Publications by authors named "Catherine Ternisien"

35 Publications

Gastrointestinal bleeding from angiodysplasia in von Willebrand disease: Improved diagnosis and outcome prediction using videocapsule on top of conventional endoscopy.

J Thromb Haemost 2021 Feb 29;19(2):380-386. Epub 2020 Nov 29.

Department of Hematology and Transfusion, CHU Lille, Institut d'Hématologie Transfusion, Lille, France.

Background: Despite a high prevalence of angiodysplasia, no specific guidelines are available for the modalities of endoscopic exploration of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in von Willebrand disease (VWD). Whether VWD patients could benefit from video capsule endoscopy (VCE) looking for angiodysplasia eligible to endoscopic treatment or at high risk of bleeding is unknown.

Objectives: To assess the diagnostic efficacy for angiodysplasia and the prognostic value of VCE on top of conventional endoscopy in VWD patients with GI bleeding.

Patients/methods: A survey was sent to the 30 centers of the French-network on inherited bleeding disorders to identify VWD patients referred for endoscopic exploration of GI bleeding from January 2015 to December 2017. Data obtained included patient characteristics, VWD phenotype/genotype, GI bleeding pattern, results of endoscopic investigations, and medical management applied including endoscopic therapy. We assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis the recurrence-free survival after the first GI bleeding event according to endoscopic categorization and, in patients with angiodysplasia, to the presence of small-bowel localizations on VCE exploration.

Results: GI bleeding source localization was significantly improved when including VCE exploration (P < .01), even in patients without history of angiodysplasia (P < .05). Patients with angiodysplasia had more GI bleeding recurrences (P < .01). A lower recurrence-free survival was observed in patients with angiodysplasia (log-rank test, P = .02), and especially when lesions were located in the small bowel (log-rank test, P < .01), even after endoscopic treatment with argon plasma coagulation (log-rank test, P < .01).

Conclusion: VCE should be more systematically used in VWD patients with unexplained or recurrent GI bleeding looking for angiodysplasia eligible to endoscopic treatment or at high risk of relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.15155DOI Listing
February 2021

Heparin Anti-Xa Activity, a Readily Available Unique Test to Quantify Apixaban, Rivaroxaban, Fondaparinux, and Danaparoid Levels.

Anesth Analg 2021 03;132(3):707-716

Service d'Anesthésie-réanimation, hôpital Laënnec, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nantes, Nantes, France.

Background: Despite their usefulness in perioperative and acute care settings, factor-Xa inhibitor-specific assays are scarcely available, contrary to heparin anti-Xa assay. We assessed whether the heparin anti-Xa assay can (1) be used as a screening test to rule out apixaban, rivaroxaban, fondaparinux, and danaparoid levels that contraindicate invasive procedures according to current guidelines (>30 ng·mL-1, >30 ng·mL-1, >0.1 µg·mL-1, and >0.1 IU·mL-1, respectively), (2) quantify the anticoagulant level if found significant, that is, if it exceeded the abovementioned threshold.

Methods: In the derivation cohort then in the validation cohort, via receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, we evaluated the ability of heparin anti-Xa assay to detect levels of factor-Xa inhibitors above or below the abovementioned safety thresholds recommended for an invasive procedure (screening test). Among samples with relevant levels of factor-Xa inhibitor, we determined the conversion factor linking the measured level and heparin anti-Xa activity in a derivation cohort. In a validation cohort, the estimated level of each factor-Xa inhibitor was thus inferred from heparin anti-Xa activity. The agreement between measured and estimated levels of factor-Xa inhibitors was assessed.

Results: Among 989 (355 patients) and 756 blood samples (420 patients) in the derivation and validation cohort, there was a strong linear relationship between heparin anti-Xa activities and factor-Xa inhibitors measured level (r = 0.99 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.99-0.99]). In the derivation cohort, heparin anti-Xa activity ≤0.2, ≤0.3, <0.1, <0.1 IU·mL-1 reliably ruled out a relevant level of apixaban, rivaroxaban, fondaparinux, and danaparoid, respectively (area under the ROC curve ≥0.99). In the validation cohort, these cutoffs yielded excellent classification accuracy (≥96%). If this screening test indicated relevant level of factor-Xa inhibitor, estimated and measured levels closely agreed (Lin's correlation coefficient close to its maximal value: 95% CI, 0.99-0.99). More than 96% of the estimated levels fell into the predefined range of acceptability (ie, 80%-120% of the measured level).

Conclusions: A unique simple test already widely used to assay heparin was also useful for quantifying these 4 other anticoagulants. Both clinical and economic impacts of these findings should be assessed in a specific study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000005114DOI Listing
March 2021

Identification of new F8 deep intronic variations in patients with haemophilia A.

