Publications by authors named "Ce Dou"

47 Publications

Osteoclast-derived small extracellular vesicles induce osteogenic differentiation via inhibiting ARHGAP1.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2021 Mar 4;23:1191-1203. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Biomedical Materials Science, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China.

Activated osteoclasts release large amounts of small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) during bone remodeling. However, little is known about whether osteoclast-derived sEVs affect surrounding cells. In this study, osteoclasts were generated by stimulating bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) with macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear actor κB ligand (RANKL). We performed microarray analysis of sEV-microRNAs (miRNAs)s secreted from osteoclast at different stages and identified four miRNAs that were highly expressed in mature osteoclast-derived sEVs. One of these miRNAs, miR-324, significantly induced osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of primary mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by targeting , a negative regulator of osteogenic differentiation. We next fabricated an sEV-modified scaffold by coating decalcified bone matrix (DBM) with osteoclast-derived sEVs, and the pro-osteogenic regeneration activities of the sEV-modified scaffold were validated in a mouse calvarial defect model. Notably, miR-324-enriched sEV-modified scaffold showed the highest capacity on bone regeneration, whereas inhibition of miR-324 in sEVs abrogated these effects. Taken together, our findings suggest that miR-324-contained sEVs released from mature osteoclast play an essential role in the regulation of osteogenic differentiation and potentially bridge the coupling between osteoclasts and MSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtn.2021.01.031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7900016PMC
March 2021

Small extracellular vesicles deliver osteolytic effectors and mediate cancer-induced osteolysis in bone metastatic niche.

J Extracell Vesicles 2021 Feb 18;10(4):e12068. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Orthopedics Southwest Hospital Third Military Medical University Chongqing 400038 China.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play critical roles in regulating bone metastatic microenvironment through mediating intercellular crosstalks. However, little is known about the contribution of EVs derived from cancer cells to the vicious cycle of bone metastasis. Here, we report a direct regulatory mode between tumour cells and osteoclasts in metastatic niche of prostate cancer via vesicular miRNAs transfer. Combined analysis of miRNAs profiles both in tumour-derived small EVs (sEVs) and osteoclasts identified miR-152-3p as a potential osteolytic molecule. sEVs were enriched in miR-152-3p, which targets osteoclastogenic regulator MAFB. Blocking miR-152-3p in sEVs upregulated the expression of MAFB and impaired osteoclastogenesis in vitro. In vivo experiments of xenograft mouse model found that blocking of miR-152-3p in sEVs significantly slowed down the loss of trabecular architecture, while systemic inhibition of miR-152-3p using antagomir-152-3p reduced the osteolytic lesions of cortical bone while preserving basic trabecular architecture. Our findings suggest that miR-152-3p carried by prostate cancer-derived sEVs deliver osteolytic signals from tumour cells to osteoclasts, facilitating osteolytic progression in bone metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jev2.12068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7892803PMC
February 2021

Osteoclast-derived apoptotic bodies couple bone resorption and formation in bone remodeling.

Bone Res 2021 Jan 11;9(1). Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Orthopedics, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 400038, China.

Bone remodeling is precisely coordinated by bone resorption and formation. Apoptotic osteoclasts generate large amounts of apoptotic bodies (ABs) marking the end of the bone resorption phase, whereas the functions of osteoclast-derived ABs remain largely unknown. Here, we identified the molecular profile of ABs derived from osteoclasts at distinct differentiation stages and investigated their corresponding functions. ABs were isolated from apoptotic bone marrow macrophages, preosteoclasts, and mature osteoclasts induced by staurosporine. Proteomic signature analysis with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry suggested marked protein cargo differences among the different ABs. Further bioinformatic analysis showed that the proteomic signatures of the ABs were highly similar to those of their parental cells. Functionally, pOC-ABs induced endothelial progenitor cell differentiation and increased CD31Emcn endothelial cell formation in a murine bone defect model via their PDGF-BB cargo. mOC-ABs induced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and facilitated osteogenesis via RANKL reverse signaling. In summary, we mapped the detailed proteomic landscapes of ABs derived from osteoclasts and showed that their potential biological roles are important in coupling bone formation with resorption during bone remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41413-020-00121-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7801485PMC
January 2021

Microenvironment in subchondral bone: predominant regulator for the treatment of osteoarthritis.

Ann Rheum Dis 2020 Nov 6. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of Biomedical Materials Science, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease in the elderly. Although OA has been considered as primarily a disease of the articular cartilage, the participation of subchondral bone in the pathogenesis of OA has attracted increasing attention. This review summarises the microstructural and histopathological changes in subchondral bone during OA progression that are due, at the cellular level, to changes in the interactions among osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts (OCs), endothelial cells and sensory neurons. Therefore, we focus on how pathological cellular interactions in the subchondral bone microenvironment promote subchondral bone destruction at different stages of OA progression. In addition, the limited amount of research on the communication between OCs in subchondral bone and chondrocytes (CCs) in articular cartilage during OA progression is reviewed. We propose the concept of 'OC-CC crosstalk' and describe the various pathways by which the two cell types might interact. Based on the 'OC-CC crosstalk', we elaborate potential therapeutic strategies for the treatment of OA, including restoring abnormal subchondral bone remodelling and blocking the bridge-subchondral type H vessels. Finally, the review summarises the current understanding of how the subchondral bone microenvironment is related to OA pain and describes potential interventions to reduce OA pain by targeting the subchondral bone microenvironment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-218089DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7958096PMC
November 2020

Osteoclast-derived apoptotic bodies show extended biological effects of parental cell in promoting bone defect healing.

Theranostics 2020 22;10(15):6825-6838. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Orthopedics, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China.

