Publications by authors named "Catherine deVries"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Development of a Unifying Target and Consensus Indicators for Global Surgical Systems Strengthening: Proposed by the Global Alliance for Surgery, Obstetric, Trauma, and Anaesthesia Care (The G4 Alliance).

World J Surg 2017 10;41(10):2426-2434

The College of Surgeons of East, Central and Southern Africa, Arusha, Tanzania.

After decades on the margins of primary health care, surgical and anaesthesia care is gaining increasing priority within the global development arena. The 2015 publications of the Disease Control Priorities third edition on Essential Surgery and the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery created a compelling evidenced-based argument for the fundamental role of surgery and anaesthesia within cost-effective health systems strengthening global strategy. The launch of the Global Alliance for Surgical, Obstetric, Trauma, and Anaesthesia Care in 2015 has further coordinated efforts to build priority for surgical care and anaesthesia. These combined efforts culminated in the approval of a World Health Assembly resolution recognizing the role of surgical care and anaesthesia as part of universal health coverage. Momentum gained from these milestones highlights the need to identify consensus goals, targets and indicators to guide policy implementation and track progress at the national level. Through an open consultative process that incorporated input from stakeholders from around the globe, a global target calling for safe surgical and anaesthesia care for 80% of the world by 2030 was proposed. In order to achieve this target, we also propose 15 consensus indicators that build on existing surgical systems metrics and expand the ability to prioritize surgical systems strengthening around the world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-017-4028-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5596034PMC
October 2017

Global Surgical Ecosystems: A Need for Systems Strengthening.

Ann Glob Health 2016 Jul - Aug;82(4):605-613

Department of Surgery Center for Global Surgery, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.

Background: As surgery is gaining recognition as a critical component of universal health care worldwide, surgical communities have come together with unprecedented unity to advocate for systems to support surgical care. This community has long believed that much care could be performed in a cost-effective manner even in low resource settings, despite skepticism voiced by many in public health. To do so will require the development of new systems and re-vamping of old systems that are not effective. In the last five years, coalitions, expert panels, commissions, consortia and alliances have emerged to address these issues and there has been landmark success in advocacy with a new resolution at the 2015 World Health Assembly to include surgical care as a component of universal health coverage. It is critical to understand the ecosystem that constitutes the surgical environment. A surgical ecosystem could be described as a network of people, processes, and materials necessary for surgical services in the context of the facilities and environment in which it functions.

Methods: We describe components of a functioning surgical ecosystem in terms of administration, support staff and clinicians, and the necessary sub-systems for providing consumable materials such as anesthetic medication and suture and sterile instruments. Related systems that must be integrated are facilities and utilities such as electricity, lighting, plumbing and waste management and even laundry. But especially in low and middle income countries (LMICs) lack of any one of these may be rate-limiting. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed situational analyses and checklists for first level district hospitals to identify missing elements.

Conclusions: A siloed approach cannot solve a systems problem. However, to scale up rapidly and to develop and sustain quality standards, a holistic "ecosystem" approach, including local and global professional societies and advocacy organizations will need to become engaged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aogh.2016.09.011DOI Listing
January 2018

Geospatial Mapping of Surgical Capacity in Zambia.

JAMA Surg 2016 11;151(11):1069

Center for Global Surgery, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2016.2304DOI Listing
November 2016

Building operative care capacity in a resource limited setting: The Mongolian model of the expansion of sustainable laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Surgery 2016 08 26;160(2):509-17. Epub 2016 May 26.

The University of Utah Center for Global Surgery and Intermountain Healthcare, Salt Lake City, UT. Electronic address:

Background: The benefits of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, including rapid recovery and fewer infections, have been largely unavailable to the majority of people in developing countries. Compared to other countries, Mongolia has an extremely high incidence of gallbladder disease. In 2005, only 2% of cholecystectomies were performed laparoscopically. This is a retrospective review of the transition from open to laparoscopic cholecystectomy throughout Mongolia.

