Publications by authors named "Catherine Klersy"

456 Publications

Diagnostic delay and misdiagnosis in eosinophilic oesophagitis.

Dig Liver Dis 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Internal Medicine, IRCCS San Matteo Hospital Foundation, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) may lead to severe complications if not promptly recognised.

Aims: To assess the diagnostic delay in patients with EoE and to explore its risk factors.

Methods: EoE patients followed-up at eight clinics were included via retrospective chart review. Diagnostic delay was estimated as the time lapse occurring between the appearance of the first likely symptoms indicative of EoE and the final diagnosis. Patient-dependent and physician-dependent diagnostic delays were assessed. Multivariable regression models were computed.

Results: 261 patients with EoE (mean age 34±14 years; M:F ratio=3:1) were included. The median overall diagnostic delay was 36 months (IQR 12-88), while patient- and physician-dependent diagnostic delays were 18 months (IQR 5-49) and 6 months (IQR 1-24). Patient-dependent delay was greater compared to physician-dependent delay (95% CI 5.1-19.3, p<0.001). A previous misdiagnosis was formulated in 109 cases (41.8%; gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in 67 patients, 25.7%). The variables significantly associated with greater overall diagnostic delay were being a non-smoker, >1 episode of food impaction, previous endoscopy with no biopsies, regurgitation, and ≥2 assessing physicians. Being single was significantly associated with lower overall and patient-dependent diagnostic delay.

Conclusion: EoE is burdened by substantial diagnostic delay, depending on both patient-related and physician-related factors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2021.05.017DOI Listing
June 2021

Oral aspirin or low dose of intravenous lysine acetylsalicylate in ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 2021 Jul;22(7):539-545

Division of Cardiology.

Aim: To compare the pharmacodynamic effect of an oral loading dose of 'noncoated' ASA 300 mg vs. an intravenous bolus injection of lysine acetylsalicylate 150 mg in patients with STEMI undergoing pPCI.

Methods: This was a prospective single-center, open label, pharmacodynamic study, including nonconsecutive patients presenting at our catheterization laboratory with STEMI undergoing pPCI and not receiving ASA within the previous 7 days. Pharmacodynamic analyses were performed at five time points: baseline, and 1, 2, 4 and 12 h after the loading dose, and measured as ASA reaction units (ARU) by the Verify Now System. An ARU more than 550 was considered as nonresponsiveness to study drugs. The primary end point was the different rate of patients with ARU more than 550 at 2 h after the loading dose of oral vs. intravenous ASA. Secondary end points included the comparison of ARU more than 550 at the other time points and the comparison of continuous ARU at each time point.

Results: The study was planned with a sample size of 68 patients, but it was prematurely stopped due to slow enrollment after the inclusion of 23 patients, 12 randomized to oral ASA and 11 to intravenous lysine acetylsalicylate. At 2 h the rate of patients with ARU more than 550 was numerically but not significantly higher in patients receiving oral ASA as compared with intravenous lysine acetylsalicylate (33 vs. 14.2%; Δ -0.19, 95% confidence interval -0.59-0.21, P = 0.58). The difference over time was NS (P = 0.98), though the prevalence of ARU more than 550 was higher at the other time points. Both routes of administration reduced ARU values over time, though with no overall significant difference between profiles (P overall = 0.48).

Conclusion: In patients with STEMI undergoing pPCI the rate of nonresponsiveness to ASA was not different comparing an oral 'noncoated' loading dose of ASA with an intravenous bolus injection of lysine acetylsalicylate. However, as patient enrollment was prematurely terminated, this study is underpowered to draw a definite conclusion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2459/JCM.0000000000001174DOI Listing
July 2021

Serum Markers of Refractoriness and Enteropathy-Associated T-Cell Lymphoma in Coeliac Disease.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 11;13(10). Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Internal Medicine, IRCCS San Matteo Hospital Foundation, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

The persistence or recurrence of symptoms in patients with coeliac disease (CD), despite a gluten-free diet (GFD), must prompt further work-up for excluding refractory CD (RCD). The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of serum markers in predicting refractoriness in CD patients. This study included 72 patients affected by CD followed-up at our center, namely 49 uncomplicated CD before and after GFD and 23 RCD. Serum levels of chromogranin A (CgA) and β2-microglobuline were measured at baseline and at follow-up (median time of 13 months) in each group of patients. Cut-off points for each marker were estimated to differentiate RCD from uncomplicated CD patients. Serum levels of CgA and β2-microglobuline were significantly higher in patients with RCD compared to uncomplicated CD ( < 0.001), both at baseline and at follow-up, with no significant difference between RCD type 1 and type 2. The estimated cut-off point for CgA was 90.2 ng/mL (sensitivity 83%, specificity 100%), while for β2-microglobuline it was 696 mcg/L (sensitivity 100%, specificity of 100%). To conclude, CgA and β2-microglobuline could be useful serological markers of refractoriness in CD, with the ability to discriminate those patients who should undergo upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for making a definite diagnosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13102289DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8151476PMC
May 2021

Initial Clinical Trial of a Novel Pulmonary Valved Conduit.

Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Heart Center, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Valved allografts and xenografts for reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) lack durability and do not grow. We report the first clinical use of a completely bioabsorbable valved conduit (Xeltis pulmonary valve - XPV) in children. Twelve children (six male), median age five (two to twelve) years and median weight 17 (10 to 43) kg, underwent RVOT reconstruction with the XPV. Diagnoses were: pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect (VSD) (n = 4), tetralogy of Fallot (n = 4), common arterial trunk (n = 3), and transposition of the great arteries with VSD and pulmonary stenosis (n = 1). All had had previous surgery, including prior RVOT conduit implantation in six. Two diameters of conduit 16mm (n = 5) and 18mm (n = 7) were used. At 24 months none of the patients has required surgical re-intervention, 9 of the 12 are in NYHA functional class I and three patients in NYHA class II. None of the conduits has shown evidence of progressive stenosis, dilation or aneurysm formation. Residual peak gradient of >40 mm Hg was observed in three patients, caused by kinking of the conduit at implantation in 1 and distal stenosis in the peripheral pulmonary arteries in 2 patients. Five patients developed severe pulmonary valve insufficiency (PI); the most common mechanism was prolapse of at least one of the valve leaflets. The XPV conduit is a promising innovation for RVOT reconstruction. Progressive PI requires however an improved design (geometry, thickness) of the valve leaflets.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.semtcvs.2021.03.036DOI Listing
May 2021

Prognostic relevance and putative histogenetic role of cytokeratin 7 and MUC5AC expression in Crohn's disease-associated small bowel carcinoma.

Virchows Arch 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Unit of Anatomic Pathology, Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Pavia and Fondazione IRCCS San Matteo Hospital, Via Carlo Forlanini 16 -, 27100, Pavia, Italy.