Apoptotic bodies (ABs) traditionally considered as garbage bags that enclose residual components of dead cells are gaining increasing attentions due to their potential roles in intercellular communications. In bone turn over, at the end of bone resorption phase, most osteoclasts undergo apoptosis, generating large amounts of ABs. However, it remains unclear of the role of osteoclast-derived ABs in bone remodeling. : Staurosporine (STS) was used to apoptotic induction and differential centrifugation was used to isolate ABs. Western blotting, flowcytometry and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were performed for ABs identification, while whole transcriptome of ABs from osteoclasts at different stages was detected by RNA-seq. VENN analysis and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) were performed to compare the profile similarities between ABs and parental cells. efficacy of ABs on angiogenesis and osteogenesis were evaluated by tube formation assay and ALP staining. , calvarial defect mice model was used to assess the effects of ABs-modified decalcified bone matrix (DBM) scaffolds on angiogenesis and osteogenesis. : Here we mapped the whole transcriptome paralleled with small RNA profiling of osteoclast derived ABs at distinct differentiation stages. Whole transcriptome analysis revealed significant differences in RNA signatures among the ABs generated from osteoclasts at different stages. By comparing with parental osteoclast RNA profiles, we found that the transcriptome of ABs exhibited high similarities with the corresponding parental cells. Functionally, and studies showed that similar with the parental cells, pOC-ABs potentiated endothelial progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation, whereas mOC-ABs promoted osteogenic differentiation. The inherited biological effects of ABs were shown mediated by several enriched lncRNAs of which the interference abolished AB functions. : Our study revealed the total RNA profiles of osteoclast derived ABs and demonstrated their biological functions. Both gene set and functional analysis indicated that osteoclast derived ABs are biologically similar with the parental cells suggesting their bridging role in osteoclast-osteoblast coupling in bone remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.45170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7295057PMC
May 2020

Dendritic cells-derived interferon-λ1 ameliorated inflammatory bone destruction through inhibiting osteoclastogenesis.

Cell Death Dis 2020 06 2;11(6):414. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Orthopedics, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), 400038, Chongqing, China.

Bone infection contributing to inflammatory osteolysis is common in orthopedic surgery. The dynamic balance between bone formation and bone resorption is destroyed due to excessive osteoclast fusion and differentiation, which results in severe bone matrix loss. Many therapeutic approaches that restrain osteoclast formation and function act as efficient ways to prevent inflammatory bone erosion. We have demonstrated for the first time that dendritic cells-derived interferon-λ1 (IFN-λ1) inhibited inflammatory bone destruction in vivo and explored its underlying mechanisms on osteoclast formation in vitro. We found that IFN-λ1 was highly expressed in infectious bone tissue compared with that of non-infectious bone tissue. Additionally, dendritic cells marker genes such as CD80, CD86, and CD1a were higher expressed in infectious bone tissue than that of non-infectious bone tissue. Dendritic cells that were pretreated with LPS showed high expression of IFN-λ1. Moreover, conditioned medium of LPS-pretreated dendritic cells significantly inhibited osteoclast differentiation, as determined by TRAP staining assay. This suppressive effect was reversed by adding an IFN-λ1 monoclonal antibody. It was also investigated whether exogenous IFN-λ1 restrained osteoclastogenesis, bone resorption, F-actin ring formation, osteoclast-specific gene expression, release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and translocation of p65 and NFATc1 by preventing the NF-κB signaling pathway and NLRP3 inflammasome formation, as well as by inducing the JAK-STAT signaling pathways in vitro. In vivo study indicated that IFN-λ1 prevents lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory bone destruction by inhibiting excessive osteoclast fusion and bone resorption activity. In conclusion, our findings confirmed that dendritic cells-derived IFN-λ1 could attenuate osteoclast formation and bone resorptive activity in vitro and in vivo. These novel findings pave the way for the use of exogenous IFN-λ1 as a potential therapeutic treatment for excessive osteoclast-related diseases, such as inflammatory osteolysis, by regulating osteoclastogenesis to maintain the dynamic balance between bone formation and bone resorption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-2612-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7265503PMC
June 2020

Non-coenzyme role of vitamin B1 in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and ovariectomy induced osteoporosis.

J Cell Biochem 2020 07 26;121(7):3526-3536. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Department of Orthopedics, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Vitamins B are co-enzymes participating in energy metabolic pathways. While some vitamins B are known affecting bone homeostasis, the effects of vitamin B1 (thiamine) on bone health remains unclear. In our study, we used cell counting kit-8, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase stain, actin cytoskeleton stain, and pit formation assay to evaluate the effect of thiamine on osteoclast differentiation, formation, and function, respectively. Then we used dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate assay to investigate reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and removal. Osteoporosis model by ovariectomy was established for animal experiments. We found that thiamine had inhibitory effect on osteoclast differentiation. And its inhibitory role on osteoclast differentiation is in a dose-dependent way. Mechanistically, ThDP suppresses intracellular ROS accumulation and unfolded protein response signaling during osteoclastogenesis via inhibiting Rac-Nox1/2/4 and intracellular inositol-requiring protein-1α/X-box-binding protein pathways, respectively. Osteoporotic mice treated with thiamine rich dietary showed better bone strength relative to thiamine deficient dietary. Our study explored the non-coenzyme inhibitory functions of B1 vitamin in receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand induced osteoclastogenesis and uncovered the significance of B1 vitamin in bone health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.29632DOI Listing
July 2020

Physalin D inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone loss via regulating calcium signaling.

BMB Rep 2020 Mar;53(3):154-159

Department of Blood Purification, General Hospital of Shenyang Military Area Command, Shenyang 110000, China.

