Publications by authors named "Cedric Lecaille"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Phase III randomized trial comparing systemic versus intra-arterial oxaliplatin, combined with LV5FU2 +/- irinotecan and a targeted therapy, in the first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer restricted to the liver (OSCAR): PRODIGE 49.

Dig Liver Dis 2022 Mar 11;54(3):324-330. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Department of Gastroenterology and GI Oncology, Hopital Européen Georges-Pompidou, Université de Paris, SIRIC CARPEM, France.

Introduction: In patients with unresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer (CRCLM), systemic doublet or triplet chemotherapy and targeted therapy is considered a standard first-line treatment. Hepatic arterial infusion of oxaliplatin (HAI-ox) generates a high response rate, but this still needs to be confirmed in a randomized trial. We incorporated HAI-ox in doublet or triplet + targeted therapy to validate its efficacy.

Aim: The OSCAR study is an ongoing randomized phase III trial comparing FOLFOX + targeted therapy according to RAS status, or FOLFOXIRI + bevacizumab in patients eligible for triplet therapy, with the same regimen but with HAI-ox instead of IV-ox as the first-line treatment for CRCLM.

Materials And Methods: Main eligibility criteria are colorectal cancer, unresectable liver metastasis, no extra-hepatic metastases except pulmonary nodules if ≤3 and <10 mm, ECOG performance status 0 or 1.

Endpoint: The primary endpoint is progression-free survival (PFS). A difference of 4 months for the median PFS in favor of HAI-ox is expected (HR = 0.73). Secondary endpoints include overall survival, overall response rate, secondary liver resection, safety, and quality of life.

Conclusion: This study is planned to include 348 patients to demonstrate the superiority of HAI-ox over systemic oxaliplatin in first-line CRCLM treatment (NCT02885753).
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March 2022

Randomized Phase II Trial Evaluating Two Sequential Treatments in First Line of Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer: Results of the PANOPTIMOX-PRODIGE 35 Trial.

J Clin Oncol 2021 10 21;39(29):3242-3250. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Cancerology Department, Antoine Lacassagne Centre, Nice, France.

Purpose: Metastatic pancreatic cancer (mPC) still harbors a dismal prognosis. Our previous trial (PRODIGE 4-ACCORD 11) demonstrated the superiority of 6-month chemotherapy with fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) over gemcitabine for overall survival. The high limiting oxaliplatin-related neurotoxicity supports the evaluation of an oxaliplatin stop-and-go strategy and a sequential strategy in mPC.

Methods: In this phase II study, patients were randomly assigned to receive either 6 months of FOLFIRINOX (arm A), 4 months of FOLFIRINOX followed by leucovorin plus fluorouracil maintenance treatment for controlled patients (arm B), or a sequential treatment alternating gemcitabine and fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan every 2 months (arm C). The primary end point was progression-free survival at 6 months.

Results: Between January 2015 and November 2016, 276 patients (mean age: 63 years; range: 40-76 years) were enrolled (A: 91, B: 92, and C: 90). Grade 3 or 4 neurotoxicity occurred in 10.2% of patients in arm A and 19.8% in arm B. The median ratio of received dose/targeted dose of oxaliplatin was 83% in arm A and 92% in arm B. The 6-month progression-free survival was 47.1% in A, 42.9% in B, and 34.1% in C. The median overall survival was 10.1 months in arm A, 11.2 in arm B, and 7.3 in arm C. Median survival without deterioration in quality-of-life scores was higher in the maintenance arm (11.4 months) than in arms A and C (7.2 and 7.5 months, respectively).

Conclusion: Maintenance with leucovorin plus fluorouracil appears to be feasible and effective in patients with mPC controlled after 4 months of induction chemotherapy with FOLFIRINOX. Severe neurotoxicity was higher in the maintenance therapy arm, probably because of the higher cumulative dose of oxaliplatin.
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October 2021

Chemotherapy use in end-of-life digestive cancer patients: a retrospective AGEO observational study.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2021 09 27;45(5):101709. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Université de Paris, Department of Gastroenterology and GI Oncology, Georges Pompidou European Hospital, AP-HP, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Background: The use of chemotherapy (CT) near the end-of-life (EOL) is an important issue in oncology since it could degrade quality of life. CT near EOL is still poorly studied, with no dedicated study in gastrointestinal (GI) cancer patients.

Aim: To analyze in GI cancer patients the factors associated with the use of CT within 3- and 1-month before patients' death.

Methods And Participants: All consecutive patients who died from a GI cancer in 10 French tertiary care hospitals during 2014 were included in this retrospective study. Clinical, demographical and biological data were collected and compared between patients receiving or not CT within 3- and 1-month before death. Variables associated with overall survival (OS) was also determined using of univariate and multivariate analyses with a Cox model.