Most Crohn's disease-associated small bowel carcinomas (CrD-SBCs) are diagnosed in advanced stage and have poor prognosis. To improve diagnosis and therapy, a better knowledge of tumour precancerous lesions, histotypes and prognostic factors is needed. We investigated histologically and immunohistochemically 52 CrD-SBCs and 51 small bowel carcinomas unrelated to inflammatory disease, together with their tumour-associated mucosa, looking for Crohn-selective changes. Histologic patterns and phenotypic markers potentially predictive of CrD-SBC histogenesis and prognosis were analysed. Cytokeratin 7 or MUC5AC-positive metaplastic changes were found in about half of investigated CrD-SBCs, significantly more frequently than in CrD-unrelated SBCs. They correlated with metaplastic changes of their associated mucosa, while being absent in normal ileal mucosa. Histologic patterns suggestive for progression of some cytokeratin 7 and/or MUC5AC-positive metaplastic lesions into cancer of the same phenotype were also observed. Patient survival analyses showed that tumour cytokeratin 7 or MUC5AC expression and non-cohesive histotype were adverse prognostic factors at univariable analysis, while cytokeratin 7 and non-cohesive histotype were also found to predict worse survival in stage- and age-inclusive multivariable analyses. Besides conventional dysplasia, hyperplasia-like non-conventional lesions were observed in CrD-SBC-associated mucosa, with patterns suggestive for a histogenetic link with adjacent cancer. In conclusion the cytokeratin 7 and/or MUC5AC-positive metaplastic foci and the non-conventional growths may have a role in cancer histogenesis, while tumour cytokeratin 7 and non-cohesive histotype may also predict poor patient survival. Present findings are worth being considered in future prospective histogenetic and clinical studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-021-03109-2DOI Listing
May 2021

Early caloric deficit is associated with a higher risk of death in invasive ventilated COVID-19 patients.

Clin Nutr 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional support management in mechanically ventilated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and explore the association between early caloric deficit and mortality, taking possible confounders (i.e. obesity) into consideration.

Methods: This was a prospective study carried out during the first pandemic wave in the intensive care units (ICUs) of two referral University Hospitals in Lombardy, Italy. Two hundred twenty-two consecutive mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients were evaluated during the ICU stay. In addition to major demographic and clinical data, we recorded information on the route and amount of nutritional support provided on a daily basis.

Results: Among patients still in the ICUs and alive on day 4 (N = 198), 129 (65.2%) and 72 (36.4%) reached a satisfactory caloric and protein intake, respectively, mainly by enteral route. In multivariable analysis, a satisfactory caloric intake on day 4 was associated with lower mortality (HR = 0.46 [95%CI, 0.42-0.50], P < 0.001). Mild obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 and < 35 kg/m) was associated with higher mortality (HR = 1.99 [95%CI, 1.07-3.68], P = 0.029), while patients with moderate-severe obesity (BMI≥35 kg/m) were less likely to be weaned from invasive mechanical ventilation (HR = 0.71 [95%CI, 0.62-0.82], P < 0.001).

Conclusions: This study confirmed the negative prognostic and clinical role of obesity in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients and suggested that early caloric deficit may independently contribute to worsen survival in this patients' population. Therefore, any effort should be made to implement an adequate timely nutritional support in all COVID-19 patients during the ICU stay.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.02.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7921717PMC
March 2021

Multidimensional Prognostic Index Predicts Clinical Outcome and Mortality in Hospitalised Older Patients with Diverticular Disease.

Gerontology 2021 Apr 13:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Internal Medicine, IRCCS San Matteo Hospital Foundation, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Introduction: The Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI) is a validated tool for assessing mortality risk in hospitalised patients. We aimed to evaluate whether the MPI predicted mortality and the risk of developing diverticular disease (DD) complications in older patients.

Methods: This is a multicentre study conducted in January 2016-March 2018. All patients with DD aged 65 years and older were included. Patients were stratified into three groups according to MPI groups (1, low risk; 2, moderate risk; 3, high risk). Risk of developing DD complications and mortality rate were assessed. Bivariate models were fitted.

Results: One hundred hospitalised patients with DD (mean age 77.9 ± 10.6 years, 53 female patients) were included. Patients with higher MPI groups were more likely to develop DD complications. In particular, 12 (46.2%), 21 (52.5%), and 28 (82.4%) patients with complicated DD were distributed to the MPI 1, MPI 2, and MPI 3 groups (p = 0.0063), respectively. Two patients died in the MPI 1, 4 in the MPI 2, and 29 in the MPI 3 group, with mortality rates of 4.0 per 100 person-year (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-15.9), 5.6 (95% CI 2.1-15.0), and 89.2 (95% CI 62-130), respectively (log-rank test p < 0.001). In bivariate analysis, after adjustment for age >80 years, Charlson Comorbidity Index >4, DD complications, and the presence of thromboembolism, higher MPI group was independently associated with higher mortality. Those in the MPI 3 group experienced a greater risk of 1-year hospital readmission (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: MPI predicted mortality in patients with DD and also correlated with the risk of developing DD complications. Studies focussing on possible pathophysiological mechanisms between DD complications and MPI are needed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000515161DOI Listing
April 2021

Risk stratification in patients with residual pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary endarterectomy.

Int J Cardiol 2021 Jul 3;334:116-122. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Division of Cardiac Surgery, Cardiopulmonary Surgery and Pulmonary Hypertension, Foundation "I.R.C.C.S. Policlinico San Matteo", Pavia, Italy; Department of Surgical, Clinical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, University of Pavia School of Medicine, Pavia, Italy.

Background: Few studies addressed the issue of risk stratification in patients with residual pulmonary hypertension (PH) after pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA). This study tested the potential added value of parameters that have not been included in existing risk models.

Methods: We evaluated 546 consecutive patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension who underwent PEA and were followed-up for a median period of 58 months.

Results: Among the 242 with residual PH, 27 died and had 127 a clinical worsening event. At univariable analysis, the parameters associated with poor survival were pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) ≥425 dyn·s·cm (p ≤ 0.001), mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) ≥38 mmHg (p = 0.003) and pulmonary artery compliance (CPA) ≤1.8 ml/mmHg (p = 0.014). In the bivariable models including either PVR or mPAP as first parameter, the addition of CPA was not statistically significant. The parameters associated with poor clinical worsening were CPA ≤1.8 ml/mmHg (p < 0.001), PVR ≥425 dyn·s·cm (p = 0.002), arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) ≤ 75 mmHg (p = 0.003), mPAP ≥38 mmHg (p = 0.008). In a multivariable analysis which included PVR ≥425 as the first parameter, the addition of both CPA ≤1.8 ml/mmHg and of PaO2 ≤ 75 mmHg significantly improved prognostic stratification (Harrel's C of the model = 0.64, p < 0.001). Noticeably, the lower tertile of the model's predictor index identified a subgroup of 91 patients who had an event rate numerically similar to that of patients without residual PH.