We investigated the effects of physalin A, B, D, and F on osteoclastogenesis induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL). The biological functions of different physalins were first predicted using an in silico bioinformatic tool (BATMAN-TCM). Afterwards, we tested cell viability and cell apoptosis rate to analyze the cytotoxicity of different physalins. We analyzed the inhibitory effects of physalins on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis from mouse bone-marrow macrophages (BMMs) using a tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) stain. We found that physalin D has the best selectivity index (SI) among all analyzed physalins. We then confirmed the inhibitory effects of physalin D on osteoclast maturation and function by immunostaining of F-actin and a pit-formation assay. On the molecular level, physalin D attenuated RANKLevoked intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) oscillation by inhibiting phosphorylation of phospholipase Cγ2 (PLCγ2) and thus blocked the downstream activation of Ca2+/calmodulindependent protein kinases (CaMK)IV and cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB). An animal study showed that physalin D treatment rescues bone microarchitecture, prevents bone loss, and restores bone strength in a model of rapid bone loss induced by soluble RANKL. Taken together, these results suggest that physalin D inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone loss via suppressing the PLCγ2-CaMK-CREB pathway. [BMB Reports 2020; 53(3): 154-159].
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7118355PMC
March 2020

Vitamin B5 inhibit RANKL induced osteoclastogenesis and ovariectomy induced osteoporosis by scavenging ROS generation.

Am J Transl Res 2019 15;11(8):5008-5018. Epub 2019 Aug 15.

Department of Orthopedics, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University) Chongqing 400038, China.

B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism. The participation of B vitamins in bone health has been recognized for decades. Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) is mainly known for its wide variety of sources. However, the potential role of pantothenic acid in bone health and metabolism is still unclear. In this study, we found pantothenic acid has a dual effect on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) stain shows that osteoclastogenesis was remarkably induced in a lower dosage of pantothenic acid (< 200 mM) and significantly inhibited while the pantothenic acid concentration increases to a certain extent (> 500 mM). We further confirmed this dual effect of pantothenic acid in osteoclastogenesis by detecting osteoclast formation and bone resorption using focal adhesion stain and pit formation, respectively. Mechanistically, we found phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-protein kinase B (PI3K-Akt) pathway was activated in pre-osteoclasts (pOCs) after cultured with lower dosage of pantothenic acid; while the ROS generation was eliminated with upregulation of forkhead box O1 (FoxO1), forkhead box O2 (FoxO2) and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in pOCs after cultured with higher dosage of pantothenic acid. Finally, we used ovariectomized (OVX) mice to explore the potential role of pantothenic acid rich dietary in regulating bone metabolism , the result shows that pantothenic acid rich dietary can protect bone loss from estrogen deficiency. In brief, our study identified a new understanding of pantothenic acid in regulating osteoclastogenesis, revealed a therapeutic potential of pantothenic acid in prevention of bone loss related disorders.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6731427PMC
August 2019

Mature osteoclast-derived apoptotic bodies promote osteogenic differentiation via RANKL-mediated reverse signaling.

J Biol Chem 2019 07 5;294(29):11240-11247. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

Department of Orthopedics, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China

In bone remodeling, after a lifespan of ∼2 weeks, osteoclasts undergo apoptosis in each bone turnover cycle, resulting in generation of a large number of apoptotic bodies (ABs). However, the biological roles of osteoclast-derived ABs (OC-ABs) in bone remodeling have not been investigated and remain unknown. In this study, we stimulated bone marrow macrophages with receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) to obtain both preosteoclasts and mature osteoclasts (mOCs). We then used alendronate to induce apoptosis in preosteoclasts and mOCs and generate the respective ABs and used flow cytometry and immunoblotting to characterize the sizes and immunogenic characteristics of the extracted ABs. We show that mOC-ABs are engulfed by preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and promote the viability of these cells. Among all osteoclast-derived extracellular vesicles, mOC-ABs had the highest osteogenic potency. We further observed that mOC-ABs had the highest vesicular receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) levels among all types of osteoclast-derived extracellular vesicles. Of note, masking of vesicular RANK by soluble RANKL strongly abolished the osteogenic potency of osteoclast-derived ABs. Mechanistically, we found that mOC-ABs induce osteoblast differentiation by activatingPI3K/AKT/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)/ribosomal protein S6 kinase signaling. In conclusion, OC-ABs promote osteogenic differentiation by stimulating osteoblast differentiation via activation of RANKL reverse signaling. These findings provide important insights into the reversal phase between the bone resorption and formation stages during bone remodeling and identify an AB-dependent cellular signaling mechanism in osteoclast-osteoblast coupling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA119.007625DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6643026PMC
July 2019

IL-11 is essential in promoting osteolysis in breast cancer bone metastasis via RANKL-independent activation of osteoclastogenesis.

Cell Death Dis 2019 04 30;10(5):353. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

Department of Biomedical Materials Science, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 400038, China.

A variety of osteolytic factors have been identified from breast cancer cells leading to osteolysis, but less is known about which factor plays an essential role in the initiation process prior to the overt vicious osteolytic cycle. Here, we present in vitro and in vivo evidences to clarify the role of interleukin-11 (IL-11) as an essential contributor to breast cancer bone metastasis mediated osteolysis. Animal studies showed that bone specific metastatic BoM-1833 cells induce earlier onset of osteolysis and faster tumor growth compared with MCF7 and parental MDA-MB-231 cells in BALB/c-nu/nu nude mice. IL-11 was further screened and identified as the indispensable factor secreted by BoM-1833 cells inducing osteoclastogenesis independently of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL). Mechanistic investigation revealed that the JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway as a downstream effector of IL-11, STAT3 activation further induces the expression of c-Myc, a necessary factor required for osteoclastogenesis. By inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation, AG-490 was shown effective in reducing osteolysis and tumor growth in the metastatic niche. Overall, our results revealed the essential role and the underlying molecular mechanism of IL-11 in breast cancer bone metastasis mediated osteolysis. STAT3 targeting through AG-490 is a potential therapeutic strategy for mitigating osteolysis and tumor growth of bone metastatic breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-019-1594-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6491651PMC
April 2019

Ceria nanoparticles enhance endochondral ossification-based critical-sized bone defect regeneration by promoting the hypertrophic differentiation of BMSCs DHX15 activation.