Results: Four hundred and thirty-seven patients with a metastatic GI cancer were included in this study. Among them, 293 pts (67.0%) received CT within 3-months before death, and 121 pts (27.7%) received CT within 1-month before death. Patients receiving CT within 3-months before death were significantly younger (median age: 65.5 vs 72.8 years, p < 0.0001), with a better PS (PS 0 or 1: 53.9 vs 29.3%, p < 0.0001) and a higher albumin level (median: 32.8 vs 31.0 g/L, p = 0.048). Similar results were found for CT within 1 month before death. Palliative care team intervention was less frequent in patients who received CT in their last month of life (39.7% vs 51.3%, p = 0.02). In multivariate analysis, median OS from diagnosis was shorter in the group receiving CT within 1-month before death (HR = 0.59; 95% CI [0.48-0.74]).

Conclusion: In GI-cancer patients, CT is administered within 3- and 1-month before death, in two and one third of patients, respectively. Patients receiving CT within 1-month before death, had more aggressive disease with poor OS. Palliative care team intervention was associated with less administration of CT in the last month of life. These results highlight the need to better anticipate the time to stop CT treatment in the end-of-life and the importance of an active collaboration between oncology and palliative care teams.
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September 2021

Prognostic factors of colorectal cancer patients with brain metastases.

Radiother Oncol 2021 05 16;158:67-73. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Poitiers University, Poitiers, France; Department of Gastroenterology, Poitiers University Hospital, Poitiers, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: Brain metastases (BMs) from colorectal cancer (CRC) are rare (≈2%) but are increasing with the improvement of CRC prognosis. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the prognostic factors of BM from CRC.

Materials And Methods: This multicenter retrospective study included all consecutive patients with BM from CRC diagnosed between 2000 and 2017.

Theory/calculation: Prognostic factors of OS were evaluated in univariate (log-rank test) and multivariate analyses (Cox regression model). These prognostic factors could help the management of patients with BM from CRC.

Results: A total of 358 patients were included with a median age of 65.5 years. Primary tumors were mostly located in the rectum (42.4%) or left colon (37.2%) and frequently KRAS-mutated (56.9%). The median time from metastatic CRC diagnosis to BM diagnosis was 18.5 ± 2.5 months. BMs were predominantly single (56.9%) and only supratentorial (54.4%). BM resection was performed in 33.0% of the cases and 73.2% of patients had brain radiotherapy alone or after surgery. Median OS was 5.1 ± 0.3 months. In multivariate analysis, age under 65 years, ECOG performance status 0-1, single BM and less than 3 chemotherapy lines before BM diagnosis were associated with better OS. Prognostic scores, i.e. recursive partitioning analysis (RPA), Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA), Disease Specific-Graded Prognostic Assessment (DS-GPA), Gastro-Intestinal-Graded Prognostic Assessment (GI-GPA) and the nomogram were statistically significantly associated with OS but the most relevant prognosis criteria seemed the ECOG performance status 0-1.

Conclusions: ECOG performance status, number of BM and number of chemotherapy lines are the most relevant factors in the management of patients with BM from CRC.
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May 2021

Does neoadjuvant FOLFOX chemotherapy improve the prognosis of high-risk Stage II and III colon cancers? Three years' follow-up results of the PRODIGE 22 phase II randomized multicentre trial.

Colorectal Dis 2021 06 10;23(6):1357-1369. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Hepato-gastroenterology and Digestive Oncology, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, AP-HP, Paris University, Paris, France.

Aim: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has proven valuable in locally advanced resectable colon cancer (CC) but its effect on oncological outcomes is uncertain. The aim of the present paper was to report 3-year oncological outcomes, representing the secondary endpoints of the PRODIGE 22 trial.

Method: PRODIGE 22 was a randomized multicentre phase II trial in high-risk T3, T4 and/or N2 CC patients on CT scan. Patients were randomized between 6 months of adjuvant FOLFOX (upfront surgery) or perioperative FOLFOX (four cycles before surgery and eight cycles after; FOLFOX perioperative). In wild-type RAS patients, a third arm testing perioperative FOLFOX-cetuximab was added. The primary endpoint was the tumour regression grade. Secondary endpoints were 3-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), recurrence-free survival (RFS) and time to recurrence (TTR).

Results: Overall, 120 patients were enrolled. At interim analysis, the FOLFOX-cetuximab arm was stopped for futility. The remaining 104 patients represented our intention-to-treat population. In the perioperative group, 96% received the scheduled four neoadjuvant cycles and all but one had adjuvant FOLFOX for eight cycles. In the control arm, 38 (73%) patients received adjuvant FOLFOX. The median follow-up was 54.3 months. Three-year OS was 90.4% in both arms [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.85], 3-year DFS, RFS and TTR were, respectively, 76.8% and 69.2% (HR=0.94), 73% and 69.2% (HR = 0.86) and 82% and 72% (HR = 0.67) in the perioperative and control arms, respectively. Forest plots did not show any subgroup with significant difference for survival outcomes. No benefit from adding cetuximab was observed.

