
September 2017

Validation of the No Objective Testing Rule and Comparison to the HEART Pathway.

Acad Emerg Med 2017 09 8;24(9):1165-1168. Epub 2017 Aug 8.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC.

Background: The no objective testing rule (NOTR) is a decision aid designed to safely identify emergency department (ED) patients with chest pain who do not require objective testing for coronary artery disease.

Objectives: The objective was to validate the NOTR in a cohort of U.S. ED patients with acute chest pain and compare its performance to the HEART Pathway.

Methods: A secondary analysis of 282 participants enrolled in the HEART Pathway randomized controlled trial was conducted. Each patient was classified as low risk or at risk by the NOTR. Sensitivity for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 30 days was calculated in the entire study population. NOTR and HEART Pathways were compared among patients randomized to the HEART Pathway in the parent trial using McNemar's test and the net reclassification improvement (NRI).

Results: Major adverse cardiac events occurred in 22/282 (7.8%) participants, including no deaths, 16/282 (5.6%) with myocardial infarction (MI), and 6/282 (2.1%) with coronary revascularization without MI. NOTR was 100% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 84.6%-100%) sensitive for MACE and identified 78/282 patients (27.7%, 95% = CI 22.5-33.3%) as low risk. In the HEART Pathway arm (n = 141), both NOTR and HEART Pathway identified all patients with MACE as at risk. Compared to NOTR, the HEART Pathway was able to correctly reclassify 27 patients without MACE as low risk, yielding a NRI of 20.8% (95% CI = 11.3%-30.2%).

Conclusions: Within a U.S. cohort of ED patients with chest pain, the NOTR and HEART Pathway were 100% sensitive for MACE at 30 days. However, the HEART Pathway identified more patients suitable for early discharge than the NOTR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acem.13221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5600651PMC
September 2017

Use of the HEART Pathway with high sensitivity cardiac troponins: A secondary analysis.

Clin Biochem 2017 May 10;50(7-8):401-407. Epub 2017 Jan 10.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Objectives: The HEART Pathway combines a decision aid and serial contemporary cardiac troponin I (cTnI) measures to achieve >99% sensitivity for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 30days and early discharge rates >20%. However, the impact of integrating high-sensitivity troponin (hs-cTn) measures into the HEART Pathway has yet to be determined. In this analysis we compare test characteristics of the HEART Pathway using hs-cTnI, hs-cTnT, or cTnI.

Design & Methods: A secondary analysis of participants enrolled in the HEART Pathway RCT was conducted. Each patient was risk stratified by the cTn-HEART Pathway (Siemens TnI-Ultra at 0- and 3-h) and a hs-cTn-HEART Pathway using hs-cTnI (Abbott) or hs-cTnT (Roche) at 3-h. The early discharge rate, sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value (NPV) for MACE (death, myocardial infarction, or coronary revascularization) at 30days were calculated.

Results: hs-cTnI measures were available on 133 patients. MACE occurred in 11/133 (8%) of these patients. Test characteristics for the HEART Pathway using serial cTnI vs 3hour hs-cTnI were the same: sensitivity (100%, 95%CI: 72-100%), specificity (49%, 95%CI: 40-58%), NPV (100%, 95%CI: 94-100%), and early discharge rate (45%, 95%CI: 37-54%). The HEART Pathway using hs-cTnT missed one MACE event (myocardial infarction): sensitivity (91%, 95%CI: 59-100%), specificity (48%, 95%CI: 39-57%), NPV (98%, 95%CI: 91-100%), and early discharge rate (45%, 95%CI: 37-54%).

Conclusions: There was no difference in the test characteristics of the HEART Pathway whether using cTnI or hs-cTnI, with both achieving 100% sensitivity and NPV. Use of hs-cTnT with the HEART Pathway was associated with one missed MACE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2017.01.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5446796PMC
May 2017

Cost analysis of the History, ECG, Age, Risk factors, and initial Troponin (HEART) Pathway randomized control trial.

Am J Emerg Med 2017 Jan 5;35(1):77-81. Epub 2016 Oct 5.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Wake Forest Baptist Health, Winston-Salem, NC.

Introduction: The HEART Pathway is a diagnostic protocol designed to identify low-risk patients presenting to the emergency department with chest pain that are safe for early discharge. This protocol has been shown to significantly decrease health care resource utilization compared with usual care. However, the impact of the HEART Pathway on the cost of care has yet to be reported.