Haemophilia 2020 Sep 18;26(5):847-854. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Service d'Hématologie Biologique, Centre de Biologie et Pathologie Est, Hospices Civils de Lyon, France.

Introduction: With current molecular diagnosis, about 1 to 5% of haemophilia A (HA) patients remain genetically unresolved. In these cases, deep intronic variation or structural variation disrupting the F8 gene could be causal.

Aim: To identify the causal variation in four genetically unresolved mild-to-severe HA patients using an F8 mRNA analysis approach.

Methods: Ectopic F8 mRNA analysis was performed in four unrelated HA patients. An in vitro minigene assay was performed in order to confirm the deleterious splicing impact of each variation identified.

Results: In all probands, mRNA analysis revealed an aberrant splicing pattern, and sequencing of the corresponding intronic region found a deep intronic substitution. Two of these were new variations: c.2113+601G>A and c.1443+602A>G, while the c.143+1567A>G, found in two patients, has previously been reported. The c.1443+602A>G and the c.143+1567A>G variants both led to the creation of a de novo acceptor or donor splice site, respectively. Moreover, the c.143+1567A>G was found in 3/6 patients with genetically unresolved moderate HA registered in our laboratory. Haplotype analysis performed in all patients carrying the c.143+1567A>G variation suggests that this variation could be a recurrent variation. The c.2113+601G>A led to the exonization of a 122-bp antisense AluY element by increasing the strength of a pre-existing cryptic 5' splice site. For each point variation, in vitro splicing analysis confirmed its deleterious impact on splicing of the F8 transcript.

Conclusion: We identified three deep intronic variations, leading to an aberrant mRNA splicing process as HA causing variation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hae.14134DOI Listing
September 2020

Emicizumab treatment: Impact on coagulation tests and biological monitoring of haemostasis according to clinical situations (BIMHO group proposals).

Eur J Haematol 2020 Dec 16;105(6):675-681. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Laboratoire d'hématologie générale, Hôpital Necker, AP-HP, Paris, France.

Emicizumab, a bispecific humanised monoclonal antibody restoring to some extent the function of activated FVIII deficient in haemophilia A, represents a major therapeutic advance in the management of haemophilia A patients. No dosage adjustment is required, which leads to a major change for patients used to regular biological monitoring which is particularly burdensome in the case of substitution therapy. In some circumstances, such as before an invasive procedure or in case of bleeding, biological monitoring will be necessary and emicizumab's interference with haemostasis tests, particularly those based on an activated partial thromboplastin times (aPTT), must be known to best interpret the tests and to select the most appropriate methods to guide therapy. The normalisation of aPTT in patients treated with emicizumab is not sufficient to consider haemostasis as normalised. In the event of administration of FVIII to a patient receiving emicizumab, the determination of FVIII should use a chromogenic method using non-human reagents. Coagulation global tests have been proposed to evaluate the biological response when using bypassing agents in patients treated with emicizumab, but the usefulness must be confirmed. The French group BIMHO presents proposals for biological monitoring of a patient treated with emicizumab according to clinical situations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13490DOI Listing
December 2020

Comparative Analysis of a French Prospective Series of 144 Patients with Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia (FRIGTIH) and the Literature.

Thromb Haemost 2020 Jul 22;120(7):1096-1107. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

EA 7501, GICC, Université de Tours, Tours, France.

Background:  Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a rare complication of heparin treatments, and only a few large patient cohorts have been reported. In this study, biological and clinical data from 144 French patients with HIT were analyzed in comparison with the literature.

Methods:  The diagnosis of HIT was confirmed in all patients by an immunoassay combined with serotonin release assay. In the literature, only cohorts of at least 20 HIT patients published from 1992 were selected for a comparative analysis.

Results:  Two-thirds of patients were hospitalized in surgery and most were treated with unfractionated heparin (83.2% vs. 16.8% with low molecular weight heparin only). Thrombotic events in 54 patients (39.7%) were mainly venous (41/54). However, arterial thrombosis was more frequent after cardiac surgery (13.2% vs. 2.4% in other surgeries,  = 0.042) with a shorter recovery time (median = 3 vs. 5 days,  < 0.001). The mortality rate was lower in our series than in the 22 selected published studies (median = 6.3% vs. 15.9%). Three genetic polymorphisms were also studied and homozygous subjects FcγRIIA RR were more frequent in patients with thrombosis (37.8 vs. 18.2% in those without thrombosis,  = 0.03).