FASEB J 2019 05 18;33(5):6378-6389. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Biomedical Materials Science, School of Biomedical Engineering, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Central ischemic necrosis is one of the biggest obstacles in the clinical application of traditional tissue-engineered bone (TEB) in critical-sized bone defect regeneration. Because of its ability to promote vascular invasion, endochondral ossification-based TEB has been applied for bone defect regeneration. However, inadequate chondrocyte hypertrophy can hinder vascular invasion and matrix mineralization during endochondral ossification. In light of recent studies suggesting that ceria nanoparticles (CNPs) improve the blood vessel distribution within TEB, we modified TEB scaffold surfaces with CNPs and investigated the effect and mechanism of CNPs on endochondral ossification-based bone regeneration. The CNPs used in this study were synthesized by the microemulsion method and modified with alendronate-anchored polyethylene glycol 600. We showed that CNPs accelerated new bone formation and enhanced endochondral ossification-based bone regeneration in both a subcutaneous ectopic osteogenesis model and a mouse model of critical-sized bone defects. Mechanistically, CNPs significantly promoted endochondral ossification-based bone regeneration by ensuring sufficient hypertrophic differentiation the activation of the RNA helicase, DEAH (Asp-Glu-Ala-His) box helicase 15, and its downstream target, p38 MAPK. These results suggested that CNPs could be applied as a biomaterial to improve the efficacy of endochondral ossification-based bone regeneration in critical-sized bone defects.-Li, J., Kang, F., Gong, X., Bai, Y., Dai, J., Zhao, C., Dou, C., Cao, Z., Liang, M., Dong, R., Jiang, H., Yang, X., Dong, S. Ceria nanoparticles enhance endochondral ossification-based critical-sized bone defect regeneration by promoting the hypertrophic differentiation of BMSCs DHX15 activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201802187RDOI Listing
May 2019

MicroRNA-29b regulates hypertrophy of murine mesenchymal stem cells induced toward chondrogenesis.

J Cell Biochem 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Department of Biomedical Materials Science, School of Biomedical Engineering, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Objective: Chondrocyte hypertrophy, a terminal stage of chondrocyte differentiation, is essential to the endochondral bone formation and is one of the major pathological factors in osteoarthritis. This study investigated the role of microRNA-29b (miR-29b), which is involved in chondrogenesis, in the regulation of hypertrophy in chondrocytes.

Methods: miR-29b expression was assessed during murine mesenchymal stem cells (mMSCs) chondrogenesis. To detect whether miR-29b affects chondrocyte hypertrophy, the mMSCs induced toward chondrogenesis were transfected with miR-29b or its antisense inhibitor (antagomiR-29b). Finally, the differential effects of antagomiR-29b on chondrocytes at different differentiation stages were evaluated by loss-of-function experiments.

Results: miR-29b expression was low-level during the early chondrogenic differentiation, however, it was changed to high level during hypertrophy. Subsequently, the gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments had confirmed that miR-29b promoted hypertrophy in mMSC-derived chondrocytes. In addition, we confirmed that on day 7, when cells were treated with antagomiR-29b, was the optimal intervention time for preventing hypertrophic phenotype of mMSCs in vitro.

Conclusion: miR-29b regulated chondrogenesis homeostasis and enhance hypertrophic phenotype. These data suggest that miR-29b is a key regulator of the chondrocyte phenotype derived from mMSCs and it might be a potential target for articular cartilage repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.28161DOI Listing
January 2019

The role of physical forces in osteoclastogenesis.

J Cell Physiol 2019 08 8;234(8):12498-12507. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Department of Biomedical Materials Science, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

The movements of life at every level from organs, tissues, cells to sub-cells, are all conducted in certain physical environments. In the human body, skeletal tissue among all connective tissues is influenced the most by physical forces. Studying the biological behavior of bone cells under different physical environments is helpful in further understanding bone homeostasis and metabolism. Among all bone cells, osteoclast (OC) and OC steered bone remodeling is one of the key points in bone metabolism. In the past few decades, people's understanding of OC was mostly limited to its involvement of bone resorption under physiological and pathological conditions. However, more and more studies started to focus on how physical forces affect the formation and differentiation of OC. This review tries to illustrate the knowledge up to date about how osteoclastogenesis is regulated by physical forces through direct and indirect ways, including fluid shear force, compressive force, and microgravity. The direct way describes the straightforward effects produced by different forces in osteoclastogenesis, whereas the indirect way describes the effects of different forces in osteoclastogenesis through regulation of other bone cells when a certain force is applied. Molecular mechanisms were analyzed and reviewed in both direct and indirect regulation by different forces. Finally, we discussed the status quo and tendency of related research, as well as other unresolved issues, and some future prospects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.28108DOI Listing
August 2019

Multiple integrin ligands provide a highly adhesive and osteoinductive surface that improves selective cell retention technology.

Acta Biomater 2019 02 14;85:106-116. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

National & Regional United Engineering Lab of Tissue Engineering, Department of Orthopedics, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, China; Center of Regenerative and Reconstructive Engineering Technology in Chongqing City, Chongqing, China. Electronic address:

Among various bone tissue engineering strategies, selective cell retention (SCR) technology has been used as a practical clinical method for bone graft manufacturing in real time. The more mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are retained, the better the osteoinductive microenvironment provided by the scaffold, which in turn promotes the osteogenesis of the SCR-fabricated bone grafts. Integrin receptors are crucial to cell-matrix adhesion and signal transduction. We designed a collagen-binding domain (CBD)-containing IKVAV-cRGD peptide (CBD-IKVAV-cRGD peptide) to complement the collagen-based demineralized bone matrix (DBM) with a functionalized surface containing multiple integrin ligands, which correspond to the highly expressed integrin subtypes on MSCs. This DBM/CBD-IKVAV-cRGD composite exhibited superior in vitro adhesion capacity to cultured MSCs, as determined by oscillatory cell adhesion assay, centrifugal cell adhesion assay and mimetic SCR. Moreover, it promoted the retention of MSC-like CD271 cells and MSC-like CD90/CD105 cells in the clinical SCR method. Furthermore, the DBM/CBD-IKVAV-cRGD composite induced robust MSC osteogenesis, coupled with the activation of the downstream FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway of integrins. The SCR-prepared DBM/CBD-IKVAV-cRGD composite displayed superior in vivo osteogenesis, indicating that it may be potentially utilized as a biomaterial in SCR-mediated bone transplantation. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Selective cell retention technology (SCR) has been utilized in clinical settings to manufacture bioactive bone grafts. Specifically, demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is a widely-used SCR clinical biomaterial but it displays poor adhesion performance and osteoinduction. Improvements of the DBM that promote cell adhesion and osteoinduction will benefit SCR-prepared implants. In this work, we developed a novel peptide that complements the DBM with a functionalized surface of multiple integrin ligands, which are corresponding to integrin subtypes available on human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Our results indicate this novel functionalized bioscaffold greatly increases SCR-mediated MSC adhesion and in vivo osteogenesis. Overall, this novel material has promising SCR applications and may likely provide highly bioactive bone implants in clinical settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2018.12.018DOI Listing
February 2019

Redox control of chondrocyte differentiation and chondrogenesis.

Free Radic Biol Med 2019 02 28;132:83-89. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

Department of Biomedical Materials Science, School of Biomedical Engineering, Third Military Medical University, Gaotanyan Street No.30, Chongqing 400038, China; State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China. Electronic address:

Chondrogenesis involves the recruitment and migration of mesenchymal cells, mesenchymal condensation, and chondrocyte differentiation and hypertrophy. Multiple factors precisely regulate chondrogenesis. Recent studies have demonstrated that the redox status of chondrocytes plays an essential role in the regulation of chondrocyte differentiation and chondrogenesis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are important factors that change the intracellular redox status. Physiological levels of ROS/RNS act as intracellular signals in chondrocytes, and oxidative stress impairs the metabolism of chondrocytes. Under physiological conditions, the balance between ROS/RNS production and elimination ensures that redox-sensitive signalling proteins function correctly. The redox homeostasis of chondrocytes ensures that they respond appropriately to endogenous and exogenous stimuli. This review focuses on the redox regulation of key signalling pathways and transcription factors that control chondrogenesis and chondrocyte differentiation. Additionally, the mechanism by which ROS/RNS regulate signalling proteins and transcription factors in chondrocytes is also reviewed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2018.10.443DOI Listing
February 2019

Physalin D regulates macrophage M1/M2 polarization via the STAT1/6 pathway.

J Cell Physiol 2019 06 14;234(6):8788-8796. Epub 2018 Oct 14.

Department of Anatomy, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

The in vitro and in vivo effects of physalin D on macrophage M1/M2 polarization were investigated. In silico analysis was first performed for biological function prediction of different physalins. The results suggest physalins have similar predicted biological functions due to their similarities in chemical structures. The cytotoxicity of physalins was then analyzed based on cell apoptosis rate and cell viability evaluation. Physalin D was chosen for further study due to its minimal cytotoxicity. Bone marrow macrophages were isolated and induced with lipopolysaccharide/interferon (IFN)-γ for M1 polarization and interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13 for M2 polarization. The results showed that physalin D can repolarize M1 phenotype cells toward M2 phenotype. In addition, physalin D is protective in M2 macrophages to maintain the M2 phenotype in the presence of IFN-γ. On the molecular level, we found that physalin D suppressed the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)1 activation and blocked STAT1 nuclear translocation. Conversely, physalin D can also activate STAT6 and enhance STAT6 nuclear translocation for M2 polarization. Taken together, these results suggested that physalin D regulates macrophage M1/M2 polarization via the STAT1/6 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.27537DOI Listing
June 2019

LncRNA AK077216 promotes RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption via NFATc1 by inhibition of NIP45.

J Cell Physiol 2019 02 21;234(2):1606-1617. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

Department of Biomedical Materials Science, School of Biomedical Engineering, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, China.

Osteoclasts derived from the monocyte/macrophage hematopoietic lineage regulate bone resorption, a process balanced by bone formation in the continual renewal of the skeletal system. As dysfunctions of these cells result in bone metabolic diseases such as osteoporosis and osteopetrosis, the exploration of the mechanisms regulating their differentiation is a priority. A potential mechanism may involve long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are known to regulate various cell biology activities, including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The expression of the lncRNA AK077216 (Lnc-AK077216) is significantly upregulated during osteoclastogenesis identified by microarray and verified by qPCR. Up- and downregulation of Lnc-AK077216, respectively promotes and inhibits osteoclast differentiation, bone resorption, and the expression of related genes on the basis of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, qPCR, and western blot results. In addition, Lnc-AK077216 suppresses NIP45 expression and promotes the expression of NFATc1, an essential transcription factor during osteoclastogenesis. Besides, it was found that the expression of Lnc-AK077216 and Nfatc1 is upregulated, whereas Nip45 expression is downregulated in bone marrow and spleen tissues of ovariectomized mice. The results suggest that Lnc-AK077216 regulates NFATc1 expression and promotes osteoclast formation and function, providing a novel mechanism of osteoclastogenesis and a potential biomarker or a new drug target for osteoporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.27031DOI Listing
February 2019

Inhibitory effect of vanillin on RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and function through activating mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis signaling pathway.