Methods: A cross-sectional, retrospective review was conducted of demographic patient data, diagnosis type, and operation performed (laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy) from 2005-2013. Trends were analyzed from 6 of the 21 provinces (aimags) throughout Mongolia, and data were culled from 7 regional diagnostic referral and treatment centers and 2 tertiary academic medical centers. The data were analyzed by individual training center and by year before being compared between rural and urban centers.

Results: We analyzed and compared 14,522 cholecystectomies (n = 4,086 [28%] men, n = 10,436 [72%] women). Men and women were similar in age (men 52.2, standard deviation 14.8; women 49.4, standard deviation 15.7) and in the percentage undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (men 39%, women 42%). By 2013, 58% of gallbladders were removed laparoscopically countrywide compared with only 2% in 2005. In 2011, laparoscopic cholecystectomy surpassed open cholecystectomy as the primary method for gallbladder removal countrywide. More than 315 Mongolian health care practitioners received laparoscopic training in 19 of the country's 21 aimags (states).

Conclusion: By 2013, 58% of cholecystectomies countrywide were performed laparoscopically, a dramatic increase over 9 years. The expansion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy has transformed the care of biliary tract disease in Mongolia despite the country's limited resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2016.04.001DOI Listing
August 2016

Expansion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a resource limited setting, Mongolia: a 9-year cross-sectional retrospective review.

Lancet 2015 Apr 26;385 Suppl 2:S38. Epub 2015 Apr 26.

Intermountain Healthcare and The University of Utah Center for Global Surgery, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Background: The benefits of laparoscopic cholecystectomy have been largely unavailable to most people in developing countries. Mongolia has an extremely high incidence of gallbladder disease. In 2005, only 2% of cholecystectomies were being done laparoscopically. Open cholecystectomies were associated with high rates of wound infections, complications, and increased recovery time. Because of the unacceptable complications associated with open cholecystectomies, and nearly 50% of the nomadic population needing faster post-operative recovery times, a national project for the development of laparoscopic surgery was organised. Multi-institutional collaboration between the Mongolia Health Sciences University, the Dr W C Swanson Family Foundation (SFF), the University of Utah, Intermountain Healthcare, and the Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) led to the promulgation of a formalised countrywide laparoscopic training programme during the past 9 years. This is a retrospective review of the transition from open to laparoscopic cholecystectomy throughout Mongolia.

Methods: Demographic patient data, diagnosis, and operation preformed-laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy, between January, 2005, and September, 2013, were collected and trends were analysed from seven regional diagnostic referral and treatment centres, and two tertiary academic medical centres from six of the 21 provinces (Aimags) throughout Mongolia. Data were analysed by individual training centre, by year, and then compared between rural and urban centres.

Findings: Nearly 16 000 cholecystectomies were analysed and compared (4417 [28·2%] men; 11 244 [71·8%] women). Men and women underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy with the same frequency (41·2% men, 43·2% women) and had similar age (men, mean 52·2 years [SD 14·8]; women, mean 49·4 years [SD 15·7]). By 2013, 62% of gallbladders were removed laparoscopically countrywide as opposed to only 2% in 2005. More than 315 Mongolian practitioners have received laparoscopic training in 19 of 21 Aimags. On average 60% of cholecystectomies are done laparoscopically in urban surgical centres, up from 2%, versus 55% in rural surgical centres, up from 0%, in 2005. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy surpassed open cholecystectomy as the primary method for gallbladder removal countrywide in 2011.

Interpretation: By 2013, 62% of cholecystectomies countrywide were done laparoscopically, a great increase from 9 years ago. Despite being a resource limited country, the expansion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy has transformed the care of biliary tract disease in Mongolia.

Funding: The University of Utah Center for Global Surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60833-9DOI Listing
April 2015

The Conundrum of Training in Global Surgery: Are We There Yet?

JAMA Surg 2015 Nov;150(11):1079

Center for Global Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City3Division of Public Health, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2015.2225DOI Listing
November 2015

IVUmed: a nonprofit model for surgical training in low-resource countries.