Conclusion: Perioperative FOLFOX has no detrimental effect on long-term oncological outcomes and may be an option for some patients with locally advanced CC.
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June 2021

Panel gene profiling of small bowel adenocarcinoma: Results from the NADEGE prospective cohort.

Int J Cancer 2021 04 4;148(7):1731-1742. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Sorbonne Université, Inserm, Université de Paris, Paris, France.

Small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA) is a rare tumour. Large genomic analyses with prognostic assessments are lacking. The NADEGE cohort has enrolled 347 patients with all stage SBA from 2009 to 2012. Next-generation sequencing investigates the presence of 740 hotspot somatic mutations in a panel of 46 genes involved in carcinogenesis. The mismatch repair (MMR) status was assessed by immunochemistry. We have collected 196 tumour samples and 125 had conclusive results for mutation analysis. The number of mutations was 0 in 9.6% of tumours, only 1 in 32.0%, 2 in 26.4% and ≥3 in 32.0%. Overall, at least one genomic alteration was observed in 90.4% of tumour. The most frequent genomic alteration was in KRAS (44.0%), TP53 (38.4%), PIK3CA (20.0%), APC (18.4%), SMAD4 (14.4%) and ERBB2 (7.2%) genes. KRAS mutations were more frequent in synchronous metastatic tumours than in localised tumours (72.7% vs 38.2%, P = .003). There was no significant difference in the mutation rates according to primary location for the most frequently altered gene. ATM, FGFR3 and FGFR1 gene alterations were associated with Lynch syndrome and IDH1 mutations with Crohn disease. dMMR tumours were associated with younger age, localised tumours, less KRAS but more SMARCB1 mutations. No genomic alteration was associated with overall survival. There is a trend for better survival in patient with dMMR tumours. In conclusion, there is a different genomic alteration profile in SBA according to predisposing diseases. No association between genomic alterations and prognoses was observed except for a trend of better prognoses associated with dMMR.
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April 2021

Comparison of 18FDG-PET/CT and conventional follow-up methods in colorectal cancer: A randomised prospective study.

Dig Liver Dis 2021 02 2;53(2):231-237. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Medical Oncology, University Hospital, Limoges, France.

Background: A surveillance program was performed in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients after surgery, to diagnose asymptomatic recurrence.

Aims: To assess whether 18-FDG positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) improved the detection of recurrence during a 3-year follow-up.

Methods: A multicentre, two-arm randomised prospective trial comparing different 36-month follow-up strategies. Complete colonoscopy was performed at baseline and after 3 years and clinical exams with imaging every 3 months. The conventional arm (A) received carcinoembryonic antigen, liver echography, and alternated between lung radiography and computed tomography (CT) scans. The experimental arm (B) received PET/CT.

Results: A total of 365 patients with colon (79.4%) or rectal cancer (20.6%), stages II (48.2%) or III (50.8%), were enroled in this study. At 36 months, intention-to-treat analysis revealed recurrence in 31 (17.2%) patients in arm A and 47 (25.4%) in arm B (p = 0.063). At 3 years, 7 of 31 relapses (22.5%) in arm A were surgically treated with curative intent, compared to 17 of 47 (36.2%) in arm B (p = 0.25). The rates of recurrence and new cancers were higher in arm B than arm A (p = 0.038).

Conclusions: PET/CT follow-up every 6 months did not increase the rate of recurrence at 3 years or the rate of surgically treated recurrence compared with conventional follow-up.
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February 2021

Prognosis and chemosensitivity of deficient MMR phenotype in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: An AGEO retrospective multicenter study.

Int J Cancer 2020 07 13;147(1):285-296. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Sorbonne University and Medical Oncology Department, Saint Antoine Hospital, Paris, France.

Mismatch repair-deficient (dMMR) and/or microsatellite instability-high (MSI) colorectal cancers (CRC) represent about 5% of metastatic CRC (mCRC). Prognosis and chemosensitivity of dMMR/MSI mCRC remain unclear. This multicenter study included consecutive patients with dMMR/MSI mCRC from 2007 to 2017. The primary endpoint was the progression-free survival (PFS) in a population receiving first-line chemotherapy. Associations between chemotherapy regimen and survival were evaluated using a Cox regression model and inverse of probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) methodology in order to limit potential biases. Overall, 342 patients with dMMR/MSI mCRC were included. Median PFS and overall survival (OS) on first-line chemotherapy were 6.0 and 26.3 months, respectively. For second-line chemotherapy, median PFS and OS were 4.4 and 21.6 months. Longer PFS (8.1 vs. 5.4 months, p = 0.0405) and OS (35.1 vs. 24.4 months, p = 0.0747) were observed for irinotecan-based chemotherapy compared to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. The association was no longer statistically significant using IPTW methodology. In multivariable analysis, anti-VEGF as compared to anti-EGFR was associated with a trend to longer OS (HR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.00-3.19, p = 0.0518), whatever the backbone chemotherapy used. Our study shows that dMMR/MSI mCRC patients experienced short PFS with first-line chemotherapy with or without targeted therapy. OS was not different according to the chemotherapy regimen used, but a trend to better OS was observed with anti-VEGF. Our study provides some historical results concerning chemotherapy in dMMR/MSI mCRC in light of the recent nonrandomized trials with immune checkpoint inhibitors.
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July 2020