Conclusions: Risk stratification in residual PH can be refined if CPA and PaO2 are considered in association with standard hemodynamic parameters.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.04.003DOI Listing
July 2021

Early predictors of mortality in refractory cardiogenic shock following acute coronary syndrome treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenator.

J Artif Organs 2021 Mar 7. Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Cardiac Surgery Department, Cardiocentro Ticino, Via Tesserete, 48, 6900, Lugano, Switzerland.

We aimed to analyze the outcome and identify predictors of hospital mortality in patients with refractory cardiac arrest (CA) complicating acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and requiring veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) treatment. Between Jan-2005 and Dec-2019, 51 patients underwent urgent VA-ECMO implantation for CA in ACS. Patients were divided in two groups: "in-hospital" cardiac arrest (IHCA) and "out-of-hospital" cardiac arrest (OHCA). Prospectively collected data were retrospectively analyzed and compared between groups. Predictors for hospital mortality were investigated. IHCA and OHCA patients were 32 (62.7%) and 19 (37.3%), respectively. The groups differed for: male gender (72% vs 95%; p = 0.070), lactate peak level (8.5 ± 4.3vs10.7 ± 2.9; p = 0.023), total elapsed time from CA to VA-ECMO implantation in both groups (p < 0.001) and elapsed time from CA (IHCA group) or hospital arrival (OHCA group) to VA-ECMO implantation (38 min vs 80 min; p = 0.001). At logistic regression analysis, concomitant lactate level greater than 8.0 mmol/L and elapsed time from CA to VA-ECMO ≥ 30 min were predictors of increased mortality (OR 3.9; 95% CI 1.19-12.79; p = 0.025) for the entire population. In-hospital mortality was 60.8% (31/51 patients): 68.4% in OHCA group and 56.2% in IHCA group. No risk factors related to 30-day mortality resulted significant at univariable analysis. When rapidly instituted, VA-ECMO improves survival in patients with refractory cardiac arrest allowing coronary syndrome treatment. The association of an elapsed time from CA to VA-ECMO implantation longer than 30 min and a preoperative lactate peak level over 8.0 mmol/L predict a poor outcome, independently from being IHCA or OHCA.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10047-021-01252-wDOI Listing
March 2021

Post-transplant de novo non donor-specific HLA antibodies are not associated with poor graft outcome in non-sensitized pediatric recipients of kidney transplantation.

Transpl Immunol 2021 Apr 19;65:101375. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation Unit, IRCCS Giannina Gaslini, Genova, Italy.

While de novo donor-specific HLA antibodies (dnDSAs) have a detrimental impact on kidney graft outcome, the clinical significance of de novo non donor-specific antibodies (dnNDSAs) is more controversial. We retrospectively evaluated for Ab development and characteristics of dnNDSAs serially collected post-transplant sera and, when available, graft biopsy eluates, from 144 non-sensitized, primary pediatric kidney recipients, consecutively transplanted at a single center between 2003 and 2017, using HLA class I and class II single-antigen flow-bead assays (SAB). The results were compared with clinical-pathologic data from HLA antibody negative and HLA dnDSA-positive patients. Forty-five out of 144 patients developed dnNDSAs (31%). Among the dnNDSA-positive patients, 86% displayed one or more class I/II antibodies recognizing antigens included in the CREG/shared epitope groups that also comprise the mismatched donor HLA antigens. Despite potential pathogenicity, as suggested by their occasional presence within the graft, dnNDSAs displayed significantly lower MFI, and limited complement binding and graft homing properties, when compared with dnDSAs. In parallel, the graft survival probability was significantly lower in patients with dnDSA than in those with dnNDSA or without HLA antibodies (p < 0.005). Indeed, the dnNDSA-positive patients remaining dnDSA-negative throughout the posttransplant period did not develop clinical antibody mediated rejection and graft loss, and maintained good graft function at a median follow-up of 9 years. The biological characteristics of dnNDSAs may account for the low graft damaging capability when compared to dnDSAs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trim.2021.101375DOI Listing
April 2021

Incidence and risk factors for preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the colon and rectum in patients under 50 referred for colonoscopy.

Eur J Intern Med 2021 May 17;87:36-43. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

First Department of Internal Medicine, Endoscopy Unit, IRCCS San Matteo Hospital Foundation, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosed before the age of 50, known as early-onset CRC (eoCRC), is considered uncommon. We aimed at analysing the incidence of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the colon and rectum in patients under 50 years old and to identify possible predictors Methods: We retrospectively collected data from 1778 patients under 50 years old (mean age 39.9±7.8) referred for colonoscopy between 2015-2018. Cumulative incidence of adenomas and eoCRC was assessed. Multivariable regression models were fitted Results: The cumulative incidence for adenomas was 11.0% (95% CI 9-12), while it was 1.5% (95% CI 1-2) for eoCRC (metastatic disease in 13/27 patients). Age as a continuous variable was associated with the presence of adenomas (incidence rate ratio 1.06; 95% CI 1.03-1.09; p<0.001). EoCRC arose in most cases in the rectum (13/27, 48.1%). Age ≥40 was the main risk factor (OR 2.25; 95% CI 1.35-3.73; p=0.002) for both adenomas (160/196 patients, 81.6%) and eoCRC (20/27 patients, 74.1%), while smoking seemed to have no role (p=0.772). The presence of alarm symptoms was statistically significant at bivariable analysis for eoCRC only (OR 3.70; 95% CI 1.49-9.22; p=0.005), as well as having multiple gastrointestinal symptoms (OR 19.85; 95% CI 2.64-149.42; p=0.004). Only 3/27 (11.1%) patients with eoCRC had a family history for CRC Conclusions: A high cumulative incidence rate of both adenomas and eoCRC was found, this latter occurring more common in patients aged 40-49, without apparent risk factors. The presence of alarm symptoms or multiple gastrointestinal symptoms led to a late diagnosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2021.02.008DOI Listing
May 2021

Radiological differences between chronic thromboembolic pulmonary disease (CTEPD) and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).

Eur Radiol 2021 Jan 28. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Clinical, Surgical, Pediatric and Diagnostic Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe the radiological features of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary disease (CTEPD), not yet systematically described in the literature. Furthermore, we compared vascular scores between CTEPD and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) patients, trying to explain why pulmonary hypertension does not develop at rest in CTEPD patients.

