Publications by authors named "Cathy Sheppard"

9 Publications

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Music Use for Sedation in Critically ill Children (MUSiCC trial): a pilot randomized controlled trial.

J Intensive Care 2021 Jan 12;9(1). Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Room 4-548 11405 87 Avenue, Edmonton, AB, T6G 1C9, Canada.

Objective: To demonstrate feasibility of a music medicine intervention trial in pediatric intensive care and to obtain information on sedation and analgesia dose variation to plan a larger trial.

Material And Methods: Pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted at the Stollery Children's Hospital general and cardiac intensive care units (PICU/PCICU). The study included children 1 month to 16 years of age on mechanical ventilation and receiving sedation drugs. Patients were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to music, noise cancellation or control. The music group received classical music for 30 min three times/day using headphones. The noise cancellation group received the same intervention but with no music. The control group received usual care.

Results: A total of 60 patients were included. Average enrollment rate was 4.8 patients/month, with a consent rate of 69%. Protocol adherence was achieved with patients receiving > 80% of the interventions. Overall mean (SD) daily Sedation Intensity Score was 52.4 (30.3) with a mean (SD) sedation frequency of 9.75 (7.21) PRN doses per day. There was a small but statistically significant decrease in heart rate at the beginning of the music intervention. There were no study related adverse events. Eighty-eight percent of the parents thought the headphones were comfortable; 73% described their child more settled during the intervention.

Conclusions: This pilot RCT has demonstrated the feasibility of a music medicine intervention in critically ill children. The study has also provided the necessary information to plan a larger trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40560-020-00523-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7802123PMC
January 2021

Prevalence of ICU Delirium in Postoperative Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Patients.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2021 Jan;22(1):68-78

University of California San Francisco, School of Nursing, San Francisco, CA.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of ICU delirium in children less than 18 years old that underwent cardiac surgery within the last 30 days. The secondary aim of the study was to identify risk factors associated with ICU delirium in postoperative pediatric cardiac surgical patients.

Design: A 1-day, multicenter point-prevalence study of delirium in pediatric postoperative cardiac surgery patients.

Setting: Twenty-seven pediatric cardiac and general critical care units caring for postoperative pediatric cardiac surgery patients in North America.

Patients: All children less than 18 years old hospitalized in the cardiac critical care units at 06:00 on a randomly selected, study day.

Interventions: Eligible children were screened for delirium using the Cornell Assessment of Pediatric Delirium by the study team in collaboration with the bedside nurse.

Measurement And Main Results: Overall, 181 patients were enrolled and 40% (n = 73) screened positive for delirium. There were no statistically significant differences in patient demographic information, severity of defect or surgical procedure, past medical history, or postoperative day between patients screening positive or negative for delirium. Our bivariate analysis found those patients screening positive had a longer duration of mechanical ventilation (12.8 vs 5.1 d; p = 0.02); required more vasoactive support (55% vs 26%; p = 0.0009); and had a higher number of invasive catheters (4 vs 3 catheters; p = 0.001). Delirium-positive patients received more total opioid exposure (1.80 vs 0.36 mg/kg/d of morphine equivalents; p < 0.001), did not have an ambulation or physical therapy schedule (p = 0.02), had not been out of bed in the previous 24 hours (p < 0.0002), and parents were not at the bedside at time of data collection (p = 0.008). In the mixed-effects logistic regression analysis of modifiable risk factors, the following variables were associated with a positive delirium screen: 1) pain score, per point increase (odds ratio, 1.3; 1.06-1.60); 2) total opioid exposure, per mg/kg/d increase (odds ratio, 1.35; 1.06-1.73); 3) SBS less than 0 (odds ratio, 4.01; 1.21-13.27); 4) pain medication or sedative administered in the previous 4 hours (odds ratio, 3.49; 1.32-9.28); 5) no progressive physical therapy or ambulation schedule in their medical record (odds ratio, 4.40; 1.41-13.68); and 6) parents not at bedside at time of data collection (odds ratio, 2.31; 1.01-5.31).

Conclusions: We found delirium to be a common problem after cardiac surgery with several important modifiable risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0000000000002591DOI Listing
January 2021

Music Use for Sedation in Critically ill Children (MUSiCC trial): study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial.

Pilot Feasibility Stud 2020 25;6:31. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

1Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, College Plaza 8215 112 St NW, Edmonton, AB T6G 1C9 Canada.