Methods And Results: We performed a cost analysis of patients enrolled in the HEART Pathway trial, which randomized participants to either usual care or the HEART Pathway protocol. For low-risk patients, the HEART Pathway recommended early discharge from the emergency department without further testing. We compared index visit cost, cost at 30 days, and cardiac-related health care cost at 30 days between the 2 treatment arms. Costs for each patient included facility and professional costs. Cost at 30 days included total inpatient and outpatient costs, including the index encounter, regardless of etiology. Cardiac-related health care cost at 30 days included the index encounter and costs adjudicated to be cardiac-related within that period. Two hundred seventy of the 282 patients enrolled in the trial had cost data available for analysis. There was a significant reduction in cost for the HEART Pathway group at 30 days (median cost savings of $216 per individual), which was most evident in low-risk (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction score of 0-1) patients (median savings of $253 per patient) and driven primarily by lower cardiac diagnostic costs in the HEART Pathway group.

Conclusions: Using the HEART Pathway as a decision aid for patients with undifferentiated chest pain resulted in significant cost savings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2016.10.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5189662PMC
January 2017

Can a Point-of-Care Troponin I Assay be as Good as a Central Laboratory Assay? A MIDAS Investigation.

Ann Lab Med 2016 Sep;36(5):405-12

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: We aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of the Alere Triage Cardio3 Tropinin I (TnI) assay (Alere, Inc., USA) and the PathFast cTnI-II (Mitsubishi Chemical Medience Corporation, Japan) against the central laboratory assay Singulex Erenna TnI assay (Singulex, USA).

Methods: Using the Markers in the Diagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndromes (MIDAS) study population, we evaluated the ability of three different assays to identify patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The MIDAS dataset, described elsewhere, is a prospective multicenter dataset of emergency department (ED) patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and a planned objective myocardial perfusion evaluation. Myocardial infarction (MI) was diagnosed by central adjudication.

Results: The C-statistic with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for diagnosing MI by using a common population (n=241) was 0.95 (0.91-0.99), 0.95 (0.91-0.99), and 0.93 (0.89-0.97) for the Triage, Singulex, and PathFast assays, respectively. Of samples with detectable troponin, the absolute values had high Pearson (R(P)) and Spearman (R(S)) correlations and were R(P)=0.94 and R(S)=0.94 for Triage vs Singulex, R(P)=0.93 and R(S)=0.85 for Triage vs PathFast, and R(P)=0.89 and R(S)=0.73 for PathFast vs Singulex.

Conclusions: In a single comparative population of ED patients with suspected ACS, the Triage Cardio3 TnI, PathFast, and Singulex TnI assays provided similar diagnostic performance for MI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3343/alm.2016.36.5.405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4940482PMC
September 2016

Chest Pain Risk Stratification: A Comparison of the 2-Hour Accelerated Diagnostic Protocol (ADAPT) and the HEART Pathway.

Crit Pathw Cardiol 2016 06;15(2):46-9

From the *Department of Emergency Medicine, †Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, ‡Department of Biostatistical Sciences, and §Department of Public Health, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC.

Background: The 2-hour accelerated diagnostic protocol (ADAPT) and the history electrocardiogram age risk factors troponin (HEART) Pathway are decision aids designed to identify Emergency Department (ED) patients with chest pain who are safe for early discharge. Both have demonstrated high sensitivity (>99%) for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 30 days and early discharge rates ≥20%. The objective of this study is to compare the sensitivity and early discharge rates of the ADAPT and HEART Pathway decision aids in a cohort of ED patients with acute chest pain.

Methods: A secondary analysis of participants enrolled and randomized to the HEART Pathway arm of the HEART pathway randomized controlled trial was conducted. Each patient was prospectively classified as low risk (suitable for early discharge) or high risk by ADAPT and the HEART Pathway. Sensitivity for MACE at 30 days and the number of patients identified as low-risk were calculated for each decision aid. Decision aid performance was compared using McNemar's test.