Ann Glob Health 2015 Mar-Apr;81(2):260-4

IVUmed, Salt Lake City, UT; University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Background: Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) face both training and infrastructural challenges for surgical care, particularly for specialty care, such as for urology. Practitioners charged with caring for these patients have few options for basic or advanced training.

Objectives: IVUmed, a nonprofit organization, has for 20 years supported urological educational programs in 30 LMICs by coordinating a network of US and international academic and private providers, institutions, industry partners, and professional societies.

Methods: IVUmed's motto, "Teach One, Reach Many" has emphasized a teach-the-teacher approach. Program partners, such as Hopital General de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal, have advanced from little urological subspecialty availability to having the capacity to treat a wide range of conditions while also teaching surgeons from Senegal and neighboring countries.

Conclusions: Long-term program commitments; effective communication; and a shared vision among the program site, the coordinating nongovernmental organization, and supporting organizations facilitate the development of thriving surgical teaching programs capable of serving local communities and conducting outreach training.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aogh.2015.03.001DOI Listing
December 2016

Epididymitis: a 21-year retrospective review of presentations to an outpatient urology clinic.

J Urol 2014 Oct 13;192(4):1203-7. Epub 2014 Apr 13.

Division of Urology, University of Utah Medical Center, Salt Lake City, Utah; Primary Children's Medical Center, Salt Lake City, Utah. Electronic address:

Purpose: We describe patient characteristics and age distribution of epididymitis in an outpatient pediatric urology referral practice during a 21-year period.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all pediatric patients diagnosed with epididymitis or epididymo-orchitis (ICD9 604.9) either clinically or with the aid of scrotal ultrasound at Primary Children's Medical Center from 1992 through 2012. Charts were reviewed to record demographic and clinical features, as well as radiological and laboratory data. Multiple acute episodes occurring in individual patients were recorded.

Results: A total of 252 patients were identified. Mean ± SD age at first presentation was 10.92 ± 4.08 years. The majority of cases occurred during the pubertal period (11 to 14 years) and few patients younger than 2 years were diagnosed with epididymitis (4%). A total of 69 boys (27.4%) experienced a second episode of epididymitis. Scrotal ultrasound results were consistent with epididymitis in 87.3% of cases (144 of 165). Urine culture results were available in 38 patients and were positive in 7 (21%). Positive urine culture was associated with an anatomical abnormality on followup voiding cystourethrogram (RR 5.7, 95% CI 1.37-23.4). Physical activity was noted as a likely precipitating factor in 23 patients and a recent urinary tract infection was identified in 20.

Conclusions: The majority of cases of epididymitis occur around the time of puberty in early adolescence, with relatively few cases occurring during infancy. Recurrent episodes of epididymitis are more common than previously reported and may affect as many as a fourth of all boys with acute epididymitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2014.04.002DOI Listing
October 2014

Surgical outcomes and cultural perceptions in international hypospadias care.

J Urol 2014 Aug 8;192(2):524-9. Epub 2014 Feb 8.

Program in Global Surgery and Social Change, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Plastic and Oral Surgery, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts.

Purpose: This study was designed to assess perceptions of untreated hypospadias and quality of life in culturally disparate low or middle income countries, to highlight the demographic and care differences of patient groups treated for hypospadias in the surgical workshop context, and to evaluate the long-term outcomes achieved by these workshop groups.

Materials And Methods: Family member perceptions of hypospadias, perioperative process measures and urethrocutaneous fistula rates were compared between 60 patients from Vietnam and Senegal treated for hypospadias through training workshops by local surgeons and pediatric urologists from the U.S. between 2009 and 2012, of whom approximately 42% had previously undergone repair attempts.

Results: More than 90% of respondents surveyed believed that untreated hypospadias would affect the future of their child at least to some degree. Patient cohorts between the 2 sites differed from each other and published high income country cohorts regarding age, weight for age and frequency of reoperation. Telephone based outcomes assessment achieved an 80% response rate. Urethrocutaneous fistula was reported in 39% and 47% of patients in Vietnam and Senegal, respectively.