Background: Stress induced by pain and anxiety is common in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients. Sedation/analgesia in PICU is usually achieved through various analgesics and sedatives. Excessive use of these drugs can put patients at risk for hemodynamic/respiratory instability, prolonged ventilation, withdrawal, delirium, and critical illness polyneuromyopathy.The use of non-pharmacologic interventions has been recommended by sedation guidelines. However, non-pharmacological measures in PICU, including music and noise reduction, have been inadequately studied.

Methods: The Music Use for Sedation in Critically ill Children (MUSiCC trial) pilot study is an investigator-initiated, three-arm, randomized controlled trial (RCT) on the use of music for sedation in PICU. The main goal of the study is to demonstrate feasibility of a music trial in PICU and to obtain the necessary information to plan a larger trial. The study compares music versus noise cancelation versus control in sedated and mechanically ventilated children admitted to PICU. In the music group, children receive the music (modified classical music) three times a day for 30 min at a time. Music is delivered with noise cancelation headphones. The noise cancelation group receives the same intervention but with a no music (sham playlist). The control group receives usual care with no specific intervention. Children remain in the study until extubation or a maximum of 7 days. The primary outcomes of the study are feasibility and sedation/analgesia requirements. Secondary outcomes include change in vital signs before and during the intervention, ICU delirium, and adverse effects related to the intervention. The estimated sample size is 20 subjects per group for a total of 60 children.

Discussion: Despite being recommended by current guidelines, evidence to support the use of music in PICU is lacking. Music has the potential to reduce sedation requirements and their negative side effects. This pilot RCT will demonstrate feasibility and provide the necessary information to plan a larger trial focusing on the effectiveness of the intervention.

Trial Registration: The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03497559) on April 13, 2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40814-020-0563-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7043021PMC
February 2020

Fluid Management Practices After Surgery for Congenital Heart Disease: A Worldwide Survey.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2019 04;20(4):357-364

Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Objectives: To determine common practice for fluid management after cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease among pediatric cardiac intensivists.

Design: A survey consisting of 17 questions about fluid management practices after pediatric cardiac surgery. Distribution was done by email, social media, World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies website, and World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies newsletter using the electronic survey distribution and collection system Research Electronic Data Capture.

Setting: PICUs around the world.

Subjects: Pediatric intensivists managing children after surgery for congenital heart disease.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: One-hundred eight responses from 18 countries and six continents were received. The most common prescribed fluids for IV maintenance are isotonic solutions, mainly NaCl 0.9% (42%); followed by hypotonic fluids (33%) and balanced crystalloids solutions (14%). The majority of the respondents limit total fluid intake to 50% during the first 24 hours after cardiac surgery. The most frequently used fluid as first choice for resuscitation is NaCl 0.9% (44%), the second most frequent choice are colloids (27%). Furthermore, 64% of respondents switch to a second fluid for ongoing resuscitation, 76% of these choose a colloid. Albumin 5% is the most commonly used colloid (61%). Almost all respondents (96%) agree there is a need for research on this topic.

Conclusions: Our survey demonstrates great variation in fluid management practices, not only for maintenance fluids but also for volume resuscitation. Despite the lack of evidence, colloids are frequently administered. The results highlight the need for further research and evidence-based guidelines on this topic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0000000000001818DOI Listing
April 2019

Albumin 5% Versus Crystalloids for Fluid Resuscitation in Children After Cardiac Surgery.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2018 09;19(9):846-853

Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Objectives: To determine the clinical benefit of using colloids versus crystalloids for volume resuscitation in children admitted after cardiac surgery.

Design: Retrospective pre-/postintervention cohort study.

Setting: Stollery Children's Hospital tertiary care pediatric cardiac ICU.

Patients: Children admitted to the pediatric cardiac ICU after cardiac surgery.

Interventions: Fluid resuscitation policy change in which crystalloids replaced albumin 5% as the primary fluid strategy for resuscitation after cardiac surgery.