Small bowel adenocarcinoma: Results from a nationwide prospective ARCAD-NADEGE cohort study of 347 patients.

Int J Cancer 2020 08 22;147(4):967-977. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Department of Oncology, Saint Antoine Hospital, APHP, Paris, France.

Small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA) is a rare tumour. We conducted a prospective cohort to describe the prevalence, survival and prognostic factors in unselected SBA patients. The study enrolled patients with all stages of newly diagnosed or recurrent SBA at 74 French centres between January 2009 and December 2012. In total, 347 patients were analysed; the median age was 63 years (range 23-90). The primary tumour was in the duodenum (60.6%), jejunum (20.7%) and ileum (18.7%). The prevalence of predisposing disease was 8.7%, 6.9%, 1.7%, 1.7% and 0.6% for Crohn disease, Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, celiac disease and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, respectively. At diagnosis, 58.9%, 5.5% and 35.6% of patients had localised and resectable, locally advanced unresectable and metastatic disease, respectively. Crohn disease was significantly associated with younger age, poor differentiation and ileum location, whereas Lynch syndrome with younger age, poor differentiation, early stage and duodenum location. Adjuvant chemotherapy (oxaliplatin-based in 89.9%) was performed in 61.5% of patients with locally resected tumours. With a 54-months median follow-up, the 5-year overall survival (OS) was 87.9%, 78.2% and 55.5% in Stages I, II and III, respectively. The median OS of patients with Stage IV was 12.7 months. In patients with resected tumours, poor differentiation (p = 0.047) and T4 stage (p = 0.001) were associated with a higher risk of death. In conclusion, our study showed that the prognosis of advanced SBA remains poor. Tumour characteristics differed according to predisposing disease. In SBA-resected tumours, the prognostic factors for OS were grade and T stage.
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August 2020

Efficacy and Safety of Aflibercept in Combination With Chemotherapy Beyond Second-Line Therapy in Metastatic Colorectal Carcinoma Patients: An AGEO Multicenter Study.

Clin Colorectal Cancer 2020 03 4;19(1):39-47.e5. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

Department of Digestive Oncology, European Georges Pompidou Hospital, René Descartes University, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Background: Although no data have been reported beyond second-line therapy, aflibercept is approved in this setting in many countries. We conducted a multicenter study to analyze the efficacy and safety of a aflibercept-chemotherapy regimen beyond second-line therapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

Patients And Methods: Metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with aflibercept beyond second-line therapy were included. Objective response rate, overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS) were assessed.

Results: A total of 130 patients were included. Median OS and PFS were 7.6 months (95% confidence interval, 6.2-9.3) and 3.3 months (95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.8), respectively. The best response rates were partial response 6.9%, stable disease 38.5%, progressive disease 42.5%, and not evaluable 12%. According to whether patients received previous FOLFIRI (leucovorin, 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin)-bevacizumab or not, OS was 7.7 and 8.1 months (P = .31), and PFS was 2.9 and 3.9 months (P = .02), respectively. Interestingly, PFS and OS were both significantly improved by 4% and 5% per month, respectively, without antiangiogenic treatment before the initiation of the aflibercept regimen. The negative effect of prior FOLFIRI-bevacizumab or shorter time since last bevacizumab was maintained in multivariate analysis for both OS and PFS.

Conclusion: The aflibercept-chemotherapy regimen is a therapeutic option in patients with chemorefractory disease beyond second-line therapy, in particular in patients with an antiangiogenic-free interval.
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March 2020

FOLFOX alone or combined with rilotumumab or panitumumab as first-line treatment for patients with advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (PRODIGE 17-ACCORD 20-MEGA): a randomised, open-label, three-arm phase II trial.

Eur J Cancer 2019 07 23;115:97-106. Epub 2019 May 23.

Department of Hepatogastroenterology and Gastrointestinal Oncology, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris Descartes University, France.

Background: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) pathways, which promote tumour growth and proliferation, are often deregulated in advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas. We assessed whether adding panitumumab (an EGFR inhibitor) or rilotumumab (a HGF inhibitor) to first-line fluoropyrimidine-based and platinum-based chemotherapy (modified oxaliplatin, leucovorin and fluorouracil [mFOLFOX6]) benefits to patients with advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma.