Conclusion:  This study shows that the mortality rate due to HIT has recently decreased in France, possibly due to earlier diagnosis and improved medical care. It also confirms the strong association between polymorphism FcγRIIA H131R and thrombosis in HIT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1712957DOI Listing
July 2020

Factor VIII and IX assays for post-infusion monitoring in hemophilia patients: Guidelines from the French BIMHO group (GFHT).

Eur J Haematol 2020 Aug 27;105(2):103-115. Epub 2020 May 27.

Service d'Hématologie Hémostase, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron, France.

Replacement therapy with plasma-derived or recombinant FVIII and FIX (pdFVIII/pdFIX or rFVIII/rFIX) concentrates is the standard of treatment in patients with haemophilia A and B, respectively. Measurement of factor VIII (FVIII:C) or factor IX (FIX:C) levels can be done by one-stage clotting assay (OSA) or chromogenic substrate assay (CSA). The French study group on the Biology of Hemorrhagic Diseases (a collaborative group of the GFHT and MHEMO network) presents a literature review and proposals for the monitoring of FVIII:C and FIX:C levels in treated haemophilia A and B patients, respectively. The use of CSA is recommended for the monitoring of patients treated with pdFVIII or rFVIII including extended half-life (EHL) rFVIII. Except for rFVIII-Fc, great caution is required when measuring FVIII:C levels by OSA in patients substituted by EHL-rFVIII. The OSA is recommended for the monitoring of patients treated with pdFIX or rFIX. Large discordances in the FIX:C levels measured for extended half-life rFIX (EHL-rFIX), depending on the method and reagents used, must lead to great attention when OSA is used for measuring FIX:C levels in patients substituted by EHL-rFIX. Data of most of recent studies, obtained with spiked plasmas, deserve to be confirmed in plasma samples of treated patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13423DOI Listing
August 2020

Multicentre pharmacokinetic evaluation of rFVIII-Fc (efmoroctocog alfa) in a real life and comparison with non-extended half-life FVIII concentrates.

Haemophilia 2020 Mar 27;26(2):282-289. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Laboratoire d'Hémostase Hémobiologie, CHU de Lille, Lille, France.

The use of enhanced half-life (EHL) FVIII has improved the quality of prophylaxis in haemophilia A, but with a benefit that may vary from one patient to another. We analysed the pharmacokinetic data obtained with efmoroctocog alfa (rFVIII-Fc) in 114 patients and, in 47 cases, compared them to those previously measured with non-EHL FVIII. The in vivo recovery (IVR) of rFVIII-Fc measured with one stage clotting assay (OSA) and chromogenic assay (CSA) was 2.2 and 2.8 IU/mL per IU/kg, respectively. The median half-life (T ) of rFVIII-Fc was 14.5 hours whatever the FVIII:C assay used, but variable and correlated with preinfusion VWF:Ag levels (r = .76). Both IVR and T were lower in patients under 12 years old (2.4 IU/mL per IU/kg and 11.1 hours, respectively; CSA). PK study of rFVIII-Fc vs non-EHL FVIII showed a T ratio of 1.4 in favour of rFVIII-Fc, regardless of the patient's age. However the relative increase in T with rFVIII-Fc was lower than 30% in one-third of patients evaluated, particularly when the previous FVIII administered was a BHK-derived product. This study therefore suggests that analysis of individual PK profile in response to a specific FVIII concentrate is potentially useful before a switch in haemophilia A patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hae.13946DOI Listing
March 2020

Estimation of Nuwiq (simoctocog alfa) activity using one-stage and chromogenic assays-Results from an international comparative field study.

Haemophilia 2019 Jul 20;25(4):708-717. Epub 2019 May 20.

Institut für Experimentelle Hämatologie und Transfusionsmedizin, Universitätsklinikum Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Background: Accurate determination of coagulation factor VIII activity (FVIII:C) is essential for effective and safe FVIII replacement therapy.

Fviii: C can be measured by one-stage and chromogenic substrate assays (OSAs and CSAs, respectively); however, there is significant interlaboratory and interassay variability.

Aims: This international comparative field study characterized the behaviour of OSAs and CSAs used in routine laboratory practice to measure the activity of Nuwiq (human-cl rhFVIII, simoctocog alfa), a fourth-generation recombinant human FVIII produced in a human cell line.

Methods: FVIII-deficient plasma was spiked with Nuwiq or Advate at 1, 5, 30 and 100 international units (IU)/dL. Participating laboratories analysed the samples using their routine procedures and equipment. Accuracy, inter- and intralaboratory variation, CSA:OSA ratio and the impact of different OSA and CSA reagents were assessed.