Methods: Eighty-five patients (40 CTEPD, 45 CTEPH) referred to our centre for pulmonary endarterectomy underwent dual-energy computed tomography pulmonary angiography (DE-CTPA) with iodine perfusion maps; other 6 CTEPD patients underwent single-source CTPA. CT scans were reviewed independently by an experienced cardiothoracic radiologist and a radiology resident to evaluate scores of vascular obstruction, hypoperfusion and mosaic attenuation, signs of pulmonary hypertension and other CT features typical of CTEPH.

Results: Vascular obstruction burden was similar in the two groups (p = 0.073), but CTEPD patients have a smaller extension of perfusion defects in the iodine map (p = 0.009) and a smaller number of these patients had mosaic attenuation (p < 0.001) than CTEPH patients, suggesting the absence of microvascular disease. Furthermore, as expected, the two groups were significantly different considering the indirect signs of pulmonary hypertension (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: CTEPD and CTEPH patients have significantly different radiological characteristics, in terms of signs of pulmonary hypertension, mosaic attenuation and iodine map perfusion extension. Importantly, our results suggest that the absence of peripheral microvascular disease, even in presence of an important thrombotic burden, might be the reason for the absence of pulmonary hypertension in CTEPD.

Key Points: • CTEPD and CTEPH patients have significantly different radiological characteristics. • The absence of peripheral microvascular disease might be the reason for the absence of pulmonary hypertension in CTEPD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-07556-4DOI Listing
January 2021

Association of Timing of Electrocardiogram Acquisition After Return of Spontaneous Circulation With Coronary Angiography Findings in Patients With Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 01 4;4(1):e2032875. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Division of Cardiology, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy.

Importance: Electrocardiography (ECG) is an important tool to triage patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). An immediate coronary angiography after ROSC is recommended only in patients with an ECG that is diagnostic of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). To date, the benefit of this approach has not been demonstrated in patients with a post-ROSC ECG that is not diagnostic of STEMI.

Objective: To assess whether the time from ROSC to ECG acquisition is associated with the diagnostic accuracy of ECG for STEMI.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This retrospective, multicenter cohort study (the Post-ROSC Electrocardiogram After Cardiac Arrest study) analyzed consecutive patients older than 18 years who were resuscitated from OHCA between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2018, and were admitted to 1 of the 3 participating centers in Europe (Pavia, Italy; Lugano, Switzerland; and Vienna, Austria).

Exposure: Only patients who underwent coronary angiography during hospitalization and who acquired a post-ROSC ECG before the angiography were enrolled. Patients with a nonmedical cause of OHCAs were excluded.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary end point was false-positive ECG findings, defined as the percentage of patients with post-ROSC ECG findings that met STEMI criteria but who did not show obstructive coronary artery disease on angiography that was worthy of percutaneous coronary angioplasty.

Results: Of 586 consecutive patients who were admitted to the 3 participating centers, 370 were included in the analysis (287 men [77.6%]; median age, 62 years [interquartile range, 53-70 years]); 121 (32.7%) were enrolled in the participating center in Pavia, Italy; 38 (10.3%) in Lugano, Switzerland; and 211 (57.0%) in Vienna, Austria. The percentage of false-positive ECG findings in the first tertile of ROSC to ECG time (≤7 minutes) was significantly higher than that in the second (8-33 minutes) and third (>33 minutes) tertiles: 18.5% in the first tertile vs 7.2% in the second (odds ratio [OR], 0.34; 95% CI, 0.13-0.87; P = .02) and 5.8% in the third (OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.15-0.47; P < .001). These differences remained significant when adjusting for sex (≤7 minutes: reference; 8-33 minutes: OR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.12-0.85; P = .02; >33 minutes: OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.14-0.47; P < .001), age (≤7 minutes: reference; 8-33 minutes: OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.13-0.89; P = .03; >33 minutes: OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.15-0.46; P < .001), number of segments with ST-elevation (≤7 minutes: reference; 8-33 minutes: OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.15-0.81; P = .01; >33 minutes: OR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.15-0.52; P < .001), QRS duration (≤7 minutes: reference; 8-33 minutes: OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.14-0.87; P = .02; >33 minutes: OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.15-0.48; P < .001), heart rate (≤7 minutes: reference; 8-33 minutes: OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.13-0.93; P = .04; >33 minutes: OR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.15-0.55; P < .001), epinephrine administered (≤7 minutes: reference; 8-33 minutes: OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.13-0.98; P = .045; >33 minutes: OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.16-0.48; P < .001), shockable initial rhythm (≤7 minutes: reference; 8-33 minutes: OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.13-0.96; P = .04; >33 minutes: OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.15-0.46; P < .001), and 3 or more shocks administered (≤7 minutes: reference; 8-33 minutes: OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.13-1.00; P = .05; >33 minutes: OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.16-0.48; P < .001) in bivariable analyses.

Conclusions And Relevance: This study suggests that early ECG acquisition after ROSC in patients with OHCA is associated with a higher percentage of false-positive ECG findings for STEMI. It may be reasonable to delay post-ROSC ECG by at least 8 minutes after ROSC or repeat the acquisition if the first ECG is diagnostic of STEMI and is acquired early after ROSC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.32875DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7801935PMC
January 2021

Short P-Wave Duration is a Marker of Higher Rate of Atrial Fibrillation Recurrences after Pulmonary Vein Isolation: New Insights into the Pathophysiological Mechanisms Through Computer Simulations.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Jan 7;10(2):e018572. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Division of Cardiology Cardiocentro Ticino Lugano Switzerland.

Background Short ECG P-wave duration has recently been demonstrated to be associated with higher risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of this study was to assess the rate of AF recurrence after pulmonary vein isolation in patients with a short P wave, and to mechanistically elucidate the observation by computer modeling. Methods and Results A total of 282 consecutive patients undergoing a first single-pulmonary vein isolation procedure for paroxysmal or persistent AF were included. Computational models studied the effect of adenosine and sodium conductance on action potential duration and P-wave duration (PWD). About 16% of the patients had a PWD of 110 ms or shorter (median PWD 126 ms, interquartile range, 115 ms-138 ms; range, 71 ms-180 ms). At Cox regression, PWD was significantly associated with AF recurrence (=0.012). Patients with a PWD <110 ms (hazard ratio [HR], 2.20; 95% CI, 1.24-3.88; =0.007) and patients with a PWD ≥140 (HR, 1.87, 95% CI, 1.06-3.30; =0.031) had a nearly 2-fold increase in risk with respect to the other group. In the computational model, adenosine yielded a significant reduction of action potential duration 90 (52%) and PWD (7%). An increased sodium conductance (up to 200%) was robustly accompanied by an increase in conduction velocity (26%), a reduction in action potential duration 90 (28%), and PWD (22%). Conclusions One out of 5 patients referred for pulmonary vein isolation has a short PWD which was associated with a higher rate of AF after the index procedure. Computer simulations suggest that shortening of atrial action potential duration leading to a faster atrial conduction may be the cause of this clinical observation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.018572DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955300PMC
January 2021

Impact of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapies on symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in a large cohort of patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis.

