Publications by authors named "Cecil E Hayes"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Synthetic signal injection using a single radiofrequency channel.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2011 Dec 5;34(6):1414-21. Epub 2011 Oct 5.

Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA; Department of Radiology, Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Purpose: To demonstrate that, when injecting an artificial reference signal for quantitation purposes, the real and artificial signals can be acquired separately, using a single radiofrequency (RF) channel, with no loss of fidelity. Conversion of MR signals to units of concentration can be simplified by injection of a precalibrated, artificial reference signal, or pseudo-signal. In previous implementations, the pseudo-signal was acquired simultaneously with the real signals arising from the sample and this requires a second, integrated RF channel.

Materials And Methods: We used in vivo spectroscopy and in vitro imaging measurements to test the validity of the separate acquisition method.

Results: There was very strong correlation (r = 0.94; P = 0.02) between the in vivo concentrations determined with separate and simultaneous acquisition methods. The in vitro measurements validated that the separate acquisition method compensates for differences in coil loading conditions as well as the simultaneous acquisition method.

Conclusion: Separate acquisition eliminates the need for a second RF channel, which allows easier implementation at sites that have only one channel available, and relaxes the constraints on the number and amplitude of pseudo-signals. This flexibility can be exploited to increase the signal to noise ratio of the pseudo-signal and reduce variability when making the conversion to units of concentration.
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December 2011

Novel 16-channel receive coil array for accelerated upper airway MRI at 3 Tesla.

Magn Reson Med 2011 Jun 16;65(6):1711-7. Epub 2010 Dec 16.

Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-2564, USA.

Upper airway MRI can provide a noninvasive assessment of speech and swallowing disorders and sleep apnea. Recent work has demonstrated the value of high-resolution three-dimensional imaging and dynamic two-dimensional imaging and the importance of further improvements in spatio-temporal resolution. The purpose of the study was to describe a novel 16-channel 3 Tesla receive coil that is highly sensitive to the human upper airway and investigate the performance of accelerated upper airway MRI with the coil. In three-dimensional imaging of the upper airway during static posture, 6-fold acceleration is demonstrated using parallel imaging, potentially leading to capturing a whole three-dimensional vocal tract with 1.25 mm isotropic resolution within 9 sec of sustained sound production. Midsagittal spiral parallel imaging of vocal tract dynamics during natural speech production is demonstrated with 2 × 2 mm(2) in-plane spatial and 84 ms temporal resolution.
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June 2011

Quantitative in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy using synthetic signal injection.

PLoS One 2010 Dec 28;5(12):e15166. Epub 2010 Dec 28.

Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

Accurate conversion of magnetic resonance spectra to quantitative units of concentration generally requires compensation for differences in coil loading conditions, the gains of the various receiver amplifiers, and rescaling that occurs during post-processing manipulations. This can be efficiently achieved by injecting a precalibrated, artificial reference signal, or pseudo-signal into the data. We have previously demonstrated, using in vitro measurements, that robust pseudo-signal injection can be accomplished using a second coil, called the injector coil, properly designed and oriented so that it couples inductively with the receive coil used to acquire the data. In this work, we acquired nonlocalized phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements from resting human tibialis anterior muscles and used pseudo-signal injection to calculate the Pi, PCr, and ATP concentrations. We compared these results to parallel estimates of concentrations obtained using the more established phantom replacement method. Our results demonstrate that pseudo-signal injection using inductive coupling provides a robust calibration factor that is immune to coil loading conditions and suitable for use in human measurements. Having benefits in terms of ease of use and quantitative accuracy, this method is feasible for clinical use. The protocol we describe could be readily translated for use in patients with mitochondrial disease, where sensitive assessment of metabolite content could improve diagnosis and treatment.
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December 2010

A combined solenoid-surface RF coil for high-resolution whole-brain rat imaging on a 3.0 Tesla clinical MR scanner.

Magn Reson Med 2010 Sep;64(3):883-92

Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA.

Rat brain models effectively simulate a multitude of human neurological disorders. Improvements in coil design have facilitated the wider utilization of rat brain models by enabling the utilization of clinical MR scanners for image acquisition. In this study, a novel coil design, subsequently referred to as the rat brain coil, is described that exploits and combines the strengths of both solenoids and surface coils into a simple, multichannel, receive-only coil dedicated to whole-brain rat imaging on a 3.0 T clinical MR scanner. Compared with a multiturn solenoid mouse body coil, a 3-cm surface coil, a modified Helmholtz coil, and a phased-array surface coil, the rat brain coil improved signal-to-noise ratio by approximately 72, 61, 78, and 242%, respectively. Effects of the rat brain coil on amplitudes of static field and radiofrequency field uniformity were similar to each of the other coils. In vivo, whole-brain images of an adult male rat were acquired with a T(2)-weighted spin-echo sequence using an isotropic acquisition resolution of 0.25 x 0.25 x 0.25 mm(3) in 60.6 min. Multiplanar images of the in vivo rat brain with identification of anatomic structures are presented. Improvement in signal-to-noise ratio afforded by the rat brain coil may broaden experiments that utilize clinical MR scanners for in vivo image acquisition.
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September 2010

The development of the birdcage resonator: a historical perspective.