Results: Forty-nine laboratories from 9 countries provided results. Mean absolute FVIII:C was comparable for both products at all concentrations with both OSA and CSA, with interproduct ratios (Nuwiq :Advate ) of 1.02-1.13. Mean recoveries ranged from 97% to 191% for Nuwiq , and from 93% to 172% for Advate , with higher recoveries at lower concentrations. Subgroup analyses by OSA and CSA reagents showed minor variations depending on reagents, but no marked differences between the two products. CSA:OSA ratios based on overall means ranged from 0.99 to 1.17 for Nuwiq and from 1.01 to 1.17 for Advate .

Conclusions: Both OSAs and CSAs are suitable for the measurement of FVIII:C of Nuwiq in routine laboratory practice, without the need for a product-specific reference standard.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hae.13763DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6851970PMC
July 2019

The factor VIII:C/VWF:Ag ratio as a useful tool to predict relapse in patients with acquired haemophilia A: A retrospective cohort study.

Haemophilia 2019 May 2;25(3):527-534. Epub 2019 May 2.

Laboratoire d'Hématologie, CHU de Toulouse, France.

Introduction: Acquired haemophilia A (AHA) is a rare autoimmune bleeding disorder caused by the presence of autoantibodies against coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). The mortality rate remains high. International recommendations define complete remission as undetectable inhibitor (<0.6 Bethesda Units [BU]) and normal FVIII activity (FVIII:C) that persists after immunosuppressive therapy stopped. For patients achieving remission, the risk of relapse reaches 20%. The risk factors for this relapse are not well known.

Aim: In this study, we examined the accuracy of the FVIII/W ratio (FVIII:C/von Willebrand Factor Antigen (VWF:Ag) ratio) to predict relapse in 64 consecutive patients with AHA.

Results: In this cohort, all patients had a very low FVIII/W ratio at the time of diagnosis, and this value progressively increased in the first weeks of immunosuppressive treatment. In our study, 9/55 (14%) did not achieve complete remission. Twenty-seven patients were followed long enough (more than a year) to show that in the 22 patients who did not relapse, the FVIII/W ratio remained durably normalized. By contrast, in the five patients who relapsed during follow-up, we noted either no normalization of the FVIII/W ratio, or a secondary decrease to an abnormal value of <0.7 after initial normalization. In all patients who relapsed, the ratio was the first abnormal biological result to be observed, always preceding changes in the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), FVIII:C and anti-FVIII reappearance.

Conclusion: These data suggest that the FVIII/W ratio could be considered a sensitive biological marker to predict recovery and/or relapse in AHA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hae.13752DOI Listing
May 2019

Relevance of platelet desialylation and thrombocytopenia in type 2B von Willebrand disease: preclinical and clinical evidence.

Haematologica 2019 12 28;104(12):2493-2500. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

HITh, UMR_S 1176, INSERM Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, F-94270 Le Kremlin-Bicêtre

Patients with type 2B von Willebrand disease (vWD) (caused by gain-of-function mutations in the gene coding for von Willebrand factor) display bleeding to a variable extent and, in some cases, thrombocytopenia. There are several underlying causes of thrombocytopenia in type 2B vWD. It was recently suggested that desialylation-mediated platelet clearance leads to thrombocytopenia in this disease. However, this hypothesis has not been tested The relationship between platelet desialylation and the platelet count was probed in 36 patients with type 2B von Willebrand disease (p.R1306Q, p.R1341Q, and p.V1316M mutations) and in a mouse model carrying the severe p.V1316M mutation (the 2B mouse). We observed abnormally high elevated levels of platelet desialylation in both patients with the p.V1316M mutation and the 2B mice. , we demonstrated that 2B p.V1316M/von Willebrand factor induced more desialylation of normal platelets than wild-type von Willebrand factor did. Furthermore, we found that N-glycans were desialylated and we identified αIIb and β3 as desialylation targets. Treatment of 2B mice with sialidase inhibitors (which correct platelet desialylation) was not associated with the recovery of a normal platelet count. Lastly, we demonstrated that a critical platelet desialylation threshold (not achieved in either 2B patients or 2B mice) was required to induce thrombocytopenia In conclusion, in type 2B vWD, platelet desialylation has a minor role and is not sufficient to mediate thrombocytopenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2018.206250DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6959185PMC
December 2019

[Factor VIII assays in treated hemophilia A patients].

Ann Biol Clin (Paris) 2019 02;77(1):53-65

CHU Lille, Institut d'hématologie-transfusion, Inserm U1011, Lille, France.