Arthritis Res Ther 2020 12 30;22(1):290. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Division of Rheumatology, IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Foundation, Pavia, Italy.

Background: Prevalence and outcomes of coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 in relation to immunomodulatory medications are still unknown. The aim of the study is to investigate the impact of glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents on COVID-19 in a large cohort of patients with chronic immune-mediated inflammatory arthritis.

Methods: The study was conducted in the arthritis outpatient clinic at two large academic hospitals in the COVID-19 most endemic area of Northern Italy (Lombardy). We circulated a cross-sectional survey exploring the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 nasopharyngeal swab positivity and the occurrence of acute respiratory illness (fever and/or cough and/or dyspnea), administered face-to-face or by phone to consecutive patients from 25 February to 20 April 2020. COVID-19 cases were defined as confirmed or highly suspicious according to the World Health Organization criteria. The impact of medications on COVID-19 development was evaluated.

Results: The study population included 2050 adults with chronic inflammatory arthritis receiving glucocorticoids, conventional-synthetic (cs), or targeted-synthetic/biological (ts/b) disease-modifying drugs (DMARDs). Laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and highly suspicious infection were recorded in 1.1% and 1.4% of the population, respectively. Treatment with glucocorticoids was independently associated with increased risk of COVID-19 (adjusted OR [95% CI] ranging from 1.23 [1.04-1.44] to 3.20 [1.97-5.18] depending on the definition used). Conversely, patients treated with ts/bDMARDs were at reduced risk (adjusted OR ranging from 0.46 [0.18-1.21] to 0.47 [0.46-0.48]). No independent effects of csDMARDs, age, sex, and comorbidities were observed.

Conclusions: During the COVID-19 outbreak, treatment with immunomodulatory medications appears safe. Conversely, glucocorticoids, even at low-dose, may confer increased risk of infection.

Trial Registration: Retrospectively registered. Not applicable.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13075-020-02395-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7772957PMC
December 2020

Mortality reduction in 46 severe Covid-19 patients treated with hyperimmune plasma. A proof of concept single arm multicenter trial.

Haematologica 2020 12 1;105(12):2834-2840. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Carlo Poma Hospital, ASST Mantova.

Hyperimmune plasma from Covid-19 convalescent is a potential treatment for severe Covid-19. We conducted a multicenter one arm proof of concept interventional study. Patients with Covid-19 disease with moderate-to-severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, elevated C-reactive Protein and need for mechanical ventilation and/or CPAP were enrolled. One to three 250-300 ml unit of hyperimmune plasma (neutralizing antibodies titer ≥1:160) were administered. Primary outcome was 7-days hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were PaO2/FiO2, laboratory and radiologic changes, as well as weaning from mechanical ventilation and safety. The study observed 46 patients from March, 25 to April, 21 2020. Patients were aged 63, 61% male, of them, 30 were on CPAP and 7 intubated. PaO2/FiO2 was 128 (SD 47). Bilateral infiltrates on chest X-ray was present in 36 patients (84%). Symptoms and ARDS duration were 14 (SD 7) and 6 days (SD 3). Three patients (6.5%) died within 7 days as compared to an expected 15% from the National Statistics and 30% from a small concurrent cohort of 23 patients. The upper one-sided 90%CI was 13.9%, allowing to reject the null hypothesis of a 15% mortality. PaO2/FiO2 increased by 112 units (95%CI 82 to142) in survivors, the chest radiogram severity decreased in 23% (95%CI 5% to 42%); CRP, Ferritin and LDH decreased by 60, 36 and 20% respectively. Weaning from CPAP was obtained in 26/30 patients and 3/7 were extubated. Five serious adverse events occurred in 4 patients (2 likely, 2 possible treatment related). In conclusion, Hyperimmune plasma in Covid-19 shows promising benefits, to be confirmed in a randomized controlled trial. This proof of concept study could open to future developments including hyperimmune plasma banking, development of standardized pharmaceutical products and monoclonal antibodies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2020.261784DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7716363PMC
December 2020

Preparing for the Maximum Emergency with a Simulation: A Table-Top Test to Evaluate Bed Surge Capacity and Staff Compliance with Training.

Open Access Emerg Med 2020 16;12:377-387. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Emergency Department, IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia 27100, Italy.

Introduction: The sudden increase in the number of critically ill patients following a disaster can be overwhelming.

Study Objective: The main objective of this study was to assess the real number of available and readily freeable beds ("bed surge capacity") and the availability of emergency operating rooms (OR) in a maximum emergency using a theoretical simulation.

Patients And Methods: The proportion of dismissible patients in four areas (Medical Area, Surgical Area, Sub-intensive Care Units, Intensive Care Units) and three emergency OR was assessed at 2 and 24 hours after a simulated maximum emergency. Four scenarios were modeled. Hospitalization and surgical capacities were assessed on weekdays and holidays. The creation of new beds was presumed by the possibility of moving patients to a lower level of care than that provided at the time of detection, of dislocation of patients to a discharge room, with care transferred to lower-intensity hospitals, rehabilitation, or discharge facilities. The Phase 1 table-top simulations were conducted during the weekday morning hours. In particular, the 24-hour table-top simulations of a hypothetical event lasted about 150 minutes compared to those conducted at 2 hours, which were found to be longer (about 195 minutes). Phase 2 was conducted on two public holidays and a quick response time was observed within the first 40 minutes of the start of the test (about 45% of departments).

Results: The availability of simulated beds was greater than that indicated in the maximum emergency plans (which was based solely on the census of beds). Patients admitted to Intensive Care and The Sub-Intensive Area may be more difficult to move than those in low-intensity care. The availability of emergency OR was not problematic. Age influenced the possibility of remitting/transferring patients.

Conclusion: Simulation in advance of a maximum emergency is helpful in designing an efficient response plan.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OAEM.S267069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7678714PMC
November 2020

Vitamin D 25OH deficiency in COVID-19 patients admitted to a tertiary referral hospital.

Clin Nutr 2021 04 2;40(4):2469-2472. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Great interest has been raised by the possible protective role of vitamin D in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but objective data on 25(OH)vitamin D deficiency in hospitalized COVID-19 patients are not conclusive. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of 25(OH)vitamin D deficiency in COVID-19 patients admitted to an Italian referral hospital and explore its association with clinical outcomes and the markers of disease severity.