Patients And Methods: This phase II, open-label, randomised, three-arm study enrolled patients ≥18 years, with advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-1 and no known HER2 overexpression. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) mFOLFOX6 (oxaliplatin 85 mg/m, leucovorin 400 mg/m, 5-fluorouracil 400 mg/m bolus then 2400 mg/m over 46 h) alone or combined with panitumumab (6 mg/kg) or rilotumumab (10 mg/kg) every 2 weeks until limiting toxicity, patient's refusal or disease progression. The primary end-point was the 4-month progression-free survival (PFS) rate. Secondary end-points included overall survival (OS) and tolerance.

Results: The study enrolled 162 patients in 29 French centres. The median follow-up was 23.6 months (interquartile range = 16.4-29.0). The 4-month PFS rate was 71% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 57-82) with chemotherapy alone, 57% (95% CI = 42-71) combined with panitumumab and 61% (95% CI = 47-74) combined with rilotumumab. Median OS was 13.1 months (95% CI = 8.7-16.9) with chemotherapy alone, 8.3 months (95% CI = 6.2-13.2) combined with panitumumab and 11.5 months (95% CI = 7.9-17.1) combined with rilotumumab. Adverse events grade ≥III occurred less frequently with chemotherapy alone (62%) than with panitumumab (83%) and rilotumumab (89%).

Conclusions: We found no benefit in adding panitumumab or rilotumumab to mFOLFOX6 first-line chemotherapy to treat advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma patients.

Trial Registration: European Clinical Trials Database, number 2009-012797-12.
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July 2019

Efficacy of aflibercept with FOLFOX and maintenance with fluoropyrimidine as first‑line therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer: GERCOR VELVET phase II study.

Int J Oncol 2019 04 1;54(4):1433-1445. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Medical Oncology, Franco‑British Institute, 92300 Levallois‑Perret, France.

Aflibercept in combination with 5‑fluorouracil (5‑FU)/irinotecan improves overall survival in the second‑line therapy of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). In this study, we evaluated the effects of aflibercept in first‑line therapy with FOLFOX followed by maintenance with fluoropyrimidine. VELVET was a prospective, single‑arm multicenter phase II study (completed). Patients with previously untreated, unresectable, evaluable or measurable mCRC, with an age ≥18 years, and an ECOG performance status of 0‑2 received 6 cycles of modified FOLFOX7 (5‑FU/folinic acid and oxaliplatin) with aflibercept at 4 mg/kg every 2 weeks followed by maintenance therapy with fluoropyrimidine with aflibercept until disease progression or limiting toxicity. The reintroduction of oxaliplatin was performed at first progression. The primary endpoint was progression‑free survival (PFS) at 6 months. From May, 2013 to May, 2014, 49 patients were included and 48 were evaluable for response. In total, 33 patients (67.4%) were alive without progression at 6 months. The Kaplan‑Meier survival 6‑month and 1‑year PFS rates were 79.1 and 36.1%, respectively, and the median PFS was 9.3 months (95% CI, 8.3‑12.5). The objective response rate was 59.2% (N=29/49). The most common (≥10%) grade 3‑4 adverse events were hypertension (23%), fatigue (15%), neutropenia (12%), neuropathy (12%) and stomatitis (10%). Three (6%) treatment‑related deaths occurred: One from stroke, one from pulmonary embolism and one from neutropenic sepsis. On the whole, this study demonstrates the efficacy of aflibercept in combination with an oxaliplatin‑based regimen in the first‑line therapy of patients with mCRC. A strict monitoring of blood pressure and immediate management of hypertension during therapy is mandatory.
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April 2019

Resection of small bowel adenocarcinoma metastases: Results of the ARCAD-NADEGE cohort study.

Eur J Surg Oncol 2019 03 22;45(3):331-335. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Gastroenterology and Digestive Oncology, CHU Saint Louis, APHP, Denis Diderot University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: Data are lacking with regard to curative resection of metastasis from small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA). This study evaluated outcomes and prognostic factors in patients with curatively resected metastatic SBA.

Methods: A series of 34 patients undergoing resection of metastatic SBA from January 2009 to November 2014 at French centers were included into this cohort study. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Secondary endpoints were recurrence-free survival (RFS) and prognostic factors. Univariate analyses were performed to determine prognostic risk factors.

Results: The sites of SBA metastases were peritoneal (29.4%), liver (26.5%), lymph nodes (11.8%), lung (2.9%), multiple (14.7%), and other (14.7%). Thirty (88.2%) patients received adjuvant or perioperative chemotherapy, mainly was oxaliplatin-based (76.5%). The median OS was 28.6 months and RFS was 18.7 months. Fourteen (41.2%) patients survived for more than 36 months. In univariate analysis, poor differentiation (P = 0.006), invaded margins (P = 0.003), and lymphatic invasion in the primary tumor (P = 0.039) were associated with decreased OS.