Replacement therapy with plasma-derived or recombinant FVIII (pdFVIII or rFVIII) concentrates is the standard of treatment in patients with hemophilia A. The reference method used for measuring factor VIII (FVIII:C) levels in patients treated by FVIII concentrates is the chromogenic substrate assay (CSA). However, the one-stage clotting assay (OSA) is predominantly used in current clinical practice, but this method depends on the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) reagent and the coagulation analyzer used, and wide variations in the measurements of FVIII recovery have been reported with some factor concentrates. The French study group on the biology of hemorrhagic diseases (a collaborative group of the GFHT and MHEMO network) presents a review of the literature and proposals for the monitoring of FVIII:C levels in treated hemophilia A patients. The use of CSA calibrated with a plasma reference tested against the current FVIII WHO (World Health Organization) International Standard is recommended for the monitoring of patients treated with pdFVIII or rFVIII including extended half-life (EHL) rFVIII. OSA are adequate for the monitoring of patients treated with pdFVIII or with most of rFVIII concentrates. However, preliminary comparison with CSA is mandatory before measuring FVIII:C by OSA in patients treated by Refacto AF. For rFVIII-EHL, OSA are only acceptable for Elocta®. Great caution is therefore required when measuring FVIII:C levels by OSA in patients substituted by other EHL-rFVIII. Indeed, most of recent studies reported data obtained with spiked plasmas, which deserve to be confirmed on plasma samples collected in treated patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/abc.2019.1413DOI Listing
February 2019

[Factor IX assays in treated hemophilia B patients].

Ann Biol Clin (Paris) 2019 02;77(1):41-52

Service d'hématologie hémostase, Hospices civils de Lyon, Bron, France.

Replacement therapy with plasma-derived or recombinant FIX (pdFIX or rFIX) concentrates is the standard of treatment in patients with hemophilia B. The method predominantly used for measuring factor IX (FIX:C) levels is the one-stage clotting assay (OSA) but this method depends on the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) reagent and the coagulation analyzer used, and wide variations in the measurements of FIX recovery have been reported with some factor concentrates. The French study group on the biology of hemorrhagic diseases (a collaborative group of the GFHT and MHEMO network), presents a review of the literature and proposals for the monitoring of FIX:C levels in treated hemophilia B patients. The use of OSA calibrated with a plasma reference tested against the current FIX WHO International Standard is recommended for the monitoring of patients treated with pdFIX or rFIX. Chromogenic substrate assays (CSA) are adequate for the monitoring of patients treated with Rixubis, but data available for Benefix are currently too limited. For extended half-life rFIX (EHL-rFIX), large discordances in the FIX:C levels measured were evidenced, depending on the method and reagents used. Great attention is therefore required for measuring FIX:C levels by OSA in patients substituted by EHL-rFIX. Commercial kits for CSA are not equivalent, and although potentially useful, they are not validated for all EHL-rFIX. Most of recent studies reported data obtained with spiked plasmas, which deserve to be confirmed on plasma samples collected in treated patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/abc.2019.1414DOI Listing
February 2019

A new case of heterozygous variant of the GP1BB gene responsible for macrothrombocytopenia.

Br J Haematol 2019 07 4;186(1):157-159. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Centre de Traitement de l'Hémophilie, CHU de Nantes - Hôtel Dieu, Nantes, Cedex 1, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15739DOI Listing
July 2019

Rivaroxaban and Apixaban Anti-Xa Measurements: Impact of Plasma Storage for 7 Days at Room Temperature.

Thromb Haemost 2018 Aug 30;118(8):1488-1490. Epub 2018 Jun 30.

Hématologie Biologique, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Rennes, Rennes, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0038-1661391DOI Listing
August 2018

Differential diagnosis of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: Type 2B von Willebrand disease.

Platelets 2017 Dec 24;28(8):825-828. Epub 2017 Apr 24.

a Hemophilia Comprehensive Care Center, Hôpital Cardiologique, Hospices Civils de Lyon , Lyon , France.