Methods: In this single-center cohort study, 129 consecutive adult COVID-19 patients hospitalized in an Italian referral center were enrolled from March to April 2020. 25(OH)Vitamin D serum levels were assessed 48 h since hospital admission and categorized into: normal (≥30 ng/mL), insufficient (<30 - ≥20 ng/mL), moderately deficient (<20 - ≥10 ng/mL), severely deficient (<10 ng/mL).

Results: The prevalence of 25(OH)vitamin D insufficiency, moderate deficiency and severe deficiency was 13.2%, 22.5% and 54.3%, respectively. 25(OH)Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) was not associated with COVID-19 clinical features and outcomes. Unexpectedly, after adjusting for major confounders, a significant positive association between increasing 25(OH)vitamin D levels and in-hospital mortality (on a continuous logarithmic scale, odds ratio = 1.73 [95% CI, 1.11 to 2.69]; P = .016) was observed.

Conclusions: Very low 25(OH)vitamin D levels were highly prevalent and suggestive of deficiency among our hospitalized severe COVID-19 patients, but low 25(OH)vitamin D levels were not associated with outcome variables. Whether 25(OH)vitamin D adequacy may influence clinical outcomes in COVID-19 and the unexpected correlation between higher 25(OH)vitamin D levels and mortality require further investigations by large intervention trials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2020.10.055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7605851PMC
April 2021

Pulmonary endarterectomy in the octogenarian population: safety and outcomes.

J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 2021 Jul;22(7):567-571

Unit of Cardiac Surgery, Intrathoracic Transplantation and Pulmonary Hypertension, University of Pavia School of Medicine, Foundation I.R.C.C.S. Policlinico San Matteo.

Aims: Aim of the study was to verify the feasibility, safety and efficacy of pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) in octogenarian patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 635 chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension patients who underwent PEA at our center and were followed-up for at least 1 year. The end-points of the study were in-hospital mortality, hemodynamic results at 1 year and long-term survival.

Results: In-hospital mortality was 4, 10 and 17%, respectively, for 259 patients under the age of 60 years, 352 aged between 60 and 79 years and 24 octogenarians (P = 0.006 octogenarians vs. <60 years). At multivariable analysis, age and pulmonary vascular resistances were independent risk factors for mortality (P = 0.021 and P < 0.001, respectively). At 1 year, the improvement in cardiac index was lower and the distance walked in 6 min was poorer for octogenarians than for the other two groups (both P = 0.001). Survival after hospital discharge was similar over a median follow-up period of 59 months (P = 0.113). Although in-hospital mortality and long-term survival are similar in octogenarians as compared with patients aged between 60 and 79, the improvement in cardiac index and in functional capacity at 1 year are lower in this very elderly population.

Conclusion: Age over 80 years should not be a contraindication to PEA surgery in selected patients operated on in referral centers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2459/JCM.0000000000001138DOI Listing
July 2021

Does therapy with biological drugs influence COVID-19 infection? Observational monocentric prevalence study on the clinical and epidemiological data of psoriatic patients treated with biological drugs or with topical drugs alone.

Dermatol Ther 2020 Nov 17;33(6):e14516. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Unit of Clinical Epidemiology and Biometrics, Scientific Direction, IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Foundation, Pavia, Italy.

Since the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there has been an open debate on the impact of biological drugs used in the treatment of psoriasis. To define whether patients under treatment with biologics suffer from increased morbidity and mortality from COVID-19, compared to psoriatic patients treated only with topical drugs, we designed an observational monocentric prevalence study recording the personal and clinical data of psoriatic patients, with focus on the presentation of signs and symptoms related to COVID-19 in the period of time ranging from 1 January 2020 to 31 May 2020. A total of 180 patients were enrolled into two groups: 100 patients in the topical therapy group and 80 patients in the biological therapy group. No statistically significant difference was found between the groups regarding the prevalence of COVID-19 infection and symptoms at a bivariable analysis with adjustment for confounders. In conclusion, psoriatic patients under treatment with biologics do not seem to be more susceptible to COVID-19 compared to other psoriatic patients and we suggest not interrupting treatment with biological drugs, even in areas suffering from active outbreaks of the disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.14516DOI Listing
November 2020

The dynamical interplay of perinatal leptin with birthweight and 3-month weight, in full-term, preterm, IUGR mother-infant dyads.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2020 Nov 8:1-7. Epub 2020 Nov 8.

Neonatal Unit and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italia.

Objective: To evaluate the dynamical interplay between perinatal leptin concentrations and neonatal weight evolution until 3 months of age.

Methods: In a prospective observational study, maternal, cord blood and neonatal plasma leptin concentrations were correlated to birthweight and 3-month weight in 26 full-term, 20 preterm, and 17 intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) mother-neonate couples.

Results: The median of maternal, cord blood, neonatal leptin concentrations were significantly different among the three groups ( = 0.010; <0.001; =0.041 correspondingly). In the respect of the full-term group, higher concentrations were reported in preterm and IUGR mothers and lower concentrations in cord blood and neonatal plasma. The post-hoc comparisons showed that maternal concentrations were significantly higher in the IUGR group ( = 0.005 vs full-term), cord blood concentrations resulted always significantly lower (preterm, IUGR vs full-term  < 0.001) and neonatal concentrations were significantly lower in the preterm group ( = 0.018 vs full-term). Neonatal birthweight and 3-month weight were always significantly different among groups ( < 0.001), even if preterm and IUGR still had lower weight than full-term, the percent increasing of weight between birth and 3-month demonstrated that preterm and IUGR infants have grown significantly faster, (preterm, IUGR vs full-term  < 0.001). The univariable analysis showed a maternal leptin association with offspring' birthweight ( = -38%,  = 0.006) and with 3-month weight ( = -43%,  = 0.002). Accounting for confounders, these associations lost significance. Cord blood leptin concentrations positively correlated with birthweight and with 3-month weight (both,  < 0.001). The latter correlation, when adjusting for birthweight became negative ( = -43%  < 0.001).

Conclusion: Our results showed that maternal leptin levels lost their influence on neonatal weight when considering confounders. At 3-month, once birthweight adjusted, the percent increasing of weight was statistically larger in preterm and IUGR than the full-term group and the correlation between cord blood leptin and weight turned negative, from positive at birth. These data may be a clue for further investigation on the relationship between perinatal leptin concentrations and catch-up growth.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2020.1839750DOI Listing
November 2020

A New Lung Ultrasound Protocol Able to Predict Worsening in Patients Affected by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Pneumonia.

J Ultrasound Med 2020 Nov 6. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of Internal Medicine, Fondazione Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Policlinico San Matteo, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Objectives: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can generate severe pneumonia associated with high mortality. A bedside lung ultrasound (LUS) examination has been shown to have a potential role in this setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential prognostic value of a new LUS protocol (evaluation of 14 anatomic landmarks, with graded scores of 0-3) in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and the association of LUS patterns with clinical or laboratory findings.