Measurements And Main Results: Children who underwent cardiac surgery in the 6 months prior to the policy change (5% albumin group) were compared with children admitted during the 6 months after (crystalloid group). Demographic, perioperative, and outcome variables (fluid intake days 1-4 postoperative, vasoactive therapy, blood products, time to negative fluid balance, renal replacement therapies, mechanical ventilation, pediatric cardiac ICU, and length of stay) were collected. Data were analyzed using linear and logistic multivariate analysis. The study included 360 children. There was no association between fluid group and fluid intake (mL/kg) on day 1 postoperatively (coefficient, 2.84; 95% CI, 5.37-11.05; p = 0.497). However, crystalloid group was associated with significantly less fluid intake on day 2 (coefficient, -12.8; 95% CI, -22.0 to -3.65; p = 0.006), day 3 (coefficient, -14.9; 95% CI, -24.3 to -5.57; p = 0.002), and on the first 48 hours postoperative (coefficient, 10.1; 95% CI, -27.9 to -1.29; p = 0.032). Pediatric cardiac ICU stay (coefficient, -1.29; 95% CI, -2.50 to -0.08; p = 0.036) was shorter for the crystalloid group. There were no significant differences in the time to negative balance, need for renal replacement therapy, mechanical ventilation days, hospital stay, or pediatric cardiac ICU survival.

Conclusions: In our study, the use of albumin 5% for resuscitation after cardiac surgery was not associated with less fluid intake but rather the opposite. Albumin administration did not provide measured clinical benefit while exposing children to side effects and generating higher costs to the healthcare system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0000000000001657DOI Listing
September 2018

Prospective cohort study on noise levels in a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit.

J Crit Care 2018 04 14;44:318-322. Epub 2017 Dec 14.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. Electronic address:

Purpose: To describe noise levels in a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit, and to determine the relationship between sound levels and patient sedation requirements.

Materials And Methods: Prospective observational study at a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU). Sound levels were measured continuously in slow A weighted decibels dB(A) with a sound level meter SoundEarPro® during a 4-week period. Sedation requirement was assessed using the number of intermittent (PRNs) doses given per hour. Analysis was conducted with autoregressive moving average models and the Granger test for causality.

Results: 39 children were included in the study. The average (SD) sound level in the open area was 59.4 (2.5) dB(A) with a statistically significant but clinically unimportant difference between day/night hours (60.1 vs. 58.6; p-value < 0.001). There was no significant difference between sound levels in the open area/single room (59.4 vs. 60.8, p-value = 0.108). Peak noise levels were > 90 dB. There was a significant association between average (p-value = 0.030) and peak sound levels (p-value = 0.006), and number of sedation PRNs.

Conclusion: Sound levels were above the recommended values with no differences between day/night or open area/single room. High sound levels were significantly associated with sedation requirements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2017.12.008DOI Listing
April 2018

Chloral hydrate enteral infusion for sedation in ventilated children: the CHOSEN pilot study.

Crit Care 2017 Nov 26;21(1):290. Epub 2017 Nov 26.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Stollery Children's Hospital and University of Alberta, 8440 112 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2B7, Canada.

Background: We aimed to test a novel method of delivery of chloral hydrate (CH) sedation in ventilated critically ill young children.

Methods: Children < 12 years old, within 72 hours of admission, who were ventilated, receiving enteral tube-feeds, with intermittent CH ordered were enrolled after signed consent. Patients received a CH loading-dose of 10 mg/kg enterally, then a syringe-pump enteral infusion at 5 mg/kg/hour, increasing to a maximum of 9 mg/kg/hour. Cases were compared to historical controls matched for age group and Pediatric Risk of Mortality score (PRISM) category, using Fisher's exact test and the t test. The primary outcome was feasibility, defined as the use of an enteral CH continuous infusion without discontinuation attributable to a pre-specified potential harm.

Results: There were 21 patients enrolled, at age 11.4 (12.1) months, with bronchiolitis in 10 (48%), a mean Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction (PELOD) score of 6.2 (5.2), and having received enteral CH continuous infusion for 4.5 (2.2) days. Infusion of CH was feasible in 20/21 (95%; 95% CI 76-99%) patients, with one (5%) adverse event of duodenal ulcer perforation on day 3 in a patient with croup receiving regular ibuprofen and dexamethasone. The CH infusion dose (mg/kg/h) on day 2 (n = 20) was 8.9 (IQR 5.9, 9), and on day 4 (n = 11) was 8.8 (IQR 7, 9). Days to titration of adequate sedation (defined as ≤ 3 PRN doses/shift) was 1 (IQR 0.5, 2.5), and hours to awakening for extubation was 5 (IQR 2, 9). Cases (versus controls) had less positive fluid balance at 48 h (-2 (45) vs. 26 (46) ml/kg, p = 0.051), and a decrease in number of PRN sedation doses from 12 h pre to 12 hours post starting CH (4.7 (3.3) to 2.6 (2.8), p = 0.009 versus 2.9 (3.9) to 3.4 (5), p = 0.74). There were no statistically significant differences between cases and controls in inotrope scores, signs or treatment of withdrawal, or PICU days.