At birth, severe thrombocytopenia without context of infection should mainly suggest neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT), especially in case of a platelet count below 20 GL. We report two cases of severe neonatal thrombocytopenia, first suspected as being NAIT. Both had a platelet count below 20 GL with platelet clumps. The absence of alloantibodies and failure of platelet transfusion and intravenous immunoglobulins to improve the platelet count led to question the diagnosis and to evoke inherited bleeding disorders. Measurements of Von Willebrand factor (VWF) levels showed a marked reduction of VWF:RCo and a normal VWF:Ag, suggesting a type 2B Von Willebrand disease (VWD2B). Ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation could not be performed because of the very low platelet count. In the first case, after sequencing VWF exon 28, a heterozygous p.Leu1460Pro mutation was found consistent with VWD2B. In the second case, the genetic analysis of VWF exon 28 identified a homozygous mutation: p.Pro1337Leu confirming type VWD2B and also the p.Arg854Gln homozygous mutation in exon 20 confirming type 2N (ratio FVIII/VWF:Ag <0.5). The two cases underline that, even if NAIT remains the most common diagnosis in severe neonatal thrombocytopenia, it should be challenged in the absence of documented incompatibility, chronic evolution, or treatment failure. Diagnosis of VWD2B should be considered in early thrombocytopenia, even without familial history. In the cases presented, genotyping confirmed the subtype of VWD and helped to guide the therapeutic management of bleeding episodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09537104.2017.1293811DOI Listing
December 2017

A Laboratory Phenotype/Genotype Correlation of 1167 French Patients From 670 Families With von Willebrand Disease: A New Epidemiologic Picture.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Mar;95(11):e3038

From the Service d'Hématologie biologique (AV, NI-B), Hôpital Lariboisière, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Université Paris 7, Paris; Service de Génétique médicale (PB, MG, SB), Hôpital Hôtel-Dieu, CHU de Nantes, Nantes; Inserm UMR_S1176 (EF, CVD), Université Paris-Sud, Le Kremlin Bicêtre; Service d'Hématologie biologique (CC, CZ, SS, JG), Hôpital cardiologique, CHRU de Lille, Lille; Service d'Hématologie biologique (CT, MT), Hôpital Hôtel-Dieu, CHU de Nantes, Nantes; Service d'Hématologie biologique et Centre Régional de Traitement de l'Hémophilie (MD, RD), Hôpital de Bicêtre, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Université Paris-Sud, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre; and Service d'Hématologie biologique (AB-D), Hôpital de la Côte de Nacre, CHU de Caen, Caen, France.

von Willebrand disease (VWD) is a genetic bleeding disease due to a defect of von Willebrand factor (VWF), a glycoprotein crucial for platelet adhesion to the subendothelium after vascular injury. VWD include quantitative defects of VWF, either partial (type 1 with VWF levels <50 IU/dL) or virtually total (type 3 with undetectable VWF levels) and also qualitative defects of VWF (type 2 variants with discrepant antigenic and functional VWF levels). The most bleeding forms of VWD usually do not concern type 1 patients with the mildest VWF defects (VWF levels between 30 and 50 IU/dL). The French reference center for VWD performed a laboratory phenotypic and genotypic analysis in 1167 VWD patients (670 families) selected by their basic biologic phenotype: type 3, type 2, and type 1 with VWF levels <30 IU/dL. In these patients indeed, to achieve an accurate diagnosis of VWD type and subtype is crucial for the management (treatment and genetic counseling). A phenotype/genotype correlation was present in 99.3% of cases; 323 distinct VWF sequence variations (58% of novel) were identified (missense 67% versus truncating 33%). The distribution of VWD types was: 25% of type 1, 8% of type 3, 66% of type 2 (2A: 18%, 2B: 17%, 2M: 19%, 2N: 12%), and 1% of undetermined type. Type 1 VWD was related either to a defective synthesis/secretion or to an accelerated clearance of VWF. In type 3 VWD, bi-allelic mutations of VWF were found in almost all patients. In type 2A, the most frequent mechanism was a hyper-proteolysis of VWF. Type 2B showed 85% of patients with deleterious mutations (distinct from type 2B New York). Type 2M was linked to a defective binding of VWF to platelet glycoprotein Ib or to collagen. Type 2N VWD included almost half type 2N/3. This biologic study emphasizes the complex mechanisms for both quantitative and qualitative VWF defects in VWD. In addition, this study provides a new epidemiologic picture of the most bleeding forms of VWD in which qualitative defects are predominant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000003038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4839904PMC
March 2016

A novel ELISA-based diagnosis of acquired von Willebrand disease with increased VWF proteolysis.

Thromb Haemost 2016 05 21;115(5):950-9. Epub 2016 Jan 21.