Methods: A cohort of 52 consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 underwent LUS examinations on admission in an internal medicine ward and before their discharge. A total LUS score as the sum of the scores at each explored area was computed. We investigated the association between the LUS score and clinical worsening, defined as a combination of high-flow oxygen support, intensive care unit admission, or 30-day mortality as the primary end point.

Results: Twenty (39%) patients showed a worse outcome during the observation period; the mean LUS scores ± SDs were 20.4 ± 8.5 and 29.2 ± 7.3 in patients without and with worsening, respectively (P < .001). In a multivariable analysis, adjusted for comorbidities (>2), age (>65 years), sex (male), and body mass index (≥25 kg/m ), the association between the LUS score and worsening (odds ratio, 1.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 1.29; P = .003) was confirmed, with good discrimination of the model (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.82). A median LUS score higher than 24 was associated with an almost 6-fold increase in the odds of worsening (odds ratio, 5.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.29 to 24.8; P = .021).

Conclusions: Lung ultrasound can represent an effective tool for monitoring and stratifying the prognosis of patients with SARS-CoV-2 pulmonary involvement.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jum.15548DOI Listing
November 2020

Galectin-3 Plasma Levels Are Associated with Risk Profiles in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2020 Oct 22;10(11). Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Division of Cardiology, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico S.Matteo, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

Galectin-3 is a circulating biomarker of fibrosis whose prognostic role in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has not been fully explored. We undertook a pilot study to evaluate the relationship between galectin-3 plasma levels and validated risk scores in PAH. The study included 70 PAH patients admitted to a single referral center from June 2016 to June 2018. Patients were stratified according to the REVEAL 2.0 risk score, according to the parameters suggested by the European Society of Cardiology and European Respiratory Society (ESC/ERS) Guidelines, and according to a focused echocardiographic assessment of right heart performance. The association between galectin-3 levels and risk profiles was evaluated by generalized linear regression model with adjustment for etiology. Galectin-3 plasma levels increased linearly in the three risk strata based on the REVEAL 2.0 score (from 16.0 ± 5.7 in low-risk to 22.4 ± 6.3 in intermediate-risk and in 26.9 ± 7.7 ng/mL in high-risk patients ( for trend < 0.001). Galectin-3 levels were significantly lower in low-risk patients defined according to the prognostic parameters of ESC/ERS Guidelines (delta between low-risk and intermediate/high-risk = -9.3, 95% CI -12.8 to -5.8, < 0.001, < 0.001). Additionally, galectin-3 levels were lower in the low-risk profile defined on the basis of the echocardiographic evaluation of right heart performance (delta between low-risk and intermediate-/high-risk = -6.3, 95% CI -9.9 to -2.7, = 0.001). Galectin-3 plasma levels are directly associated with several risk profiles in PAH patients. The prognostic role of this biomarker in PAH is worthwhile to be explored in larger prospective studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10110857DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7690258PMC
October 2020

Unique immunological profile in patients with COVID-19.

Cell Mol Immunol 2021 03 15;18(3):604-612. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Division of Infectious Diseases II and Immunology, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy.

The relationship between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and host immunity is poorly understood. We performed an extensive analysis of immune responses in 32 patients with severe COVID-19, some of whom succumbed. A control population of healthy subjects was included. Patients with COVID-19 had an altered distribution of peripheral blood lymphocytes, with an increased proportion of mature natural killer (NK) cells and low T-cell numbers. NK cells and CD8 T cells overexpressed T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-3 (TIM-3) and CD69. NK cell exhaustion was attested by increased frequencies of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) positive cells and reduced frequencies of natural killer group 2 member D (NKG2D)-, DNAX accessory molecule-1 (DNAM-1)- and sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin 7 (Siglec-7)-expressing NK cells, associated with a reduced ability to secrete interferon (IFN)γ. Patients with poor outcome showed a contraction of immature CD56 and an expansion of mature CD57 FcεRIγ adaptive NK cells compared to survivors. Increased serum levels of IL-6 were also more frequently identified in deceased patients compared to survivors. Of note, monocytes secreted abundant quantities of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1β which persisted at lower levels several weeks after recovery with concomitant normalization of CD69, PD-1 and TIM-3 expression and restoration of CD8 T cell numbers. A hyperactivated/exhausted immune response dominate in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, probably driven by an uncontrolled secretion of inflammatory cytokines by monocytes. These findings unveil a unique immunological profile in COVID-19 patients that will help to design effective stage-specific treatments for this potentially deadly disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-00557-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7557230PMC
March 2021

Typical values related to the complexity of interventional treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

Phys Med 2020 Oct 29;78:129-136. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Pavia, Italy.

Background And Purpose: Interventional Neuroradiology (INR) procedures are often complex, requiring prolonged high-dose exposures. This leads to increased radiation exposure to both patient and operating staff. The purpose of this study is to identify parameters related to the complexity of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) procedures that increase patient exposure and derive DRLs according to ICRP 135.

Methods: Data from 145 patients treated for AIS between 2017 and 2019 in a Hub Stroke center were retrospectively analyzed. Dosimetric parameters, demographic and clinical data were collected for each patient. The INR operator and the fluoroscopy system used were included.

Results: A multivariable analysis was performed to identify which parameters significantly influence the dosimetric data. Thrombus location and the use of stent retriever were noted as the most likely parameters of complex INR procedures. Male sex is an indicator of complex procedure only with regards to the Kerma area product and the air kerma. Patient age significantly affects the exposure time alone. Senior or more experienced operator's data demonstrated reduced patient's exposure time and therefore the KAP and Kar values. The type of X-ray equipment influenced the outcome of the procedure in terms of number of images acquired. Typical values obtained are 168 Gycm, 0.68 Gy, 19 min and 181 images.

Conclusion: Typical values derived in this study promote patient dose optimization, when considering the complexity of INR procedures. The clinical variables related to the complexity of procedure that mainly affect the dosimetric data in our experience are thrombus location and use of stent retrievers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmp.2020.09.016DOI Listing
October 2020

Improving rehabilitation in sarcopenia: a randomized-controlled trial utilizing a muscle-targeted food for special medical purposes.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2020 12 22;11(6):1535-1547. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Bahrain, Kingdom of Bahrain.

Background: Sarcopenia is a disease associated with aging and a negative prognosis. Consensus-based treatment consists in targeting muscle mass and function through physical exercise, optimization of protein intake, and vitamin D supplementation, but evidence is lacking. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of a muscle-targeted nutritional support on the outcome of a physical exercise rehabilitation programme.