Conclusions: Family members perceived that the social consequences of untreated hypospadias would be severe. Relative to patient cohorts reported in practices of high income countries, our patients were older, presented with more severe defects, required more reoperations and were often undernourished. Urethrocutaneous fistula rates were higher in cohorts from low or middle income countries relative to published rates for cohorts from high income countries. Our study suggests that outcomes measurement is a feasible and essential component of ethical international health care delivery and improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2014.01.101DOI Listing
August 2014

Editorial comment.

Urology 2013 Apr 7;81(4):867-8; discussion 868. Epub 2013 Mar 7.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2012.11.074DOI Listing
April 2013

Parameatal urethral cysts in prepubertal males.

J Urol 2011 Mar 19;185(3):1042-5. Epub 2011 Jan 19.

Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah 84132, USA.

Purpose: Parameatal urethral cyst in boys is an uncommon and often poorly understood condition. We describe the largest known series of 18 prepubertal boys with parameatal cysts.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all pediatric patients at our institution diagnosed with a penile cyst according to our office database between 1992 and 2010. Charts were reviewed to determine patient demographics, symptomatology, pathology, cyst characteristics and treatment.

Results: We identified 18 patients during the last 18 years who were diagnosed with a parameatal cyst. Most patients (66%) were asymptomatic. All cysts were less than 1 cm in diameter. Of the patients 50% were circumcised before presentation and 78% underwent surgical excision. There have been no recurrences in patients who underwent excision. One patient had spontaneous resolution of the cyst during the first few weeks of life. Pathology results were available for 6 patients. Three specimens contained a single type of epithelium and 3 contained a combination of transitional, cuboidal and/or columnar epithelia. The transitional and cuboidal epithelia were the most common components. There was no evidence of malignancy in any of the specimens and only 1 specimen contained an inflammatory infiltrate.

Conclusions: Parameatal cysts are a benign, usually asymptomatic condition that may contain a variety of epithelial types. The cysts may resolve spontaneously in neonates but are also easily excised with minimal risk of recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2010.10.038DOI Listing
March 2011

250 consecutive unilateral extravesical ureteral reimplantations in an outpatient setting.

J Urol 2010 Jul 20;184(1):311-4. Epub 2010 May 20.

Division of Urology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Purpose: Unilateral extravesical ureteral reimplantation is comparable to intravesical procedures and more effective than subureteral injection to resolve vesicoureteral reflux. Initial reports showed that the procedure could be feasibly done on an outpatient basis. We present further data on a large series of consecutive, planned, outpatient unilateral extravesical ureteral reimplantations.

Materials And Methods: A total of 250 consecutive patients underwent scheduled outpatient unilateral extravesical ureteral reimplantation. We retrospectively reviewed their records. Patient data were collected on reflux laterality and grade, operative time, hospital stay, complications, need for rehospitalization and resolution rate on radiography 1 month postoperatively.

Results: A total of 209 females (84%) and 41 males (16%) underwent planned outpatient extravesical ureteral reimplantation, including on the left side in 158 (63%) and on the right side in 92 (37%). Mean reflux grade was 3.2 with grades II to V in 64 (26%), 96 (38%), 74 (30%) and 16 cases (7%), respectively. Average operative time was 63 minutes and average length of stay, defined as time from initial admission in to discharge home, was 6.2 hours (range 3 to 10 hours). Short-term and late complications occurred in 9 (3.6%) and 8 patients (3.2%), respectively.

Conclusions: Extravesical ureteral reimplantation for unilateral vesicoureteral reflux may be consistently done on an outpatient basis with a reasonable complication rate and a low postoperative hospital admission rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2010.01.056DOI Listing
July 2010

Is there a learning curve for subureteric injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid in the treatment of vesicoureteral reflux?

J Pediatr Urol 2010 Apr 8;6(2):122-4. Epub 2009 Sep 8.

