Publications by authors named "Cecile Thion"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Comparison of Novel and Established Nitrification Inhibitors Relevant to Agriculture on Soil Ammonia- and Nitrite-Oxidizing Isolates.

Front Microbiol 2020 4;11:581283. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Laboratory of Plant and Environmental Biotechnology, Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece.

Nitrification inhibitors (NIs) applied to soil reduce nitrogen fertilizer losses from agr-ecosystems. NIs that are currently registered for use in agriculture appear to selectively inhibit ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), while their impact on other nitrifiers is limited or unknown. Ethoxyquin (EQ), a fruit preservative shown to inhibit ammonia-oxidizers (AO) in soil, is rapidly transformed to 2,6-dihydro-2,2,4-trimethyl-6-quinone imine (QI), and 2,4-dimethyl-6-ethoxy-quinoline (EQNL). We compared the inhibitory potential of EQ and its derivatives with that of dicyandiamide (DCD), nitrapyrin (NP), and 3,4-dimethylpyrazole-phosphate (DMPP), NIs that have been used in agricultural settings. The effect of each compound on the growth of AOB (), ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA; " Nitrosocosmicus franklandus," " Nitrosotalea sinensis"), and a nitrite-oxidizing bacterium (NOB; sp. NHB1), all being soil isolates, were determined in liquid culture over a range of concentrations by measuring nitrite production or consumption and qPCR of and genes, respectively. The degradation of NIs in the liquid cultures was also determined. In all cultures, EQ was transformed to the short-lived QI (major derivative) and the persistent EQNL (minor derivative). They all showed significantly higher inhibition activity of AOA compared to AOB and NOB isolates. QI was the most potent AOA inhibitor (EC = 0.3-0.7 μM) compared to EQ (EC = 1-1.4 μM) and EQNL (EC = 26.6-129.5 μM). The formation and concentration of QI in EQ-amended cultures correlated with the inhibition patterns for all isolates suggesting that it was primarily responsible for inhibition after application of EQ. DCD and DMPP showed greater inhibition of AOB compared to AOA or NOB, with DMPP being more potent (EC = 221.9-248.7 μM EC = 0.6-2.1 μM). NP was the only NI to which both AOA and AOB were equally sensitive with EC of 0.8-2.1 and 1.0-6.7 μM, respectively. Overall, EQ, QI, and NP were the most potent NIs against AOA, NP, and DMPP were the most effective against AOB, while NP, EQ and its derivatives showed the highest activity against the NOB isolate. Our findings benchmark the activity range of known and novel NIs with practical implications for their use in agriculture and the development of NIs with broad or complementary activity against all AO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.581283DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7672009PMC
November 2020

Soil bacterial networks are less stable under drought than fungal networks.

Nat Commun 2018 08 2;9(1):3033. Epub 2018 Aug 2.

School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PT, UK.

Soil microbial communities play a crucial role in ecosystem functioning, but it is unknown how co-occurrence networks within these communities respond to disturbances such as climate extremes. This represents an important knowledge gap because changes in microbial networks could have implications for their functioning and vulnerability to future disturbances. Here, we show in grassland mesocosms that drought promotes destabilising properties in soil bacterial, but not fungal, co-occurrence networks, and that changes in bacterial communities link more strongly to soil functioning during recovery than do changes in fungal communities. Moreover, we reveal that drought has a prolonged effect on bacterial communities and their co-occurrence networks via changes in vegetation composition and resultant reductions in soil moisture. Our results provide new insight in the mechanisms through which drought alters soil microbial communities with potential long-term consequences, including future plant community composition and the ability of aboveground and belowground communities to withstand future disturbances.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-05516-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6072794PMC
August 2018

Detecting macroecological patterns in bacterial communities across independent studies of global soils.

Nat Microbiol 2018 02 20;3(2):189-196. Epub 2017 Nov 20.

Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

The emergence of high-throughput DNA sequencing methods provides unprecedented opportunities to further unravel bacterial biodiversity and its worldwide role from human health to ecosystem functioning. However, despite the abundance of sequencing studies, combining data from multiple individual studies to address macroecological questions of bacterial diversity remains methodically challenging and plagued with biases. Here, using a machine-learning approach that accounts for differences among studies and complex interactions among taxa, we merge 30 independent bacterial data sets comprising 1,998 soil samples from 21 countries. Whereas previous meta-analysis efforts have focused on bacterial diversity measures or abundances of major taxa, we show that disparate amplicon sequence data can be combined at the taxonomy-based level to assess bacterial community structure. We find that rarer taxa are more important for structuring soil communities than abundant taxa, and that these rarer taxa are better predictors of community structure than environmental factors, which are often confounded across studies. We conclude that combining data from independent studies can be used to explore bacterial community dynamics, identify potential 'indicator' taxa with an important role in structuring communities, and propose hypotheses on the factors that shape bacterial biogeography that have been overlooked in the past.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-017-0062-xDOI Listing
February 2018

Ammonia oxidisers in a non-nitrifying Brazilian savanna soil.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2017 11;93(11)

Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St. Machar Drive, Aberdeen AB24 3UU, UK.

Low nitrification rates in Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) soils have puzzled researchers for decades. Potential mechanisms include biological inhibitors, low pH, low microbial abundance and low soil moisture content, which hinders microbial activity, including ammonia oxidation. Two approaches were used to evaluate these potential mechanisms: (i) manipulation of soil moisture and pH in microcosms containing Cerrado soil and (ii) assessment of nitrification inhibition in slurries containing mixtures of Cerrado soil and an actively nitrifying agricultural soil. Despite high ammonium concentration in Cerrado soil microcosms, little NO3- accumulation was observed with increasing moisture or pH, but in some Cerrado soil slurries, ammonia-oxidising archaea (AOA) amoA transcripts were detected after 14 days. In mixed soil slurries, the final NO3- concentration reflected the initial proportions of agricultural and Cerrado soils in the mixture, providing no evidence of nitrification inhibitors in Cerrado soil. AOA community denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles were similar in the mixed and nitrifying soils. These results suggest that nitrification in Cerrado soils is not constrained by water availability, ammonium availability, low pH or biological inhibitors, and alternative potential explanations for low nitrification levels are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsec/fix122DOI Listing
November 2017

Plant nitrogen-use strategy as a driver of rhizosphere archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidiser abundance.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2016 07 28;92(7). Epub 2016 Apr 28.

Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Cruickshank Building, St. Machar Drive, Aberdeen, AB24 5UU, UK.

The influence of plants on archaeal (AOA) and bacterial (AOB) ammonia oxidisers (AO) is poorly understood. Higher microbial activity in the rhizosphere, including organic nitrogen (N) mineralisation, may stimulate both groups, while ammonia uptake by plants may favour AOA, considered to prefer lower ammonia concentration. We therefore hypothesised (i) higher AOA and AOB abundances in the rhizosphere than bulk soil and (ii) that AOA are favoured over AOB in the rhizosphere of plants with an exploitative strategy and high N demand, especially (iii) during early growth, when plant N uptake is higher. These hypotheses were tested by growing 20 grassland plants, covering a spectrum of resource-use strategies, and determining AOA and AOB amoA gene abundances, rhizosphere and bulk soil characteristics and plant functional traits. Joint Bayesian mixed models indicated no increase in AO in the rhizosphere, but revealed that AOA were more abundant in the rhizosphere of exploitative plants, mostly grasses, and less abundant under conservative plants. In contrast, AOB abundance in the rhizosphere and bulk soil depended on pH, rather than plant traits. These findings provide a mechanistic basis for plant-ammonia oxidiser interactions and for links between plant functional traits and ammonia oxidiser ecology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsec/fiw091DOI Listing
July 2016

Isolation of 'Candidatus Nitrosocosmicus franklandus', a novel ureolytic soil archaeal ammonia oxidiser with tolerance to high ammonia concentration.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2016 May 13;92(5):fiw057. Epub 2016 Mar 13.

Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Cruickshank Building, St Machar Drive, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UU, UK.