Methods: In a single-site, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial (NCT03120026; May 2017 to December 2018), old (≥65 years) adults [N = 140 (63% female patients; age, 81 ± 6 years)] without severe cognitive impairment, who were found to have sarcopenia by European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People 2010 criteria and hospitalized for physical rehabilitation, were randomized to receive until discharge (for at least 4 weeks and up to 8 weeks) a whey protein-based nutritional formula enriched with leucine and vitamin D or an iso-caloric control formula twice daily in addition to a standard hospital diet. The primary endpoint was the change in 4 m gait speed per month. Key secondary endpoints addressed the change in physical performance: chair-stand test, timed up and go test, and short physical performance battery. Other secondary outcomes were the change in functional status, muscle strength and mass, cognitive status, and quality of life. The proportion of patients who improved their rehabilitation intensity profile and overall economic benefits (using length of stay and duration of rehabilitation as surrogate measures) were also evaluated.

Results: A total of 161 patients were screened and 140 were randomized to study interventions. Thirteen patients (experimental, n = 6; placebo, n = 7) discontinued the intervention because they disliked the product and intention-to-treat analyses were based on patients reassessed at discharge [n = 127 (66% female patients; age, 81 ± 6 years)]. Supplementation with the experimental formula (n = 64) resulted in greater increase in mean gait speed {0.061 m/s/month [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.043 to 0.080]} than placebo [n = 63; -0.001 m/s/month (95%CI, -0.008 to 0.006)]: mean difference, 0.063 m/s/month (95%CI, 0.043 to 0.082) (P < 0.001). A significant effect was also found for muscle mass (P < 0.03) and all key secondary outcomes, functional and cognitive endpoints (P < 0.001 for all). Supplementation resulted also in higher proportion of patients improving their rehabilitation intensity profile (P = 0.003) and being discharged home (P = 0.002); shorter rehabilitation (P < 0.001); and hospital stay (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: In old adults with sarcopenia admitted to hospital for rehabilitation the consumption of a whey protein-based nutritional formula enriched with leucine and vitamin D improved physical performance and function, as well as muscle mass, and reduced the intensity and costs of care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12532DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7749532PMC
December 2020

Activity limitations and participation restrictions in patients with peripheral facial palsy: a cross-sectional study over a six-year period.

Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2020 Dec 16;56(6):725-732. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Clinical-Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy -

Background: Peripheral facial palsy is a pathological condition caused by a wide range of etiologies. A damage of VII cranial nerve produces facial disfigurement and limitations in daily life activities, such as drinking, eating and speaking. As a consequence, patients may experience psychological distress and social isolation. To counsel and design a patient-tailored rehabilitation for patients affected by peripheral facial palsy, physical and social limitations should be considered. Moreover, the knowledge of factors associated with disability plays a key role in the early identification and adequate care of patients with higher risk to develop psychological distress and participation restrictions.

Aim: To evaluate activity limitations, psychological distress and participation restrictions of patients affected by peripheral facial palsy seeking for rehabilitation and to identify individual and disease-specific factors associated to disability.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: Consultation hour dedicated to facial palsy patients in the outpatient clinic of a Rehabilitation Unit.

Population: One hundred eighty-six outpatients with recent or chronic peripheral facial palsy at the first assessment at our Rehabilitation Unit.

Methods: Using multiple linear regression models, we evaluated the association between the two subscales of Facial Disability Index (FDI) and the composite score of Sunnybrook Facial Grading System, as well as the association between the two FDI subscales and other clinical and demographic variables.

Results: Activity limitations correlate with the severity of palsy, while psychological distress and participation restrictions do not correlate with the neurological impairment. The correlation between the severity of palsy and both activity limitations and participation restrictions is influenced by palsy etiology. Activity limitations decrease with time from palsy onset, while psychological distress and participation restrictions are more severe in women.

Conclusions: Beyond severity, also etiology, time from onset and gender influence disability after facial palsy. These factors should be considered in counselling and planning a patient-tailored multidisciplinary rehabilitative treatment.

Clinical Rehabilitation Impact: Our study highlights the individual and pathology-associated factors related to activity limitations and participation restrictions in patients with peripheral facial palsy. These elements should be considered in the definition of a patient-tailored rehabilitative plan and in the organization of a multidisciplinary care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S1973-9087.20.06326-1DOI Listing
December 2020

SCOR: A secure international informatics infrastructure to investigate COVID-19.

J Am Med Inform Assoc 2020 11;27(11):1721-1726

Biomedical Informatics and Medical Education, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Global pandemics call for large and diverse healthcare data to study various risk factors, treatment options, and disease progression patterns. Despite the enormous efforts of many large data consortium initiatives, scientific community still lacks a secure and privacy-preserving infrastructure to support auditable data sharing and facilitate automated and legally compliant federated analysis on an international scale. Existing health informatics systems do not incorporate the latest progress in modern security and federated machine learning algorithms, which are poised to offer solutions. An international group of passionate researchers came together with a joint mission to solve the problem with our finest models and tools. The SCOR Consortium has developed a ready-to-deploy secure infrastructure using world-class privacy and security technologies to reconcile the privacy/utility conflicts. We hope our effort will make a change and accelerate research in future pandemics with broad and diverse samples on an international scale.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jamia/ocaa172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7454652PMC
November 2020

Pre-existing type 2 diabetes is associated with increased all-cause death independently of echocardiographic predictors of poor prognosis only in ischemic heart disease.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2020 10 15;30(11):2036-2040. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Division of Cardiology, Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, IRCCS, Veruno, Italy.

Background And Aims: It is unknown whether the prognostic role of diabetes (T2DM) in outpatients with chronic heart failure (CHF) is independent of the most important echocardiographic markers of poor prognosis. The aims of this analysis were to evaluate whether T2DM modifies the risk of mortality in CHF patients stratified by etiology of disease or by right-ventricular to pulmonary arterial coupling at echocardiography and to evaluate how T2DM interacts with the prognostic role of cardiac plasma biomarkers.

Methods And Results: This is a retrospective analysis of 1627 CHF outpatients who underwent a complete echocardiographic examination. During a median follow-up period of 63 months 255 patients died. Poor right-ventricular to pulmonary arterial coupling and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction were independent predictors of outcome, whereas ischemic etiology and T2DM were not. T2DM interacted with etiology increasing the risk of mortality by 32% among patients with ischemic disease (p = 0.003). Elevated hsTNI plasma levels were associated with poor survival in T2DM but not in non-diabetic patients.

Conclusion: T2DM signals a worse outcome in ischemic CHF patients regardless of the echocardiographic phenotype. High plasma levels of hsTNI are stronger predictors of mortality in CHF patients with T2DM than in patients without diabetes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2020.07.008DOI Listing
October 2020