University of Utah Division of Urology, Primary Children's Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Urology, 100N Mario Capecchi Drive, Ste. 2200, Salt Lake City, UT 84113-1100, USA.

Objective: To answer the question: 'Is there a learning curve associated with a subureteric injection of Deflux(®)?'

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed charts of patients who received subureteric injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid (Deflux(®){AQ2}) (225 procedures) for treatment of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) by four surgeons. The study included 55 patients, 82 ureters, who had postoperative follow-up with a voiding cystogram or nuclear medicine cystogram. Exclusion criteria were prior anti-refluxing procedures, duplicated collecting systems, and non-achievement of a negative intraoperative cystogram. Patients were divided into two groups based on whether or not they received an intraoperative cystogram after the injection. The two groups were compared for VUR resolution rates on follow-up imaging.

Results: Twenty patients underwent an intraoperative cystogram (Group 1, 33 ureters) and 35 did not (Group 2, 49 ureters). The two groups were similar in age, preoperative reflux grade, amount of Deflux injected into each ureter, and time to postoperative studies. In Group 1, 11 ureters (33.3%) and also, in Group 2, 11 ureters (22.4%) had reflux on follow-up imaging.

Conclusions: There was no improvement in VUR resolution rate following subureteric injection of Deflux(®) when an intraoperative cystogram demonstrated no reflux to be present immediately after injection. Of ureters that did not reflux on intraoperative cystograms, one-third displayed return of reflux on follow-up imaging, which suggests no learning curve and that failures are not likely to be caused by poor surgical technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2009.07.012DOI Listing
April 2010

A life in global urology.

Can J Urol 2009 Jun;16(3):4625-6

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June 2009

The IVUmed Resident Scholar Program: aiming to "teach one, reach many".

Bull Am Coll Surg 2009 Feb;94(2):30-6

University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA.

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February 2009

Endoscopic subureteral injection is not less expensive than outpatient open reimplantation for unilateral vesicoureteral reflux.

J Urol 2008 Oct 20;180(4 Suppl):1626-9; discussion 1629-30. Epub 2008 Aug 20.

University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Purpose: Extravesical ureteral reimplantation and subureteral Deflux injection are used to correct vesicoureteral reflux with success rates of 94% to 99% and up to 89%, respectively. It was reported that unilateral extravesical reimplantation may be performed safely in an outpatient setting. Given that, we analyzed total system reimbursement to compare planned outpatient unilateral extravesical reimplantation to subureteral Deflux injection in patients with unilateral vesicoureteral reflux.

Materials And Methods: Data were collected on consecutive patients undergoing outpatient procedures for unilateral vesicoureteral reflux. Assessment of total system reimbursement was made using a payer mix adjusted calculation of surgery plus anesthesia plus hospital reimbursement. This was compared per procedure and in terms of total system reimbursement for each approach to obtain a similar resolution rate.

Results: A total of 209 consecutive patients were identified, of whom 26 underwent subureteral Deflux injection and 183 underwent unilateral extravesical reimplantation. Mean operative time was 93 minutes for reimplantation and 45 minutes for injection. The mean volume of dextranomer-hyaluronic acid was 1.2 ml. Total initial system reimbursement per patient was $3,813 for reimplantation and $4,259 for injection. A 3% hospital admission rate for reimplantation increased the total to $3,945. Higher reimbursement for injection depended largely on the material expense for dextranomer-hyaluronic acid.

Conclusions: In terms of total system reimbursement it is less expensive in our system to treat unilateral vesicoureteral reflux with unilateral extravesical reimplantation than with subureteral Deflux injection using dextranomer-hyaluronic acid. The ability to perform unilateral reimplantation as an outpatient procedure has shifted this relationship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2008.05.124DOI Listing
October 2008

New onset of hydroceles in boys over 1 year of age.

Int J Urol 2006 Nov;13(11):1425-7

University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84113, USA.

Aim: The presentation, and medical and surgical management of all new onset non-congenital hydroceles in boys older than 1 year of age were examined. Of particular interest was the outcome of those patients who presented with a non-communicating hydrocele that developed after the first year of life and was managed conservatively.