Cecil E Hayes

NMR Biomed 2009 Nov;22(9):908-18

Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

The author gives a personal account of the development of the birdcage resonator while he worked at GE Medical Systems. The emphasis is on promoting an intuitive understanding of the underlying principles of RF coil design by recounting the assumptions, misconceptions, and reasoning involved in addressing the challenging problems in a new field of technology. Topics covered include the historic context of early MRI development, the critical role of RF coil technology in high field imaging, the need for an RF shield, the importance of distributed capacitance, the scientific controversies over magnetic field strength for imaging, a comparison of the birdcage design to an earlier Technicare phased coil, the distribution of electric fields in birdcage resonators, and the limitations of birdcages at very high fields. The author often cites less well-known patent literature on RF coil technology.
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November 2009

Synthetic signal injection using inductive coupling.

J Magn Reson 2008 Sep 1;194(1):67-75. Epub 2008 Jul 1.

Department of Radiology, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Box 357115, Seattle, WA 98195-7115, USA.

Conversion of MR signals into units of metabolite concentration requires a very high level of diligence to account for the numerous parameters and transformations that affect the proportionality between the quantity of excited nuclei in the acquisition volume and the integrated area of the corresponding peak in the spectrum. We describe a method that eases this burden with respect to the transformations that occur during and following data acquisition. The conceptual approach is similar to the ERETIC method, which uses a pre-calibrated, artificial reference signal as a calibration factor to accomplish the conversion. The distinguishing feature of our method is that the artificial signal is introduced strictly via induction, rather than radiation. We tested a prototype probe that includes a second RF coil rigidly positioned close to the receive coil so that there was constant mutual inductance between them. The artificial signal was transmitted through the second RF coil and acquired by the receive coil in parallel with the real signal. Our results demonstrate that the calibration factor is immune to changes in sample resistance. This is a key advantage because it removes the cumbersome requirement that coil loading conditions be the same for the calibration sample as for experimental samples. The method should be adaptable to human studies and could allow more practical and accurate quantification of metabolite content.
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September 2008

Carotid plaque morphology and composition: initial comparison between 1.5- and 3.0-T magnetic field strengths.

Radiology 2008 Aug 23;248(2):550-60. Epub 2008 Jun 23.

Department of Radiology, University of Washington, 815 Mercer St, Box 358050, Seattle, WA 98109, USA.

Purpose: To prospectively compare the interpretation and quantification of carotid vessel wall morphology and plaque composition at 1.5-T with those at 3.0-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging.

Materials And Methods: Twenty participants (mean age, 69.8 years [standard deviation] +/- 10.5; 75% men) with 16%-79% carotid stenosis at duplex ultrasonography were imaged with 1.5-T and 3.0-T MR imaging units with bilateral four-element phased-array surface coils. This HIPAA-compliant study was approved by the institutional review board, and all participants gave written informed consent. Protocols designed for similar signal-to-noise ratios across platforms were implemented to acquire axial T1-weighted, T2-weighted, intermediate-weighted, time-of-flight, and contrast material-enhanced T1-weighted images. Lumen area, wall area, total vessel area, wall thickness, and presence or absence and area of plaque components were documented. Continuous variables from different field strengths were compared by using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and repeated measures analysis. The Cohen kappa was used to evaluate agreement between 1.5 T and 3.0 T on compositional dichotomous variables.

Results: There was a strong level of agreement between field strengths for all morphologic variables, with ICCs ranging from 0.88 to 0.96. Agreement in the identification of presence or absence of plaque components was very good for calcification (kappa = 0.72), lipid-rich necrotic core (kappa = 0.73), and hemorrhage (kappa = 0.66). However, the visualization of hemorrhage was greater at 1.5 T than at 3.0 T (14.7% vs 7.8%, P < .001). Calcifications measured significantly (P = .03) larger at 3.0 T, while lipid-rich necrotic cores without hemorrhage were similar between field strengths (P = .9).

Conclusion: At higher field strengths, the increased susceptibility of calcification and paramagnetic ferric iron in hemorrhage may alter quantification and/or detection. Nevertheless, imaging criteria at 1.5 T for carotid vessel wall interpretation are applicable at 3.0 T.
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August 2008

Reader and platform reproducibility for quantitative assessment of carotid atherosclerotic plaque using 1.5T Siemens, Philips, and General Electric scanners.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2007 Aug;26(2):344-52

Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: To evaluate the platform and reader reproducibility of quantitative carotid plaque measurements.