Sophie Susen, Centre de Biologie Pathologie, Centre Hospitalier Régional, 59037 Lille Cedex, France, Tel.: +33 3 20 44 59 37, Fax:+33 3 20 44 69 89, E-mail:

Von Willebrand disease-type 2A (VWD-2A) and acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) due to aortic stenosis (AS) or left ventricular assist device (LVAD) are associated with an increased proteolysis of von Willebrand factor (VWF). Analysis of VWF multimeric profile is the most sensitive way to assess such increased VWF-proteolysis. However, several technical aspects hamper a large diffusion among routine diagnosis laboratories. This makes early diagnosis and early appropriate care of increased proteolysis challenging. In this context of unmet medical need, we developed a new ELISA aiming a quick, easy and reliable assessment of VWF-proteolysis. This ELISA was assessed successively in a LVAD-model, healthy subjects (n=39), acquired TTP-patients (n=4), VWD-patients (including VWD-2A(IIA), n=22; VWD-2B, n=26; VWD-2A(IIE), n=21; and VWD-1C, n=8) and in AVWS-patients (AS, n=9; LVAD, n=9; and MGUS, n=8). A standard of VWF-proteolysis was specifically developed. Extent of VWF-proteolysis was expressed as relative percentage and as VWF proteolysis/VWF:Ag ratio. A speed-dependent increase in VWF-proteolysis was assessed in the LVAD model whereas no proteolysis was observed in TTP-patients. In VWD-patients, VWF-proteolysis was significantly increased in VWD-2A(IIA) and VWD-2B and significantly decreased in VWD-2A(IIE) versus controls (p< 0.0001). In AVWS-patients, VWF-proteolysis was significantly increased in AS- and LVAD-patients compared to controls (p< 0.0001) and not detectable in MGUS-patients. A significant increase in VWF-proteolysis was detected as soon as three hours after LVAD implantation (p< 0.01). In conclusion, we describe a new ELISA allowing a rapid and accurate diagnosis of VWF-proteolysis validated in three different clinical situations. This assay represents a helpful alternative to electrophoresis-based assay in the diagnosis and management of AVWS with increased VWF-proteolysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1160/TH15-08-0638DOI Listing
May 2016

Performance of two new automated assays for measuring von Willebrand activity: HemosIL AcuStar and Innovance.

Thromb Haemost 2014 Oct 7;112(4):825-30. Epub 2014 Aug 7.

Dr. Marc Trossaërt, Centre Régional de Traitement de l'Hémophilie, 1 Place Alexis RICORDEAU, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 44093 Nantes Cedex 1, France, Tel.: +33 2 40 08 74 68, Fax: +33 2 40 08 42 59, E-mail:

The ristocetin cofactor activity assay (VWF:RCo) is the reference method for assessing von Willebrand factor (VWF) activity but remains difficult to perform, and the coefficient of variation of the method is high (about 20-30%). This study evaluated and compared the performance for measuring the VWF activity of two newly commercialised assays [VWF:Ac Innovance (VWF:Ac) and VWF:RCo Acustar (VWF:RCo Acu)] with the reference VWF:RCo aggregation in 123 pathological plasma samples. The correlation and concordance between both new tests (VWF:RCo-Acu and VWF:Ac) and the reference VWF:RCo were good. The results of the VWF activity to VWF antigen ratio were also comparable whatever the method for the classification of VWF deficiency in all patients. Our results showed that both new tests could replace the "gold standard" VWF:RCo in aggregometry with several benefits: they are fully automated, easier and faster to perform, better adapted to emergency situations if necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1160/TH14-02-0108DOI Listing
October 2014

Prospective evaluation of a rapid nanoparticle-based lateral flow immunoassay (STic Expert(®) HIT) for the diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

Br J Haematol 2014 Sep 12;166(5):774-82. Epub 2014 May 12.

Haemostasis Laboratory and UMR CNRS 7292, Hôpital Trousseau and Université François Rabelais Tours, Tours, France.

A rapid lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) (STic Expert(®) HIT), recently developed for the diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), was evaluated in a prospective multicentre cohort of 334 consecutive patients. The risk of HIT was estimated by the 4Ts score as low, intermediate and high in 28·7%, 61·7% and 9·6% of patients, respectively. Definite HIT was diagnosed in 40 patients (12·0%) with positive results on both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Asserachrom(®) HPIA IgG) and serotonin release assay. The inter-reader reproducibility of results obtained was excellent (kappa ratio > 0·9). The negative predictive value of LFIA with plasma samples was 99·6% with a negative likelihood ratio (LR) of 0·03, and was comparable to those of the particle gel immunoassay (H/PF4-PaGIA(®) ) performed in 124 cases. Positive predictive value and positive LR were 44·4% and 5·87, respectively, and the results were similar for serum samples. The probability of HIT in intermediate risk patients decreased from 11·2% to 0·4% when the LFIA result was negative and increased to 42·5% when it was positive. In conclusion, the STic Expert(®) HIT combined with the 4Ts score is a reliable tool to rule out the diagnosis of HIT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.12939DOI Listing
September 2014

Mutations in the A3 domain of von Willebrand factor inducing combined qualitative and quantitative defects in the protein.