Results: MACE occurred in 8 of 141 (5.7%); there were no deaths, 7 patients had myocardial infarction, and 1 patient had coronary revascularization without myocardial infarction. ADAPT and the HEART pathway identified all patients with MACE as high risk; sensitivity for MACE of 100% [95% confidence interval (CI): 63-100%]. ADAPT identified 34 of 141 patients (24%; 95% CI: 17-32%) as low-risk, whereas the Heart pathway identified 66 of 141 patients (47%, 95% CI: 38-55%) as low risk (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Within a cohort of ED patients with acute chest pain, ADAPT and the HEART pathway had high sensitivity for MACE. The HEART pathway outperformed ADAPT by correctly identifying more patients as low risk and safe for early discharge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HPC.0000000000000072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5172378PMC
June 2016

HEART Pathway Accelerated Diagnostic Protocol Implementation: Prospective Pre-Post Interrupted Time Series Design and Methods.

JMIR Res Protoc 2016 Jan 22;5(1):e10. Epub 2016 Jan 22.

Wake Forest School of Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, United States.

Background: Most patients presenting to US Emergency Departments (ED) with chest pain are hospitalized for comprehensive testing. These evaluations cost the US health system >$10 billion annually, but have a diagnostic yield for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) of <10%. The history/ECG/age/risk factors/troponin (HEART) Pathway is an accelerated diagnostic protocol (ADP), designed to improve care for patients with acute chest pain by identifying patients for early ED discharge. Prior efficacy studies demonstrate that the HEART Pathway safely reduces cardiac testing, while maintaining an acceptably low adverse event rate.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of HEART Pathway ADP implementation within a health system.

Methods: This controlled before-after study will accrue adult patients with acute chest pain, but without ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction on electrocardiogram for two years and is expected to include approximately 10,000 patients. Outcomes measures include hospitalization rate, objective cardiac testing rates (stress testing and angiography), length of stay, and rates of recurrent cardiac care for participants.

Results: In pilot data, the HEART Pathway decreased hospitalizations by 21%, decreased hospital length (median of 12 hour reduction), without increasing adverse events or recurrent care. At the writing of this paper, data has been collected on >5000 patient encounters. The HEART Pathway has been fully integrated into health system electronic medical records, providing real-time decision support to our providers.

Conclusions: We hypothesize that the HEART Pathway will safely reduce healthcare utilization. This study could provide a model for delivering high-value care to the 8-10 million US ED patients with acute chest pain each year.

Clinicaltrial: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02056964; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02056964 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6ccajsgyu).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/resprot.4802DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4744329PMC
January 2016

Adherence to an Accelerated Diagnostic Protocol for Chest Pain: Secondary Analysis of the HEART Pathway Randomized Trial.

Acad Emerg Med 2016 Jan 31;23(1):70-7. Epub 2015 Dec 31.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC.

Objectives: Accelerated diagnostic protocols (ADPs), such as the HEART Pathway, are gaining popularity in emergency departments (EDs) as tools used to risk stratify patients with acute chest pain. However, provider nonadherence may threaten the safety and effectiveness of ADPs. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and impact of ADP nonadherence.

Methods: A secondary analysis of participants enrolled in the HEART Pathway RCT was conducted. This trial enrolled 282 adult ED patients with symptoms concerning for acute coronary syndrome without ST-elevation on electrocardiogram. Patients randomized to the HEART Pathway (N = 141) were included in this analysis. Outcomes included index visit disposition, nonadherence, and major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) at 30 days. MACE was defined as death, myocardial infarction, or revascularization. Nonadherence was defined as: 1) undertesting-discharging a high-risk patient from the ED without objective testing (stress testing or coronary angiography) or 2) overtesting-admitting or obtaining objective testing on a low-risk patient.

Results: Nonadherence to the HEART Pathway occurred in 28 of 141 patients (20%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 14% to 27%). Overtesting occurred in 19 of 141 patients (13.5%, 95% CI = 8% to 19%) and undertesting in nine of 141 patients (6%, 95% CI = 3% to 12%). None of these 28 patients suffered MACE. The net effect of nonadherence was 10 additional admissions among patients identified as low-risk and appropriate for early discharge (absolute decrease in discharge rate of 7%, 95% CI = 3% to 13%).