Studies of the distribution of ammonia oxidising archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) suggest distinct ecological niches characterised by ammonia concentration and pH, arising through differences in substrate affinity and ammonia tolerance. AOA form five distinct phylogenetic clades, one of which, the 'Nitrososphaera sister cluster', has no cultivated isolate. A representative of this cluster, named 'Candidatus Nitrosocosmicus franklandus', was isolated from a pH 7.5 arable soil and we propose a new cluster name:'Nitrosocosmicus' While phylogenetic analysis of amoA genes indicates its association with the Nitrososphaera sister cluster, analysis of 16S rRNA genes provided no support for a relative branching that is consistent with a 'sister cluster', indicating placement within a lineage of the order Nitrososphaerales 'Ca.N. franklandus' is capable of ureolytic growth and its tolerances to nitrite and ammonia are higher than in other AOA and similar to those of typical soil AOB. Similarity of other growth characteristics of 'Ca.N. franklandus' with those of typical soil AOB isolates reduces support for niche differentiation between soil AOA and AOB and suggests that AOA have a wider physiological diversity than previously suspected. In particular, the high ammonia tolerance of 'Ca.N. franklandus' suggests potential contributions to nitrification in fertilised soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsec/fiw057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4830249PMC
May 2016

Antifungal Rhizosphere Bacteria Can increase as Response to the Presence of Saprotrophic Fungi.

PLoS One 2015 22;10(9):e0137988. Epub 2015 Sep 22.

Department of Microbial Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Wageningen, 6708 PB, the Netherlands.

Knowledge on the factors that determine the composition of bacterial communities in the vicinity of roots (rhizosphere) is essential to understand plant-soil interactions. Plant species identity, plant growth stage and soil properties have been indicated as major determinants of rhizosphere bacterial community composition. Here we show that the presence of saprotrophic fungi can be an additional factor steering rhizosphere bacterial community composition and functioning. We studied the impact of presence of two common fungal rhizosphere inhabitants (Mucor hiemalis and Trichoderma harzianum) on the composition of cultivable bacterial communities developing in the rhizosphere of Carex arenaria (sand sedge) in sand microcosms. Identification and phenotypic characterization of bacterial isolates revealed clear shifts in the rhizosphere bacterial community composition by the presence of two fungal strains (M. hiemalis BHB1 and T. harzianum PvdG2), whereas another M. hiemalis strain did not show this effect. Presence of both M. hiemalis BHB1 and T. harzianum PvdG2 resulted in a significant increase of chitinolytic and (in vitro) antifungal bacteria. The latter was most pronounced for M. hiemalis BHB1, an isolate from Carex roots, which stimulated the development of the bacterial genera Achromobacter and Stenotrophomonas. In vitro tests showed that these genera were strongly antagonistic against M. hiemalis but also against the plant-pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani. The most likely explanation for fungal-induced shifts in the composition of rhizosphere bacteria is that bacteria are being selected which are successful in competing with fungi for root exudates. Based on the results we propose that measures increasing saprotrophic fungi in agricultural soils should be explored as an alternative approach to enhance natural biocontrol against soil-borne plant-pathogenic fungi, namely by stimulating indigenous antifungal rhizosphere bacteria.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0137988PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4578881PMC
May 2016

Differential response of nonadapted ammonia-oxidising archaea and bacteria to drying-rewetting stress.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2014 Nov 15;90(2):380-9. Epub 2014 Sep 15.

Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.

Climate change is expected to increase the frequency of severe drought events followed by heavy rainfall, which will influence growth and activity of soil microorganisms, through osmotic stress and changes in nutrient concentration. There is evidence of rapid recovery of processes and adaptation of communities in soils regularly experiencing drying/rewetting and lower resistance and resilience in nonadapted soils. A microcosm-based study of ammonia-oxidising archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB), employing a grassland soil that rarely experiences drought, was used to test this hypothesis and also whether AOB were more resistant and resilient, through greater tolerance of high ammonia concentrations produced during drought and rewetting. Treated soils were dried, incubated for 3 weeks, rewetted, incubated for a further 3 weeks and compared to untreated soils, maintained at a constant moisture content. Nitrate accumulation and AOA and AOB abundance (abundance of respective amoA genes) and community composition (DGGE analysis of AOA amoA and AOB 16S rRNA genes) were poorly adapted to drying-rewetting. AOA abundance and community composition were less resistant than AOB during drought and less resilient after rewetting, at times when ammonium concentration was higher. Data provide evidence for poor adaptation of microbial communities and processes to drying-rewetting in soils with no history of drought and indicate niche differentiation of AOA and AOB associated with high ammonia concentration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1574-6941.12395DOI Listing
November 2014

Inoculation of PAH-degrading strains of Fusarium solani and Arthrobacter oxydans in rhizospheric sand and soil microcosms: microbial interactions and PAH dissipation.