Life Sci 2018 Sep 25;208:305-314. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Department of Biomedical Materials Science, School of Biomedical Engineering, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing 400038, China; State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing 400038, China. Electronic address:

Bone matrix homeostasis associated diseases such as osteoporosis and erosive arthritis were caused by the imbalance of osteoclast-mediated bone-resorption and osteoblast-mediated bone-formation. Suppressing the fusion and differentiation of osteoclast from osteoclast precursors are an essential way to maintain the dynamic balance of resorption and formation. Recently, some natural products were discovered to inhibit osteoclast formation and function for potential treatment of osteoporosis. Vanillin was previously reported to have anti-tumor and anti-oxidant activities; however, its effect on bone health has not been elucidated. In this study, we found that the inhibitory effect of vanillin on RANKL-induced multinucleated osteoclast formation and bone resorption (concentration of 0.25 mM-2.5 mM). Morphologically, the number of mature osteoclasts was decreased after treating with vanillin in a dose-dependent manner, which was evaluated by TRAP staining and FAK staining. Vanillin could significantly inhibit bone resorption and promote the early apoptosis rate during RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Furthermore, vanillin could activate the mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis via inducing the expression of cytochrome c, cleaved caspease-3, BAX and Apaf-1 both on mRNA and protein level. Otherwise, the expression of Bcl-2 was inhibited. Thereby, these data provide the clue that vanillin could be a candidate to treat bone matrix metabolic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2018.07.048DOI Listing
September 2018

IL-8 Enhances Therapeutic Effects of BMSCs on Bone Regeneration via CXCR2-Mediated PI3k/Akt Signaling Pathway.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 17;48(1):361-370. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Department of Orthopedics, National & Regional United Engineering Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Southwest Hospital, the Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Background/aims: Tissue engineering bone transplantation with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) is an effective technology to treat massive bone loss, while molecular regulation of the bone regeneration processes remains poorly understood. Here, we aimed to assess the role of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in the recruitment of host cells by seeded BMSCs and in the bone regeneration.

Methods: A transwell assay was performed to examine the role of IL-8/CXCR1/CXCR2/PI3k/Akt on the migration potential of hBMSCs. The in vitro chondrogenic differentiation of hBMSCs was assessed by examination of 2 chondrogenic markers, Sox9 and type 2 collagen (COL2). mBMSCs were used in tissue engineered bone (TEB) with/without IL-8 implanted into bone defect area with CXCR2 or Akt inhibitors. Density and Masson staining of the regenerated bone were assessed. The chondrogenesis was assessed by expression levels of associated proteins, Sox9 and COL2, by RT-qPCR and by immunohistochemistry.

Results: IL-8 may trigger in vitro migration of hBMSCs via CXCR2-mediated PI3k/Akt signaling pathway. IL-8 enhances osteogenesis in the TEB-implanted bone defect in mice. IL-8 induces chondrogenic differentiation of hBMSCs via CXCR2-mediated PI3k/Akt signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo.

Conclusions: IL-8 enhances therapeutic effects of MSCs on bone regeneration via CXCR2-mediated PI3k/Akt signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000491742DOI Listing
September 2018

Chemical Self-Assembly of Multifunctional Hydroxyapatite with a Coral-like Nanostructure for Osteoporotic Bone Reconstruction.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Aug 23;10(30):25547-25560. Epub 2018 Jul 23.

State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury , Third Military Medical University , Chongqing 400038 , China.

Bone defects/fractures are common in older people suffering from osteoporosis. Traditional hydroxyapatite (HA) materials for osteoporotic bone repair face many challenges, including limited bone formation and aseptic loosening of orthopedic implants. In this study, a new multifunctional HA is synthesized by spontaneous assembly of alendronate (AL) and FeO onto HA nanocrystals for osteoporotic bone regeneration. The chemical coordination of AL and FeO with HA does not induce lattice deformation, resulting in a functionalized HA (Func-HA) with proper magnetic property and controlled release manner. The Func-HA nanocrystals have been encapsulated in polymer substrates to further investigate their osteogenic capability. In vitro and in vivo evaluations reveal that both AL and FeO, especially the combination of two functional groups on HA, can inhibit osteoclastic activity and promote osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, as well as enhance implant osseointegration and accelerate bone remodeling under osteoporotic condition. The as-developed Func-HA with coordinating antiresorptive ability, magnetic property, and osteoconductivity might be a desirable biomaterial for osteoporotic bone defect/fracture treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b09879DOI Listing
August 2018

Antishear Stress Bionic Carbon Nanotube Mesh Coating with Intracellular Controlled Drug Delivery Constructing Small-Diameter Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts.

Adv Healthc Mater 2018 06 10;7(11):e1800026. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Department of Anatomy, Third Military Medical University, Gaotanyan Street No. 30, Chongqing, 400038, China.

Small-diameter (<6 mm) tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBVs) have a low patency rate due to chronic inflammation mediated intimal hyperplasia. Functional coating with drug release is a promising solution, but preventing the released drug from being rushed away by blood flow remains a great challenge. A single-walled carboxylic acid functionalized carbon nanotube (C-SWCNT) is used to build an irregular mesh for TEBV coating. However, an interaction between the released drug and the cells is still insufficient due to the blood flow. Thus, an intracellular drug delivery system mediated by macrophage cellular uptake is designed. Resveratrol (RSV) modified CNT is used for macrophage uptake. M1 macrophage uptakes CNT-RSV and then converts to the M2 phenotype upon intracellular RSV release. Prohealing M2 macrophage inhibits the chronic inflammation thus maintains the contractile phenotype of the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC), which reduces intimal hyperplasia. Additionally, RSV released from the mesh coating also directly protects the contractile VSMCs from being converted to a secretory phenotype. Through antishear stress coating and macrophage-based intracellular drug delivery, CNT-RSV TEBVs exhibit a long-term anti-intimal hyperplasia function. Animal transplantation studies show that the patency rate remains high until day 90 after grafting in rat carotid arteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.201800026DOI Listing
June 2018

Graphene-Based MicroRNA Transfection Blocks Preosteoclast Fusion to Increase Bone Formation and Vascularization.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2018 02 4;5(2):1700578. Epub 2017 Dec 4.

Department of Biomedical Materials Science Third Military Medical University Chongqing 400038 China.