Conclusions: Real-time use of the HEART Pathway resulted in a nonadherence rate of 20%, mostly due to overtesting. None of these patients had MACE within 30 days. Nonadherence decreased the discharge rate, attenuating the HEART Pathway's impact on health care use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acem.12835DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4716613PMC
January 2016

Performance of the EDACS-accelerated Diagnostic Pathway in a Cohort of US Patients with Acute Chest Pain.

Crit Pathw Cardiol 2015 Dec;14(4):134-8

From the *Department of Emergency Medicine, †Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, and ‡Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC.

Background: The Emergency Department Assessment of Chest pain Score-Accelerated Diagnostic Protocol (EDACS-ADP) is a decision aid designed to safely identify emergency department (ED) patients with chest pain for early discharge. Derivation and validation studies in Australasia have demonstrated high sensitivity (99%-100%) for major adverse cardiac events (MACE).

Objectives: To validate the EDACS-ADP in a cohort of US ED patients with symptoms suspicious for acute coronary syndrome (ACS).

Methods: A secondary analysis of participants enrolled in the HEART Pathway Randomized Controlled Trial was conducted. This single-site trial enrolled 282 ED patients≥21 years old with symptoms concerning for ACS, inclusive of all cardiac risk levels. Each patient was classified as low risk or at risk by the EDACS-ADP based on EDACS, electrocardiogram, and serial troponins. Potential early discharge rate and sensitivity for MACE at 30 days, defined as cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), or coronary revascularization were calculated.

Results: MACE occurred in 17/282 (6.0%) participants, including no deaths, 16/282 (5.6%) with MI, and 1/282 (0.4%) with coronary revascularization without MI. The EDACS-ADP identified 188/282 patients [66.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 60.8%-72.1%] as low risk. Of these, 2/188 (1.1%, 95% CI: 0.1%-3.9%) had MACE at 30 days. EDACS-ADP was 88.2% (95% CI: 63.6%-98.5%) sensitive for MACE, identifying 15/17 patients. Of the 2 patients identified as low risk with MACE, 1 had MI and 1 had coronary revascularization without MI.

Conclusions: Within a US cohort of ED patients with symptoms concerning for ACS, sensitivity for MACE was 88.2%. We are unable to validate the EDACS-ADP as sufficiently sensitive for clinical use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HPC.0000000000000059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4648698PMC
December 2015

Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography Versus Traditional Care: Comparison of One-Year Outcomes and Resource Use.

Ann Emerg Med 2016 Apr 23;67(4):460-468.e1. Epub 2015 Oct 23.

Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Study Objective: Three large, multicenter, randomized, clinical trials have shown that coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography allows efficient evaluation and safe discharge of patients with low- to intermediate-risk chest pain who present to the emergency department (ED). We report 1-year event rates and resource use from the American College of Radiology Imaging Network-Pennsylvania 4005 multicenter trial.

Methods: Patients with low- to intermediate-risk chest pain and presenting to the ED were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to a coronary CT angiography care pathway or traditional care. Subjects were contacted by telephone at least 1 year after ED presentation. Medical record review was performed for all cardiac hospitalizations, procedures and diagnostic tests, and adverse cardiac events. Our main outcome was the composite of cardiac death and myocardial infarction within 1 year. The secondary outcome was resource use.

Results: One thousand three hundred sixty-eight patients enrolled and 1,285 (94%) had direct participant or proxy contact at 1 year. All others had record review or death index search. From index presentation through 1 year, there was no difference between patients in the coronary CT angiography arm versus traditional care with respect to major adverse cardiac event (1.4% versus 1.1%; difference 0.3%; 95% CI -5.5% to 6.0%). From hospital discharge through 1 year, there was also no difference in ED revisits (36% versus 38%; difference -2.1%; 95% CI -7.9% to 3.7%), hospital admissions (16% versus 17%; difference -0.9%; 95% CI -6.7% to 4.9%), or subsequent cardiac testing (13% versus 13%; difference -0.4%; 95% CI -6.2% to 5.5%). One of 640 subjects with a negative coronary CT angiography result had a major adverse cardiac event within 1 year of presentation (0.16%; 95% CI 0.004% to 0.87%).

Conclusion: A coronary CT angiography-based strategy for evaluation of patients with low- to intermediate-risk chest pain who present to the ED does not result in increased resource use during 1 year. A negative coronary CT angiography result is associated with a less than 1% major adverse cardiac event rate during the first year after testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2015.09.014DOI Listing
April 2016