Publications by authors named "Cayleen Smith"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The impact of genetic counseling on women's grief and coping following termination of pregnancy for fetal anomaly.

J Genet Couns 2021 Apr 26;30(2):522-532. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, TX, USA.

Pregnancy termination for fetal anomaly (TFA) is a unique experience that can cause women to develop long-term complicated grief. Although a woman's experience with her healthcare providers has been previously identified as an important factor in coping, studies have shown that many women report their health care as lacking to some extent. Given the overlap in women's needs and the practice scope of a genetic counselor (GC), this study aimed to examine how genetic counseling may impact coping and explore women's expectations of GCs pre- and post-TFA. An online survey, which included the brief COPE and the short version of the Perinatal Grief Scale, was distributed among private online support groups. Appropriate statistical analysis tools, such as the Wilcoxon rank-sum and t test, were utilized for quantitative analysis of the 124 responses, and inductive content analysis was utilized for qualitative analysis. Of those who underwent TFA within the last two years, women who saw a GC utilized active coping, planning, and positive reframing significantly more than women who did not see a GC (p = 0.001, p = 0.031, p = 0.027, respectively). GCs were perceived to have a positive impact on coping when providing information, objective care, emotional support, support resources, and follow-up care; these practices encouraged confidence in their personal decision-making and gave women hope for the future. This study not only identified key counseling roles for GCs prior to a TFA, but also demonstrated that genetic counseling prior to TFA may be beneficial to coping. Further studies are warranted to explore the needs of a more diverse population and to identify appropriate genetic counseling training methods to support women pursuing TFA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgc4.1338DOI Listing
April 2021

Estradiol signaling mediates gender difference in visceral adiposity via autophagy.

Cell Death Dis 2018 02 22;9(3):309. Epub 2018 Feb 22.

Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise, Fralin Life Science Institute, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, USA.

Excessive adiposity (particularly visceral fat mass) increases the risks of developing metabolic syndrome. Women have lower deposit of visceral fat than men, and this pattern becomes diminished postmenopausally, but the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the gender difference in visceral fat distribution is controlled by an estradiol-autophagy axis. In C57BL/6J and wild-type control mice, a higher visceral fat mass was detected in the males than in the females, which was associated with lower expression of estrogen receptor α (ERα) and more active autophagy in males vs. females. However, deletion of ERα normalized autophagy activity and abolished the gender difference in visceral adiposity. In line with the adiposity-reducing effect of the ERα-autophagy axis, we found that downregulation of ERα and increased autophagy activity were required for adipogenesis, while induction of estradiol signaling dampened autophagy and drastically prevented adipogenesis. Mechanistically, the estradiol-ERα signaling activated mTOR, which phosphorylated and inhibited ULK1, thereby suppressing autophagy and adipogenesis. Together, our study suggests that the lower visceral adiposity in the females (vs. the males) arises from a more active estradiol-ERα signaling, which tunes down autophagy and adipogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-018-0372-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5833393PMC
February 2018

FoxO1 interacts with transcription factor EB and differentially regulates mitochondrial uncoupling proteins via autophagy in adipocytes.

Cell Death Discov 2016;2:16066. Epub 2016 Oct 3.

Department of Human Nutrition, Foods and Exercise, Virginia Tech, Fralin Life Science Institute, College of Agriculture and Life Science , Blacksburg, VA, USA.

Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are inducible and play an important role in metabolic and redox homeostasis. Recent studies have suggested that FoxO1 controls mitochondrial biogenesis and morphology, but it remains largely unknown how FoxO1 may regulate mitochondrial UCPs. Here we show that FoxO1 interacted with transcription factor EB (Tfeb), a key regulator of autophagosome and lysosome, and mediated the expression of UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 differentially via autophagy in adipocytes. UCP1 was down-regulated but UCP2 and UCP3 were upregulated during adipocyte differentiation, which was associated with increased Tfeb and autophagy activity. However, inhibition of FoxO1 suppressed Tfeb and autophagy, attenuating UCP2 and UCP3 but increasing UCP1 expression. Pharmacological blockade of autophagy recapitulated the effects of FoxO1 inhibition on UCPs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that FoxO1 interacted with Tfeb by directly binding to its promoter, and silencing FoxO1 led to drastic decrease in Tfeb transcript and protein levels. These data provide the first line of evidence that FoxO1 interacts with Tfeb to regulate autophagy and UCP expression in adipocytes. Dysregulation of FoxO1→autophagy→UCP pathway may account for metabolic changes in obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/cddiscovery.2016.66DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5046220PMC
October 2016

Mitochondrial Epigenetic Changes Link to Increased Diabetes Risk and Early-Stage Prediabetes Indicator.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2016 19;2016:5290638. Epub 2016 May 19.

Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise, Fralin Translational Obesity Research Center, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA.

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by mitochondrial derangement and oxidative stress. With no known cure for T2D, it is critical to identify mitochondrial biomarkers for early diagnosis of prediabetes and disease prevention. Here we examined 87 participants on the diagnosis power of fasting glucose (FG) and hemoglobin A1c levels and investigated their interactions with mitochondrial DNA methylation. FG and A1c led to discordant diagnostic results irrespective of increased body mass index (BMI), underscoring the need of new biomarkers for prediabetes diagnosis. Mitochondrial DNA methylation levels were not correlated with late-stage (impaired FG or A1c) but significantly with early-stage (impaired insulin sensitivity) events. Quartiles of BMI suggested that mitochondrial DNA methylation increased drastically from Q1 (20 < BMI < 24.9, lean) to Q2 (30 < BMI < 34.9, obese), but marginally from Q2 to Q3 (35 < BMI < 39.9, severely obese) and from Q3 to Q4 (BMI > 40, morbidly obese). A significant change was also observed from Q1 to Q2 in HOMA insulin sensitivity but not in A1c or FG. Thus, mitochondrial epigenetic changes link to increased diabetes risk and the indicator of early-stage prediabetes. Further larger-scale studies to examine the potential of mitochondrial epigenetic marker in prediabetes diagnosis will be of critical importance for T2D prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5290638DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4889851PMC
March 2017

FoxO1 antagonist suppresses autophagy and lipid droplet growth in adipocytes.

Cell Cycle 2016 Aug 3;15(15):2033-41. Epub 2016 Jun 3.

a Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise , Fralin Life Science Institute, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Virginia Tech , Blacksburg , VA , USA.

Obesity and related metabolic disorders constitute one of the most pressing heath concerns worldwide. Increased adiposity is linked to autophagy upregulation in adipose tissues. However, it is unknown how autophagy is upregulated and contributes to aberrant adiposity. Here we show a FoxO1-autophagy-FSP27 axis that regulates adipogenesis and lipid droplet (LD) growth in adipocytes. Adipocyte differentiation was associated with upregulation of autophagy and fat specific protein 27 (FSP27), a key regulator of adipocyte maturation and expansion by promoting LD formation and growth. However, FoxO1 specific inhibitor AS1842856 potently suppressed autophagy, FSP27 expression, and adipocyte differentiation. In terminally differentiated adipocytes, AS1842856 significantly reduced FSP27 level and LD size, which was recapitulated by autophagy inhibitors (bafilomycin-A1 and leupeptin, BL). Similarly, AS1842856 and BL dampened autophagy activity and FSP27 expression in explant cultures of white adipose tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first study addressing FoxO1 in the regulation of adipose autophagy, shedding light on the mechanism of increased autophagy and adiposity in obese individuals. Given that adipogenesis and adipocyte expansion contribute to aberrant adiposity, targeting the FoxO1-autophagy-FSP27 axis may lead to new anti-obesity options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15384101.2016.1192732DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4968963PMC
August 2016