Blood 2013 Mar 18;121(11):2135-43. Epub 2013 Jan 18.

INSERM Unit 770, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.

Two unrelated families were recruited in the French Reference Center for von Willebrand Disease with moderate bleeding symptoms associated with low von Willebrand factor (VWF) antigen levels, decreased collagen binding assay, and no or partial response to desmopressin. Genetic analysis showed the presence of heterozygous mutations in the A3 domain away from the collagen-binding surface: 1 never reported previously (p.L1696R) and another (p.P1824H) described in a Spanish family. The mutations were reproduced by site-directed mutagenesis and mutant VWF was expressed in different expression systems, COS-7 cells, baby hamster kidney cells, and in VWF-deficient mice through hydrodynamic injection. p.L1696R and p.P1824H were associated with very low expression levels both in vitro and in vivo, with intracellular retention for p.P1824H. Both homozygous mutants displayed decreased binding to collagen types I and III but also decreased binding to platelet glycoproteins Ib and IIbIIIa. Co-transfections with wild-type VWF partially corrected these defects, except that collagen binding remained abnormal. The in vivo thrombosis response was severely reduced for both heterozygous mutants. In conclusion, we report 2 VWF A3 domain mutations that induce a combined qualitative and quantitative defect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2012-09-456038DOI Listing
March 2013

Monitoring treatments with unfractionated heparin: CTAD must be used instead of citrate as the anticoagulant solution when using partial-draw collection tubes. Results of a multicenter evaluation.

Thromb Res 2010 Dec 14;126(6):536-42. Epub 2010 Oct 14.

Université Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Faculté de Médecine, CHU Saint Roch, Service d'Hématologie Biologique, Nice, France.

Background: Sampling small volumes of blood may be necessary, particularly in pediatric patients, or in case of difficult or recurrent venipunctures.

Methods: Routine hemostasis test results evaluated in partial- and full-draw evacuated polymer tubes obtained in 4 centers were compared.

Results: No relevant discrepancy (Bland-Altman) was found between test results measured in partial- and full-draw tubes obtained from untreated patients and from patients on vitamin K-antagonist or low molecular weight heparin. In patients on unfractionated heparin (UFH), significantly lower anti-FXa activity [median=0.29IU/mL (range:0.04-1.15) vs. 0.39 (0.05-1.25), n=89, p<0.0001] and shorter aPTT were measured in partial-draw tubes. This discrepancy was likely to be related to the release of higher amounts of PF4 after increased platelet activation in partial-draw tubes. As CTAD is known to counteract platelet activation, we then collected blood into partial-draw CTAD tube and full-draw citrate tube. Both in patients on UFH and in untreated patients, no relevant difference could be demonstrated for all studied parameters (Bland-Altman), including aPTT and anti-FXa activity, even if analytical comparison showed significantly higher anti-FXa activity in partial-draw CTAD than in full-draw citrated tubes with a mean bias of 0.02 IU/mL, identical throughout the measuring range.

Conclusions: These results suggest that samples collected into partial-draw citrate tubes allow accurate routine coagulation testingin all patients but those requiring UFH assessment,in which their use led to a significant underestimation ofanticoagulation. In such cases, partial-draw tubes containing CTAD could be validly used to monitor heparin therapy as well as to perform routine coagulation testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2010.08.029DOI Listing
December 2010

Evaluation of an automated von Willebrand factor activity assay in von Willebrand disease.

Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2011 Nov-Dec;17(6):E25-9. Epub 2010 Aug 19.

Laboratory of Hematology, Haemophilia Center, University Hospital, Nantes, France.

We evaluated the use of the turbidimetric HemosIL von Willebrand Factor (VWF) Activity assay (VWF:Act) on the STA-R automated coagulometer (Stago, Asnières, France) for the diagnosis of von Willebrand disease (VWD). For this, we prospectively screened 268 patients. As a second part, we retrospectively assayed 111 patients with well-defined VWD subtype. In the first prospective study, we demonstrate that in most cases of VWD, VWF ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF:RCo) and VWF:Act are highly correlated but that they both cannot be considered a good screening assay when used alone, since they could miss about 25% of VWF abnormalities. However, the association of VWF:Act analysis and the Platelet Function Analyzer-100 (PFA-100) test constitutes an excellent screening strategy. In our second retrospective study concerning VWD subtypes, VWF:RCo and VWF:Act were well correlated but could be very discrepant, especially for some cases of type 2M VWD. We consider that VWF:RCo remains the "reference assay" for VWD subtype classification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1076029610379848DOI Listing
October 2012