The objective of this study is to design a graphene-based miRNA transfection drug delivery system for antiresorptive therapy. An efficient nonviral gene delivery system is developed using polyethylenimine (PEI) functionalized graphene oxide (GO) complex loaded with miR-7b overexpression plasmid. GO-PEI complex exhibits excellent transfection efficiency within the acceptable range of cytotoxicity. The overexpression of miR-7b after GO-PEI-miR-7b transfection significantly abrogates osteoclast (OC) fusion and bone resorption activity by hampering the expression of an essential fusogenic molecule dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein. However, osteoclastogenesis occurs without cell-cell fusion and preosteoclast (POC) is preserved. Through preservation of POC, GO-PEI-miR-7b transfection promotes mesenchymal stem cell osteogenesis and endothelial progenitor cells angiogenesis in the coculture system. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB secreted by POC is increased by GO-PEI-miR-7b both in vitro and in vivo. In treating osteoporotic ovariectomized mice, GO-PEI-miR-7b significantly enhances bone mineral density, bone volume as well as bone vascularization through increasing CD31Emcn cell number. This study provides a cell-cell fusion targeted miRNA transfection drug delivery strategy in treating bone disorders with excessive osteoclastic bone resorption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.201700578DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5826985PMC
February 2018

Alendronate induces osteoclast precursor apoptosis via peroxisomal dysfunction mediated ER stress.

J Cell Physiol 2018 09 30;233(9):7415-7423. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Department of Orthopedics, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, China.

Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates including alendronate (ALN) are the current first line antiresorptive drug in treating osteoporosis. In our study, we found that ALN administration impaired the secretion of platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), the most important angiogenic cytokines produced by preosteoclast (POC), in both sham and ovariectomized (OVX) mice. To further understand this phenomenon, we induced bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) to POCs in vitro and detected the effects of ALN particularly in POCs. The proapoptotic effect of ALN in POCs was confirmed by flow cytometry. On the molecular level, we found that farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FDPS) inhibition of ALN led to peroxisomal dysfunction and up regulation of cytoprotective protein glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78. Peroxisomal dysfunction further induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in POCs and finally resulted in cell apoptosis marked by reduced expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and increased expressions of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), Bcl2 associated X (Bax), and cleaved caspase-3. We concluded that ALN has no selectivity in inhibiting POC and mature osteoclast. For POCs, ALN inhibition of FDPS leads to peroxisomal dysfunction, which further mediates ER stress and finally causes cell apoptosis. Considering that decreased angiogenesis is also an important issue in treating osteoporosis, how to preserve pro-angiogenic POCs while depleting mature osteoclasts is a problem worthy to be solved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.26587DOI Listing
September 2018

LncRNA-AK131850 Sponges MiR-93-5p in Newborn and Mature Osteoclasts to Enhance the Secretion of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor a Promoting Vasculogenesis of Endothelial Progenitor Cells.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 23;46(1):401-417. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

Department of Biomedical Materials Science, School of Biomedical Engineering, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Background/aims: In the process of bone development and remodeling, the vasculature is regarded as the communicative network between the bone and neighboring tissues. Recently, it has been reported that the processes of angiogenesis and osteogenesis are coupled temporally and spatially. However, few studies reported the relationship and relevant mechanism between osteoclastogenesis and vasculogenesis.

Methods: Arraystar Mouse lncRNA microarray V3.0 was firstly used to analyze the differentially expressed lncRNA genes in osteoclast different stages during osteoclastogenesis. Cell counting kit 8 (CCK-8) analysis, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis, migration and tube formation assays were used to detect impact of osteoclast different stages on the proliferation, differentiation, migration and tube formation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), respectively. Finally, transfection of AK131850 shRNA, miR-93-5p mimic and miR-93-5p inhibitor, qRT-PCR, western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and luciferase reporter assay were carried out to dissect molecular mechanisms.

Results: In this study, we found that newborn OCs (N-OC) and mature OCs (M-OC) during osteoclastogenesis significantly promoted proliferation, differentiation, migration and tube formation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Through lncRNA microarray and GO&pathway analysis, we found that AK131850 and co-expressed gene, vascular endothelial growth factor a (VEGFa), were significantly up-regulated in N-OC and M-OC. After inhibition of AK131850 the promoting effect of N-OC and M-OC on EPCs was reversed. Furthermore, we found that AK131850 directly competed miR-93-5p in N-OC and M-OC through sponge, thereby increasing VEGFa transcription, expression and secretion through derepressing of miR-93-5p on VEGFa.

Conclusion: Our results provided the first finding that lncRNA-AK131850 sponged miR-93-5p in N-OC and M-OC during osteoclastogenesis to enhance the secretion of VEGFa, thus promoting vasculogenesis of EPCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000488474DOI Listing
June 2018

Mangiferin enhances endochondral ossification-based bone repair in massive bone defect by inducing autophagy through activating AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.

FASEB J 2018 08 16;32(8):4573-4584. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

Department of Biomedical Materials Science, School of Biomedical Engineering, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Endochondral ossification is crucial for bone formation in both adult bone repair process and embryo long-bone development. In endochondral ossification, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) first differentiate to chondrocytes, then BMSC-derived chondrocytes endure a hypertrophic process to generate new bone. Endochondral ossification-based bone repair is a promising strategy to cure massive bone defect, which is a major clinical issue in orthopedics. However, challenges still remain for this novel strategy. One challenge is to ensure the sufficient hypertrophic differentiation. Another is to maintain the survival of the above hypertrophic chondrocytes under the hypoxic environment of massive bone defect. To solve this issue, mangiferin (MAG) was introduced to endochondral ossification-based bone repair. In this report, we proved MAG to be a novel autophagy inducer, which promoted BMSC-derived hypertrophic chondrocyte survival against hypoxia-induced injury through inducing autophagy. Furthermore, MAG enhances hypertrophic differentiation of BMSC-derived chondrocytes via upregulating key hypertrophic markers. Mechanistically, MAG induced autophagy in BMSC-derived chondrocytes by promoting AMPKα phosphorylation. Additionally, MAG balanced the expression of sex-determining region Y-box 9 and runt-related transcription factor 2 to facilitate hypertrophic differentiation. These results indicated that MAG was a potential drug to improve the efficacy of endochondral ossification-based bone repair in massive bone defects.-Bai, Y., Liu, C., Fu, L., Gong, X., Dou, C., Cao, Z., Quan, H., Li, J., Kang, F., Dai, J., Zhao, C., Dong, S. Mangiferin enhances endochondral ossification-based bone repair in massive bone defect by inducing autophagy through activating AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201701411RDOI Listing
August 2018

Estrogen Deficiency-Mediated M2 Macrophage Osteoclastogenesis Contributes to M1/M2 Ratio Alteration in Ovariectomized Osteoporotic Mice.