Conclusions: Delivering CH by continuous enteral infusion is feasible, effective, and may be associated with less positive fluid balance. Whether there is a risk of duodenal perforation requires further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-017-1879-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5702481PMC
November 2017

Survey of Sedation and Analgesia Practice Among Canadian Pediatric Critical Care Physicians.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2016 09;17(9):823-30

1Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. 2Stollery Children's Hospital, Edmonton, AB, Canada. 3Pharmacy Services, Alberta Health Services - Edmonton and Area, Edmonton, AB, Canada. 4Integrative Health Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Background: Despite the fact that almost all critically ill children experience some degree of pain or anxiety, there is a lack of high-quality evidence to inform preferred approaches to sedation, analgesia, and comfort measures in this environment. We conducted this survey to better understand current comfort and sedation practices among Canadian pediatric intensivists.

Methods: The survey was conducted after a literature review and initial focus groups. The survey was then pretested and validated. The final survey was distributed by email to 134 intensivists from 17 PICUs across Canada using the Research Electronic Data Capture system.

Results: The response rate was 73% (98/134). The most commonly used sedation scores are Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability (42%) and COMFORT (41%). Withdrawal scores are commonly used (65%). In contrast, delirium scores are used by only 16% of the respondents. Only 36% of respondents have routinely used sedation protocols. The majority (66%) do not use noise reduction methods, whereas only 23% of respondents have a protocol to promote day/night cycles. Comfort measures including music, swaddling, soother, television, and sucrose solutions are frequently used. The drugs most commonly used to provide analgesia are morphine and acetaminophen. Midazolam and chloral hydrate were the most frequent sedatives.

Conclusion: Our survey demonstrates great variation in practice in the management of pain and anxiety in Canadian PICUs. Standardized strategies for sedation, delirium and withdrawal, and sleep promotion are lacking. There is a need for research in this field and the development of evidence-based, pediatric sedation and analgesia guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0000000000000864DOI Listing
September 2016

Timing of antibiotics, volume, and vasoactive infusions in children with sepsis admitted to intensive care.

Crit Care 2015 Aug 17;19:293. Epub 2015 Aug 17.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Introduction: Early administration of antibiotics for sepsis, and of fluid boluses and vasoactive agents for septic shock, is recommended. Evidence for this in children is limited.

Methods: The Alberta Sepsis Network prospectively enrolled eligible children admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) with sepsis from 04/2012-10/2014. Demographics, severity of illness, and outcomes variables were prospectively entered into the ASN database after deferred consent. Timing of interventions were determined by retrospective chart review using a study manual and case-report-form. We aimed to determine the association of intervention timing and outcome in children with sepsis. Univariate (t-test and Fisher's Exact) and multiple linear regression statistics evaluated predictors of outcomes of PICU length of stay (LOS) and ventilation days.

Results: Seventy-nine children, age median 60 (IQR 22-133) months, 40 (51%) female, 39 (49%) with severe underlying co-morbidity, 44 (56%) with septic shock, and median PRISM-III 10.5 [IQR 6.0-17.0] were enrolled. Most patients presented in an ED: 36 (46%) at an outlying hospital ED, and 21 (27%) at the Children's Hospital ED. Most infections were pneumonia with/without empyema (42, 53%), meningitis (11, 14%), or bacteremia (10, 13%). The time from presentation to acceptable antibiotic administration was a median of 115.0 [IQR 59.0-323.0] minutes; 20 (25%) of patients received their antibiotics in the first hour from presentation. Independent predictors of PICU LOS were PRISM-III, and severe underlying co-morbidity, but not time to antibiotics. In the septic shock subgroup, the volume of fluid boluses given in the first 2 hours was independently associated with longer PICU LOS (effect size 0.22 days; 95% CI 0.5, 0.38; per ml/kg). Independent predictors of ventilator days were PRISM-III score and severe underlying co-morbidity. In the septic shock subgroup, volume of fluid boluses in the first 2 hours was independently associated with more ventilator days (effect size 0.09 days; 95% CI 0.02, 0.15; per ml/kg).

Conclusion: Higher volume of early fluid boluses in children with sepsis and septic shock was independently associated with longer PICU LOS and ventilator days. More study on the benefits and harms of fluid bolus therapy in children are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-015-1010-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4539944PMC
August 2015