Methods: All patients older than 12 months of age who were evaluated as outpatients with the diagnosis of hydrocele from January 1994 to January 2001 were identified. Possible risk factors and predisposing conditions were determined. For the patients who had surgical correction, surgical indications were identified. For non-surgical patients, long-term outcomes were recorded.

Results: A total of 302 patients older than 12 months of age with the diagnosis of new onset hydrocele were identified. Of these, 35% were non-communicating, 59% were communicating, and 6% were hydroceles of the spermatic cord. In terms of surgery, 97% of communicating hydroceles, 71% of hydroceles of the spermatic cord, and 34% of non-communicating hydroceles had operative management. Seventy patients with non-communicating hydroceles did not receive surgery and 51 (73%) were contacted for long term follow-up. In these 51 patients, 76% of non-communicating hydroceles resolved completely, 6% decreased in size but were still present, 14% remained the same size, and 4% had an unknown status. The average time to resolution was 5.6 months with a median time of 3 months. The time range to resolution was from 1 day to 24 months. Follow-up averaged 73.7 months with a range of 33 to 120 months.

Conclusions: Approximately 75% of new onset, non-congenital, non-communicating hydroceles resolve spontaneously irrespective of size. An observation period of 6-12 months would be appropriate prior to repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-2042.2006.01583.xDOI Listing
November 2006

Unilateral extravesical ureteral reimplantation in children performed on an outpatient basis.

J Urol 2005 Nov;174(5):1987-9; discussion 1989-90

Division of Urology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Purpose: Unilateral extravesical ureteral reimplantation is comparable to intravesical procedures for resolution of primary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Defining whether this operation can be consistently performed on an outpatient basis is important.

Materials And Methods: A total of 80 patients with unilateral VUR were treated with extravesical ureteral reimplantation, of whom 20 were treated on an inpatient basis and 60 on an outpatient basis. We retrospectively reviewed these groups and conducted a telephone survey to evaluate overall patient satisfaction, and pain and nausea on postoperative days 1 and 14.

Results: There were no significant differences in age, gender, laterality or operative time between the groups. Average length of hospital stay was 31.25 hours (range 20 to 120) for the inpatient group and 6.6 hours (3.25 to 11.20) for the outpatient group. Average intravenous narcotic use in the inpatient group was 0.39 mg/kg, compared to 0.14 mg/kg for the outpatient group (p < 0.005), and included 1.76 mg/kg ketorolac in inpatients and 0.74 ketorolac in outpatients (p < 0.005), and 0.2 mg/kg ondansetron in inpatients and 0.12 mg/kg ondansetron in outpatients (p = 0.004). Four of the 60 outpatients (6.7%) were either hospitalized postoperatively or rehospitalized on postoperative day 1. The results of the survey for the 2 groups were not significantly different.

Conclusions: Extravesical ureteral reimplantation for unilateral VUR may be performed without compromise in quality on an outpatient basis with significantly less use of intravenous analgesics and anti-emetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.ju.0000176795.96815.43DOI Listing
November 2005

Serum potassium and creatinine changes following unstented bilateral ureteral reimplantation in children.

J Urol 2004 Jun;171(6 Pt 1):2417-9

Division of Pediatric Urology, Primary Children's Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Purpose: We assess the incidence of electrolyte and creatinine changes following unstented bilateral ureteral reimplantation and attempt to identify associated risk factors.

Materials And Methods: A total of 107 consecutive children with bilateral vesicoureteral reflux underwent bilateral unstented ureteral reimplantation. Study exclusion criteria were plication or tapering of any ureter, age less than 1 year and/or baseline serum creatinine greater than twice normal for age. Postoperatively serum electrolytes and creatinine were assessed by venous puncture until values normalized. The presence of nausea, vomiting, urinary retention and oliguria were recorded.