Conclusion: Overall survival of patients after resection of metastatic SBA remains poor, but long-term survivors are observed. Resection of metastatic SBA should be consider if patients are expected to be operated on with curative intent and have moderately or well-differentiated tumors.
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March 2019

Efficacy of a docetaxel-5FU-oxaliplatin regimen (TEFOX) in first-line treatment of advanced gastric signet ring cell carcinoma: an AGEO multicentre study.

Br J Cancer 2018 08 6;119(4):424-428. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Department of GI Oncology, Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou, APHP, Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France.

Background: Triplet chemotherapy, with docetaxel-5FU-oxaliplatin (TEFOX), has yielded promising results in patients with advanced and operable gastric adenocarcinoma. This may prove useful in treating signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC), which is known to be chemoresistant and has a poor prognosis. We therefore evaluated TEFOX in patients with untreated advanced SRCC.

Methods: Patients with metastatic or locally advanced non-resectable SRCC were treated with TEFOX. Chemotherapy was administered every 14 days, with combined docetaxel (50 mg/m) and oxaliplatin (85 mg/m) followed by 5FU (2400 mg/m).

Results: Among 65 patients enrolled, including 17 with linitis plastica, ORR and DCR were 66.1% and 87.6%, respectively. Median PFS and OS were 9.7 months (95% CI [6.9-11.4]) and 14.3 months (95% CI [11.6-21.6]) respectively. Twenty-six patients (40%) initially considered as unresectable had secondary resection (n = 24) or radiotherapy (n = 2) with curative intent, with median PFS and OS of 12.4 and 26.2 months, respectively.

Conclusions: TEFOX appears to be effective as first-line treatment in advanced gastric SRCC and has an acceptable safety profile. It allowed a curative intent approach in 40% of patients. Considering the low chemosensitivity of SRCC reported with other chemotherapy regimens and pending for randomised studies, TEFOX might be an option in advanced gastric SRCC.
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August 2018

Trastuzumab beyond progression in patients with HER2-positive advanced gastric adenocarcinoma: a multicenter AGEO study.

Oncotarget 2017 Nov 8;8(60):101383-101393. Epub 2017 Sep 8.

Department of Gastroenterology and Digestive Oncology, European Georges Pompidou Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France.

Introduction: Trastuzumab in combination with platinum-based chemotherapy is the standard first-line regimen in HER2-positive advanced gastric cancer. However, there are very few data concerning efficacy of continuing trastuzumab beyond first-line progression.

Methods: This retrospective multicenter study included all consecutive patients with HER2-positive advanced gastric or gastro-esophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma who received a second-line of chemotherapy with or without trastuzumab after progression on platinum-based chemotherapy plus trastuzumab. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated from the start of second-line chemotherapy using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using log-rank test. The prognostic variables with values ≤ 0.05 in univariate analysis were eligible for the Cox multivariable regression model.

Results: From May 2010 to December 2015, 104 patients were included (median age, 60.8 years; male, 78.8%; ECOG performance status [PS] 0-1, 71.2%). The continuation (n=39) versus discontinuation (n=65) of trastuzumab beyond progression was significantly associated with an improvement of median PFS (4.4 versus 2.3 months; =0.002) and OS (12.6 versus 6.1 months; =0.001. In the multivariate analysis including the ECOG PS, number of metastatic sites and measurable disease, the continuation of trastuzumab beyond progression remained significantly associated with longer PFS (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35-0.89; =0.01) and OS (HR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.28-0.79; =0.004).

Conclusion: This study suggests that continuation of trastuzumab beyond progression has clinical benefit in patients with HER2-positive advanced gastric cancer. These results deserve a prospective randomized validation.
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November 2017

Perioperative chemotherapy with FOLFOX in resectable gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma in real life practice: An AGEO multicenter retrospective study.

Dig Liver Dis 2016 Dec 9;48(12):1498-1502. Epub 2016 Aug 9.

Gastroenterology and Digestive Oncology Department, Avicenne Hospital, APHP and Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Bobigny, France.

Purpose: Perioperative chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin, with or without epirubicin, improves overall survival in resectable gastroesophageal junction and gastric adenocarcinoma. The aim of this retrospective multicenter study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of perioperative chemotherapy with a FOLFOX-based regimen.

Patients And Methods: We enrolled patients with resectable gastric or gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma, who had at least 3 cycles of a pre-operative FOLFOX-based regimen. The primary end point was the feasibility of the peri-operative chemotherapy.