J Bone Miner Res 2018 05 23;33(5):899-908. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

Department of Biomedical Materials Science, School of Biomedical Engineering, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

In this study, for the first time we discovered that the M1/M2 macrophage phenotype ratio is increased in bone marrow of ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporotic C57BL/6 mice. Considering estrogen is the main variable, we assumed that estrogen participated in this alteration. To determine whether and how estrogen contributes to the change of the M1/M2 ratio, we first isolated bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) from mice femur and stimulated the cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon γ (IFN-γ) for M1 polarization and interleukin 4 (IL-4)/IL-13 for M2 polarization. M1 and M2 macrophages were then exposed to RANKL stimulation, we found that M2 macrophage but not M1 macrophage differentiated into functional osteoclast leading to increased M1/M2 ratio. Intriguingly, 17β-estradiol (E2) pretreatment prevented osteoclastogenesis from M2 macrophages. By constructing shRNA lentivirus interfering the expression of different estrogen receptors in M2 macrophages, we found that estrogen protects M2 macrophage from receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) stimulation selectively through estrogen receptor α (ERα) and the downstream blockage of NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. Animal studies showed that ERα selective agonist 4,4',4″-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl) trisphenol (PPT) was able to replicate the therapeutic effects of E2 in treating osteoporotic OVX mice. Together, our findings reveal that estrogen deficiency-mediated M2 macrophage osteoclastogenesis leads to increased M1/M2 ratio in OVX mice. Reducing the M1/M2 ratio is a potential therapeutic target in treating postmenopausal osteoporosis. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.3364DOI Listing
May 2018

Mesenchymal stem cells promote endothelial progenitor cell migration, vascularization, and bone repair in tissue-engineered constructs via activating CXCR2-Src-PKL/Vav2-Rac1.

FASEB J 2018 04 5;32(4):2197-2211. Epub 2018 Jan 5.

National and Regional United Engineering Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, Department of Orthopedics, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Tissue-engineered constructs (TECs) hold great promise for treating large bone defects. Incorporated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can facilitate the vascularization of TECs. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism remains ambiguous. Here we analyzed the roles of C-X-C chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) and its downstream signal pathways in MSC-induced endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) migration. Transwell assays and immunofluorescence staining were performed for cell migration analysis in vitro and in vivo, respectively. A series of signal inhibitors and short hairpin RNA was used for screening essential signaling molecules. We found that blockade of CXCR2 abolished the migration of EPCs toward MSCs as well as subsequent vascularization and bone repair in TECs. Moreover, screening results suggested that steroid receptor coactivator (Src) acted as a predominant downstream effector of CXCR2. Further molecular biologic and histomorphological experiments revealed that the action of Src required the phosphorylation of ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1), which was pivotal for the development of lamellipodia and filopodia. The phosphorylation and colocalization of paxillin kinase linker (PKL) and vav guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 (Vav2) were essential for the activation of Rac1. Therefore, we demonstrated that MSCs promoted EPC migration via activating CXCR2 and its downstream Src-PKL/Vav2-Rac1 signaling pathway. These findings unveiled the molecular mechanism in the vascularization of TECs and were expected to provide novel targets for efficacy improvement.-Li, Z., Yang, A., Yin, X., Dong, S., Luo, F., Dou, C., Lan, X., Xie, Z., Hou, T., Xu, J., Xing, J. Mesenchymal stem cells promote endothelial progenitor cell migration, vascularization, and bone repair in tissue-engineered constructs via activating CXCR2-Src-PKL/Vav2-Rac1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201700895RDOI Listing
April 2018

Curcumin Inhibits Chondrocyte Hypertrophy of Mesenchymal Stem Cells through IHH and Notch Signaling Pathways.

Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2017 ;65(8):762-767

Department of Biomedical Materials Science, School of Biomedical Engineering, Third Military Medical University.

Using tissue engineering technique to repair cartilage damage caused by osteoarthritis is a promising strategy. However, the regenerated tissue usually is fibrous cartilage, which has poor mechanical characteristics compared to hyaline cartilage. Chondrocyte hypertrophy plays an important role in this process. Thus, it is very important to find out a suitable way to maintain the phenotype of chondrocytes and inhibit chondrocyte hypertrophy. Curcumin deriving from turmeric was reported with anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor pharmacological effects. However, the role of curcumin in metabolism of chondrocytes, especially in the chondrocyte hypertrophy remains unclear. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used in cartilage tissue engineering as seed cells. So we investigated the effect of curcumin on chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy in MSCs through examination of cell viability, glycosaminoglycan synthesis and specific gene expression. We found curcumin had no effect on expression of chondrogenic markers including Sox9 and Col2a1 while hypertrophic markers including Runx2 and Col10a1 were down-regulated. Further exploration showed that curcumin inhibited chondrocyte hypertrophy through Indian hedgehog homolog (IHH) and Notch signalings. Our results indicated curcumin was a potential agent in modulating cartilage homeostasis and maintaining chondrocyte phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/cpb.c17-00225DOI Listing
August 2017