Results: Of the patients 46 females and 10 males 1.0 to 10.9 years old met the study criteria and had complete data available. Four patients (7.1%) had postoperative potassium greater than or equal to 5.0 mmol/l (range 5.0 to 5.3), including 3 (75%, p = 0.0238) who received potassium supplemented intravenous fluid postoperatively. Eight (14.3%) patients had postoperative creatinine greater than 1 mg/dl (range 1.3 to 2.3) and concurrent hyperkalemia with increased creatinine occurred in 2 (25%, p = 0.0295). Nausea and vomiting beyond postoperative day 1 were noted in 6 patients (75%, p = 0.0122). Neither oliguria nor urinary retention reached statistical significance in correlation with increased potassium and/or creatinine. However, urine retention approached statistical significance in patients with increased creatinine (p = 0.0747). No adverse effects from hyperkalemia were noted.

Conclusions: Adverse effects from hyperkalemia following unstented bilateral ureteral reimplantation are uncommon. Potassium containing intravenous fluids should be avoided in the early postoperative period. Routine serum electrolyte determination may be helpful in patients undergoing unstented bilateral ureteral reimplantation when persistent nausea, emesis or urinary retention is present.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.ju.0000124908.50196.92DOI Listing
June 2004

Variables in successful repair of urethrocutaneous fistula after hypospadias surgery.

J Urol 2002 Aug;168(2):726-30; discussion 729-30

Division of Urology, University of Utah School of Medicine and Primary Children's Medical Center, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Purpose: We evaluate variables affecting the success of repairs of urethrocutaneous fistula after hypospadias surgery.

Materials And Methods: The records of 123 boys who underwent fistula repair at Primary Children's Medical Center were reviewed. Of these patients 100 underwent initial fistula repair at our center (surgery was performed at our center in 82 and elsewhere in 18) and 23 were referred from elsewhere after unsuccessful fistula repairs. Patient age was 6 months to 34 years (median 3.21 years) and interval between surgeries was 3.7 months to 12 years (median 12.6 months). Several variables potentially affecting the success of fistula closure were retrospectively assessed.

Results: Including those patients referred from outside hospitals, fistulas were successfully closed in 71%, 72%, 77%, 100% and 100% of these patients after fistula repairs 1 to 5, respectively. Variables studied yielded stent 67.7% (36 of 54 cases) versus no stent 76.1% (35 of 46) and operating microscope 70.4% (59 of 71) versus loupes 72.4% (21 of 29) in terms of success. Success based on patient age yielded 65.5% for younger than 2 years (n = 29 patients), 71.7% for 2 to 5 (46), 64.7% for 6 to 12 (17) and 87.5% for older than 12 (8). When considering the type of original hypospadias repair and its affect on fistula closure success, a significantly lower success was noted with Yoke and King procedures (p = 0.007 and 0.037, respectively). In patients who underwent hypospadias surgery and all subsequent fistula closure attempts at our center, fistulas were successfully repaired in 72%, 67% and 100% of patients after attempts 1 to 3, respectively. Initial fistula repair was successful in 72% (59 of 82) of patients who underwent original hypospadias surgery at our center and in 67% (12 of 18) of those referred after hypospadias surgery at an outside hospital.

Conclusions: Regarding urethrocutaneous fistula closure, the data from this study suggest that there is no clear difference in stent versus no stent and microscope versus loupes, age at fistula closure does not affect success, type of original hypospadias procedure may influence success (King and Yoke procedures were least successful), success rate is not negatively impacted in recurrent fistula cases, given a diverse group of fistulas, success of fistula repair for attempts 1 to 5 was 71%, 72%, 77%, 100% and 100%, respectively, and success rate in a tertiary pediatric urology setting is not influenced by whether the original hypospadias procedure or initial fistula closure was performed in the pediatric urology setting versus outside hospital.
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August 2002

The role of the urologist in the treatment and elimination of lymphatic filariasis worldwide.

BJU Int 2002 Mar;89 Suppl 1:37-43

International Volunteers in Urology, Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah 84113, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1465-5101.2001.vries.137.xDOI Listing
March 2002
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