Materials And Methods: A total of 32 individuals with >or=15% carotid stenosis by duplex ultrasound were each imaged once by a 1.5T General Electric (GE) whole body scanner and twice by either a 1.5T Philips scanner or a 1.5T Siemens scanner. A standardized multisequence protocol and identical phased-array carotid coils were used. Expert readers, blinded to subject information, scanner type, and time point, measured the lumen, wall, and total vessel areas and determined the modified American Heart Association lesion type (AHA-LT) on the cross-sectional images.

Results: AHA-LT was consistently identified across the same (kappa = 0.75) and different scan platforms (kappa = 0.75). Furthermore, scan-rescan coefficients of variation (CV) of wall area measurements on Siemens and Philips scanners ranged from 6.3% to 7.5%. However, wall area measurements differed between Philips and GE (P = 0.003) and between Siemens and GE (P = 0.05). In general, intrareader reproducibility was higher than interreader reproducibility for AHA-LT identification as well as for quantitative measurements.

Conclusion: All three scanners produced images that allowed AHA-LT to be consistently identified. Reproducibility of quantitative measurements by Siemens and Philips scanners were comparable to previous studies using 1.5T GE scanners. However, bias was introduced with each scanner and the use of different readers substantially increased variability. We therefore recommend using the same platform and the same reader for scans of individual subjects undergoing serial assessment of carotid atherosclerosis.
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August 2007

Multicontrast black-blood MRI of carotid arteries: comparison between 1.5 and 3 tesla magnetic field strengths.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2006 May;23(5):691-8

Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.

Purpose: To compare black-blood multicontrast carotid imaging at 3T and 1.5T and assess compatibility between morphological measurements of carotid arteries at 1.5T and 3T.

Materials And Methods: Five healthy subjects and two atherosclerosis patients were scanned in 1.5T and 3T scanners with a similar protocol providing transverse T1-, T2-, and proton density (PD)-weighted black-blood images using a fast spin-echo sequence with single- (T1-weighted) or multislice (PD-/T2-weighted) double inversion recovery (DIR) preparation. Wall and lumen signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and wall/lumen contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were compared in 44 artery cross-sections by paired t-test. Interscanner variability of the lumen area (LA), wall area (WA), and mean wall thickness (MWT) was assessed using Bland-Altman analysis.

Results: Wall SNR and lumen/wall CNR significantly increased (P < 0.0001) at 3T with a 1.5-fold gain for T1-weighted images and a 1.7/1.8-fold gain for PD-/T2-weighted images. Lumen SNR did not differ for single-slice DIR T1-weighted images (P = 0.2), but was larger at 3T for multislice DIR PD-/T2-weighted images (P = 0.01/0.03). The LA, WA, and MWT demonstrated good agreement with no significant bias (P 0.5), a coefficient of variation (CV) of < 10%, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of > 0.95.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated significant improvement in SNR, CNR, and image quality for high- resolution black-blood imaging of carotid arteries at 3T. Morphologic measurements are compatible between 1.5T and 3T.
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May 2006

High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging is a noninvasive method of observing injury and recovery in the peripheral nervous system.

Neurosurgery 2003 Jul;53(1):199-203; discussion 203-4

Department of Radiology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.

Objective: Noninvasive observation of degenerating and regenerating peripheral nerves could improve the diagnosis and treatment of nerve injuries. We constructed a novel phased-array radiofrequency coil to permit magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) observation of the sciatic nerve and its target muscles in rats after injury.

Methods: Adult male Lewis rats underwent either crushing (n = 18) or cutting and capping (n = 17) of their right sciatic nerves and then underwent serial MRI. Serial gait track analysis was performed to assess behavioral recovery. Animals from both groups were killed at several time points for histological evaluation of the nerves, with axon counting.

Results: Crushed sciatic nerves demonstrated increased T2-weighted signals, followed by signal normalization as axonal regeneration and behavioral recovery occurred. Cut sciatic nerves prevented from regenerating displayed a prolonged phase of increased signal intensity. Acutely denervated muscles exhibited hyperintense T2-weighted signals, which normalized with reinnervation and behavioral recovery. Chronically denervated muscles demonstrated persistently increased T2-weighted signals and atrophy.

Conclusion: In this study, we demonstrated the ability of MRI to noninvasively monitor injury and recovery in the peripheral nervous system, by demonstrating changes in nerve and muscle that correlated with histological and behavioral evidence of axonal degeneration and regeneration. This study demonstrates the potential of MRI to distinguish traumatic peripheral nerve injuries that recover through axonal regeneration (i.e., axonotmetic grade) from those that do not and therefore require surgical repair (i.e., neurotmetic grade). This diagnostic modality could improve treatment by providing earlier and more accurate diagnoses of nerve damage, as well as reducing the need for exploratory surgery.
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July 2003