Results: We enrolled 109 patients from 2007 to 2012 in 12 centres. Their median age was 66, 67% were men and 73% had gastric tumours. The median number of chemotherapy courses was 6 with a median of 4 pre-operative cycles and 2 post-operative cycles. Twenty-three patients received at least 8 cycles of chemotherapy. In univariate analysis, the Karnofsky index at inclusion was the only factor associated with 8 cycles of chemotherapy. An R0 resection was achieved in 100 patients (95.2%).

Conclusion: The FOLFOX-based perioperative regimen achieves favourable results in real life practice. The optimal number of chemotherapy cycle remains to be determined. FOLFOX regimen may be used as an alternative treatment option to a cisplatin-based regimen in resectable gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma. A prospective randomized trial is needed to confirm these results.
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December 2016

Efficacy of Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Colon Cancer With Microsatellite Instability: A Large Multicenter AGEO Study.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2016 Jul 1;108(7). Epub 2016 Feb 1.

Affiliations of authors: Department of Gastroenterology (DT, GS, CS), Department of Medical Oncology (AF), and Department of Molecular Oncology (LKT), Poitiers University Hospital , Poitiers , France ; Laboratoire Inflammation, Tissus Epithéliaux et Cytokines (LITEC) - EA 4331, Poitiers University , Poitiers (DT, CS); Methodology and Quality of Life in Oncology Unit, Besançon University Hospital , Besançon , France (GM); Department of Gastroenterology, Ambroise Paré Hospital , Boulogne-Billancourt , France (IT); Department of Gastroenterology (TL) and Department of Biochemistry (JCP), Tours University Hospital , Tours , France , UMR GICC CNRS 7292, Tours François Rabelais University, Tours (TL); Paris Descartes University, Cochin Hospital , Paris , France (RC); Department of Gastroenterology (TA) and Department of Medical Oncology (CDG), Avicenne Hospital , Bobigny , France ; Department of Gastroenterology, Bordeaux Nord Aquitaine Clinic , Bordeaux , France (CL); Department of Gastroenterology, Jean Mermoz Lyon Hospital , Lyon , France (PA); Department of Gastroenterology, Nantes University Hospital , Nantes , France (EC, TMB); Department of Gastroenterology, Rouen University Hospital , Rouen , France (DS, PM); Department of Medical Oncology, Saint-Antoine Hospital , Paris , France (TB); Department of Gastroenterology and Digestive Oncology, Georges Pompidou European Hospital, APHP , Paris , France (JT, AZ); Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cité , Paris , France (RC, JT, AZ).

Background: Deficient mismatch repair (dMMR) colon cancer (CC) is reportedly resistant to 5-fluorouracil (5FU) adjuvant chemotherapy while preliminary data suggest chemosensitivity to oxaliplatin. We assessed the efficacy of fluoropyrimidine with and without oxaliplatin in a large cohort of dMMR CC patients.

Methods: This retrospective multicenter study included all consecutive patients who underwent curative surgical resection for stage II or III dMMR CC between 2000 and 2011. Prognostic factors were analyzed using Cox models, and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results: A total of 433 dMMR CC patients were included (56.8% stage II, 43.2% stage III). Mean follow-up was 47.0 months. The patients received surgery alone (n = 263) or surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of fluoropyrimidine with (n = 119) or without (n = 51) oxaliplatin. Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 16.7% of stage II and 69.0% of stage III CC patients. As compared with surgery alone, adjuvant oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy improved disease-free survival (DFS) in multivariable analysis (HR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.19 to 0.65, P < .001), contrary to adjuvant fluoropyrimidine alone (HR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.36 to 1.49, P = .38). In the subgroup analysis, the DFS benefit of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy was statistically significant in multivariable analysis only in stage III (HR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.19 to 0.87, P = .02).

Conclusion: This study supports the use of adjuvant chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidine plus oxaliplatin in stage III dMMR CC.
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July 2016

High-Dose FOLFIRI plus Bevacizumab in the Treatment of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients with Two Different UGT1A1 Genotypes: FFCD 0504 Study.

Mol Cancer Ther 2015 Dec 22;14(12):2782-8. Epub 2015 Oct 22.

Hepato-Gastroenterology and Digestive Oncology Department, University Hospital Dijon, INSERM U 866, Digestive Cancer Registry of Burgundy, Dijon, France. Fédération Francophone de Cancérologie Digestive, INSERM U866, Dijon, France.