Biodegradation 2013 Jul 30;24(4):569-81. Epub 2013 Mar 30.

Université de Lorraine, CNRS, LIMOS, UMR 7137, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex, France.

Very little is known about the influence of bacterial-fungal ecological interactions on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) dissipation in soils. Fusarium solani MM1 and Arthrobacter oxydans MsHM11 can dissipate PAHs in vitro. We investigated their interactions and their effect on the dissipation of three PAHs-phenanthrene (PHE), pyrene (PYR) and dibenz(a,h)anthracene (DBA)-in planted microcosms, in sterile sand or non-sterile soil. In sterile sand microcosms planted with alfalfa, the two microbes survived and grew, without any significant effect of co-inoculation. Co-inoculation led to the dissipation of 46 % of PHE after 21 days. In soil microcosms, whether planted with alfalfa or not, both strains persisted throughout the 46 days of the experiment, without any effect of co-inoculation or of alfalfa, as assessed by real-time PCR targeting taxon-level indicators, i.e. Actinobacteria 16S rDNA and the intergenic transcribed spacer specific to the genus Fusarium. The microbial community was analyzed by temporal temperature gradient electrophoresis and real-time PCR targeting bacterial and fungal rDNA and PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase genes. These communities were modified by PAH pollution, which selected PAH-degrading bacteria, by the presence of alfalfa and, concerning the bacterial community, by inoculation. PHE and PYR concentrations significantly decreased (91 and 46 %, respectively) whatever the treatment, but DBA concentration significantly decreased (30 %) in planted and co-inoculated microcosms only.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10532-013-9628-3DOI Listing
July 2013

Long-term in situ dynamics of the fungal communities in a multi-contaminated soil are mainly driven by plants.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2012 Oct 13;82(1):169-81. Epub 2012 Jun 13.

LIMOS, CNRS UMR 7137, Faculté des Sciences, Lorraine University, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France.

The fungal communities of a multi-contaminated soil polluted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals (NM) were studied within a long-term in situ experiment of natural attenuation assisted by plants. Three treatments were monitored: bare soil (NM-BS), soil planted with alfalfa and inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi (NM-Msm), and soil with spontaneous vegetation (NM-SV). The same soil after thermal desorption (TD) was planted with alfalfa and inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi (TD-Msm). Twice a year for 5 years, the fungal abundance and the community structure were evaluated by real-time PCR and temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis targeting 18S rRNA genes. The fungal abundance increased over time and was higher in planted than in bare NM soil and in TD than in NM soil. The Shannon diversity index (H') increased during the first 2 years with the emergence of more than 30 ribotypes, but decreased after 3 years with the selection of a few competitive species, mostly Ascomycetes. H' was higher under complex plant assemblage (NM-SV) than in the NM-BS plots but did not differ between NM and TD soils planted with alfalfa. These results indicated that even in a highly polluted soil, the plant cover was the main driver of the fungal community structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6941.2012.01414.xDOI Listing
October 2012

Functional diversification of fungal glutathione transferases from the ure2p class.

Int J Evol Biol 2011 22;2011:938308. Epub 2011 Nov 22.

Unité Mixte de Recherches INRA UHP 1136 Interaction Arbres Microorganismes, IFR 110 Ecosystèmes Forestiers, Agroressources, Bioprocédés et Alimentation, Faculté des Sciences et Technologies, Nancy Université BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex, France.

The glutathione-S-transferase (GST) proteins represent an extended family involved in detoxification processes. They are divided into various classes with high diversity in various organisms. The Ure2p class is especially expanded in saprophytic fungi compared to other fungi. This class is subdivided into two subclasses named Ure2pA and Ure2pB, which have rapidly diversified among fungal phyla. We have focused our analysis on Basidiomycetes and used Phanerochaete chrysosporium as a model to correlate the sequence diversity with the functional diversity of these glutathione transferases. The results show that among the nine isoforms found in P. chrysosporium, two belonging to Ure2pA subclass are exclusively expressed at the transcriptional level in presence of polycyclic aromatic compounds. Moreover, we have highlighted differential catalytic activities and substrate specificities between Ure2pA and Ure2pB isoforms. This diversity of sequence and function suggests that fungal Ure2p sequences have evolved rapidly in response to environmental constraints.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/938308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3227518PMC
August 2012