Publications by authors named "Catriona S Jennings"

9 Publications

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Potential for optimizing management of obesity in the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease.

Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Medicine, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, FoU - Tema Hjärta och Kärl, S1:02, Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset/Solna, SE-171 76, Stockholm, Sweden.

Aims: Prevention guidelines have identified the management of obese patients as an important priority to reduce the burden of incident and recurrent cardiovascular disease. Still, studies have demonstrated that over 80% of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) fail to achieve their weight target. Here, we describe advice received and actions reported by overweight CHD patients since being discharged from hospital and how weight changes relate to their risk profile.

Methods And Results: Based on data from 10 507 CHD patients participating in the EUROASPIRE IV and V studies, we analysed weight changes from hospital admission to the time of a study visit ≥6 and <24 months later. At hospitalization, 34.9% were obese and another 46.0% were overweight. Obesity was more frequent in women and associated with more comorbidities. By the time of the study visit, 19.5% of obese patients had lost ≥5% of weight. However, in 16.4% weight had increased ≥5%. Weight gain in those overweight was associated with physical inactivity, non-adherence to dietary recommendations, smoking cessation, raised blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, dysglycaemia, and lower levels of quality of life. Less than half of obese patients was considering weight loss in the coming month.

Conclusions: The management of obesity remains a challenge in the secondary prevention of CHD despite a beneficial effect of weight loss on risk factor prevalences and quality of life. Cardiac rehabilitation programmes should include weight loss interventions as a specific component and the incremental value of telehealth intervention as well as recently described pharmacological interventions need full consideration.
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July 2021

Interhospital and interindividual variability in secondary prevention: a comparison of outpatients with a history of chronic coronary syndrome versus outpatients with a history of acute coronary syndrome (the iASPIRE Study).

Open Heart 2021 Jun;8(1)

National Institute for Prevention and Cardiovascular Health, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland

Background: Studying variability in the care provided to secondary prevention coronary heart disease (CHD) outpatients can identify interventions to improve their outcomes.

Methods: We studied outpatients who had an index CHD event in the preceding 6-24 months. Eligible CHD events included acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and coronary revascularisation for stable chronic coronary syndrome (CCS). Site training was provided by a core team and data were collected using standardised methods.

Results: Between 2017 and 2019, we enrolled 721 outpatients at nine Irish study sites; 81% were men and mean age was 63.9 (SD ±8.9) years. The study examination occurred a median of 1.16 years after the index CHD event, which was ACS in 399 participants (55%) and stable-CCS in 322. On examination, 42.5% had blood pressure (BP) >140/90 mm Hg, 63.7% had low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) >1.8 mmol/L and 44.1% of known diabetics had an HbA1c >7%. There was marked variability in risk factor control, both by study site and, in particular, by index presentation type. For example, 82% of outpatients with prior-ACS had attended cardiac rehabilitation versus 59% outpatients with prior-CCS (p<0.001) and there were also large differences in control of traditional risk factors like LDL-C (p=0.002) and systolic BP (p<0.001) among outpatients with prior-ACS versus prior-CCS as the index presentation.

Conclusions: Despite international secondary prevention guidelines broadly recommending the same risk factor targets for all adults with CHD, we found marked differences in outpatient risk factor control and management on the basis of hospital location and index CHD presentation type (acute vs chronic). These findings highlight the need to reduce hospital-level and patient-level variability in preventive care to improve outcomes; a lesson that should inform CHD prevention programmes in Ireland and around the world.
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June 2021

ASPIRE-3-PREVENT: a cross-sectional survey of preventive care after a coronary event across the UK.

Open Heart 2020 04;7(1)

NHLI, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Objective: To quantify the implementation of the third Joint British Societies' Consensus Recommendations for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease (JBS3) after coronary event.

Methods: Using a cross-sectional survey design, patients were consecutively identified in 36 specialist and district general hospitals between 6 months and 2 years, after acute coronary syndrome or revascularisation procedure and invited to a research interview. Outcomes included JBS3 lifestyle, risk factor and therapeutic management goals. Data were collected using standardised methods and instruments by trained study nurses. Blood was analysed in a central laboratory and a glucose tolerance test was performed.

Results: 3926 eligible patients were invited to participate and 1177 (23.3% women) were interviewed (30% response). 12.5% were from black and minority ethnic groups. 45% were persistent smokers, 36% obese, 52.9% centrally obese, 52% inactive; 30% had a blood pressure >140/90 mm Hg, 54% non-high-density lipoprotein ≥2.5 mmol/L and 44.3% had new dysglycaemia. Prescribing was highest for antiplatelets (94%) and statins (85%). 81% were advised to attend cardiac rehabilitation (86% <60 years vs 79% ≥60 years; 82% men vs 77% women; 93% coronary artery bypass grafting vs 59% unstable angina), 85% attended if advised; 69% attended overall. Attenders were significantly younger (p=0.03) and women were less likely to attend (p=0.03).

Conclusions: Patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) are not being adequately managed after event with preventive measures. They require a structured preventive cardiology programme addressing lifestyle, risk factor management and adherence to cardioprotective medications to achieve the standards set by the British Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation and JBS3 guidelines.
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April 2020

Heart and mind: behavioural cardiology demystified for the clinician.

Heart 2019 06;105(11):881-888

National Heart & Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK.

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June 2019

ASPIRE-2-PREVENT: a survey of lifestyle, risk factor management and cardioprotective medication in patients with coronary heart disease and people at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease in the UK.

Heart 2012 Jun;98(11):865-71

Cardiovascular Medicine, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, St Mary's Campus, International Centre for Circulatory Health, Lower 3rd Floor, 59-61 North Wharf Road, London W2 1LA, UK.

Objective: To determine in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and people at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) whether the Joint British Societies' guidelines on CVD prevention (JBS2) are followed in everyday clinical practice.

Design: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken of medical records and patient interviews and examinations at least 6 months after the recruiting event or diagnosis using standardised instruments and a central laboratory for measurement of lipids and glucose.

Settings: The ASPIRE-2-PREVENT survey was undertaken in 19 randomly selected hospitals and 19 randomly selected general practices in 12 geographical regions in England, Northern Ireland, Wales and Scotland.

Patients: In hospitals, 1474 consecutive patients with CHD were identified and 676 (25.6% women) were interviewed. In general practice, 943 people at high CVD risk were identified and 446 (46.5% women) were interviewed.

Results: The prevalence of risk factors in patients with CHD and high-risk individuals was, respectively: smoking 14.1%, 13.3%; obesity 38%, 50.2%; not reaching physical activity target 83.3%, 85.4%; blood pressure ≥130/80 mm Hg (patients with CHD and self-reported diabetes) or ≥140/85 mm Hg (high-risk individuals) 46.9%, 51.3%; total cholesterol ≥4 mmol/l 52.6%, 78.7%; and diabetes 17.8%, 43.8%.

Conclusions: The potential among patients with CHD and individuals at high risk of developing CVD in the UK to achieve the JBS2 lifestyle and risk factor targets is considerable. CVD prevention needs a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach, addressing all aspects of lifestyle and risk factor management. The challenge is to engage and motivate cardiologists, physicians and other health professionals to routinely practice high quality preventive cardiology in a healthcare system which must invest in prevention.
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June 2012