High-dose FOLFIRI has an acceptable safety profile and promising efficacy. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase: (UGT1A1) polymorphism may be predictive of toxicity and efficacy of irinotecan. This phase II study aimed to evaluate the combination of high-dose FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab in patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer (MCRC) based on their UGT1A1 genotype. Patients with the UGT1A1 *1/*1 (group 1) or *1/*28 (group 2) genotype received bevacizumab plus high-dose FOLFIRI every 2 weeks. Using the Bryant and Day design with objective response rate and toxicity as the primary endpoints, 54 patients in each group were required with a planned interim analysis after inclusion of 17 patients per group. We planned to stop the trial at the interim analysis if ≤ 7 patients exhibited an objective response (OR) and/or ≥ 3 patients exhibited severe toxicity. At the interim analysis, ORs were higher than the number expected: 52.9% (group 1) and 58.8% (group 2). More than three toxic events occurred in both groups and, according to the interim analysis rule, the trial was closed due to unacceptable toxicity. Recruitment was stopped when 86 patients were included and an analysis on overall population was done for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). The median PFS was 10.7 months (group 1) and 10.4 months (group 2). The median OS was 25.5 months (group 1) and 23.9 months (group 2). This trial does not support the use of the intensive treatment with HD-FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab combination for MCRC in patients with the UGTA1*1/UGT1A1*1 or UGT1A1*1/UGT1A1*28 genotype.
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December 2015

Nutritional advice in older patients at risk of malnutrition during treatment for chemotherapy: a two-year randomized controlled trial.

PLoS One 2014 29;9(9):e108687. Epub 2014 Sep 29.

Institut Bergonié, Departement d'oncologie médicale, Bordeaux, France.

Objective: We tested the effect of dietary advice dedicated to increase intake in older patients at risk for malnutrition during chemotherapy, versus usual care, on one-year mortality.

Method: We conducted a multicentre, open-label interventional, stratified (centre), parallel randomised controlled trial, with a 1∶1 ratio, with two-year follow-up. Patients were aged 70 years or older treated with chemotherapy for solid tumour and at risk of malnutrition (MNA, Mini Nutritional Assessment 17-23.5). Intervention consisted of diet counselling with the aim of achieving an energy intake of 30 kCal/kg body weight/d and 1.2 g protein/kg/d, by face-to-face discussion targeting the main nutritional symptoms, compared to usual care. Interviews were performed 6 times during the chemotherapy sessions for 3 to 6 months. The primary endpoint was 1-year mortality and secondary endpoints were 2-year mortality, toxicities and chemotherapy outcomes.

Results: Between April 2007 and March 2010 we randomised 341 patients and 336 were analysed: mean (standard deviation) age of 78.0 y (4·9), 51.2% male, mean MNA 20.2 (2.1). Distribution of cancer types was similar in the two groups; the most frequent were colon (22.4%), lymphoma (14.9%), lung (10.4%), and pancreas (17.0%). Both groups increased their dietary intake, but to a larger extent with intervention (p<0.01). At the second visit, the energy target was achieved in 57 (40.4%) patients and the protein target in 66 (46.8%) with the intervention compared respectively to 13 (13.5%) and 20 (20.8%) in the controls. Death occurred during the first year in 143 patients (42.56%), without difference according to the intervention (p = 0.79). No difference in nutritional status changes was found. Response to chemotherapy was also similar between the groups.

Conclusion: Early dietary counselling was efficient in increasing intake but had no beneficial effect on mortality or secondary outcomes. Cancer cachexia antianabolism may explain this lack of effect.

Trial Registration: NCT00459589.
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November 2015

Defective mismatch repair status as a prognostic biomarker of disease-free survival in stage III colon cancer patients treated with adjuvant FOLFOX chemotherapy.

Clin Cancer Res 2011 Dec 13;17(23):7470-8. Epub 2011 Oct 13.

Department of Gastroenterology and Digestive Oncology, Georges Pompidou European Hospital, AP-HP, Paris, France.

Purpose: Adding oxaliplatin to adjuvant 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy improves 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) after resection of stage III colon cancer. Several studies suggest that patients with tumors exhibiting defective mismatch repair (MMR) do not benefit from adjuvant 5-FU chemotherapy, but there are few data on 5-FU-oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) adjuvant chemotherapy in this setting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of MMR status for DFS in patients with stage III colon cancer receiving adjuvant FOLFOX chemotherapy.

Experimental Design: MMR status was determined by microsatellite instability testing or immunohistochemistry in 303 unselected patients with stage III colon cancer receiving adjuvant FOLFOX chemotherapy in 9 centers. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between MMR status and 3-year DFS.

Results: The 3-year DFS rate was significantly higher in the 34 patients (11.2% of the study population) with defective MMR tumors (90.5%) than in patients with proficient MMR tumors (73.8%; log-rank test; HR = 2.16; 95% CI, 1.09-4.27; P = 0.027). In multivariate analysis, MMR status remained an independent significant prognostic factor for DFS (HR = 4.48; 95% CI, 1.34-14.99; P = 0.015).

Conclusion: MMR status is an independent prognostic biomarker for DFS in patients with stage III colon cancer receiving adjuvant FOLFOX chemotherapy.
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December 2011