Publications by authors named "Catherine Gretchen"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Association Between Hyperoxemia and Increased Cell-Free Plasma Hemoglobin During Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Infants and Children.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care Medicine, Ochsner Hospital for Children, New Orleans, LA. Safar Center for Resuscitation Research, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA. Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA. Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

Objectives: To determine potential risk factors for severe hemolysis during pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass and examine whether supraphysiologic levels of oxygen and cardiopulmonary bypass duration are associated with hemolysis.

Design: Prospective observational study.

Setting: Cardiac ICU in a university-affiliated children's hospital.

Patients: Greater than 1 month to less than 18 years old patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass for cardiac surgery.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: Plasma samples from 100 patients to assess cell-free plasma hemoglobin levels were obtained at start cardiopulmonary bypass, at the end of cardiopulmonary bypass, and 2 and 24 hours after reperfusion. Arterial blood gas samples were obtained before and every 30 minutes during cardiopulmonary bypass. Patient demographics and laboratory data were collected from the electronic medical record. Plasma hemoglobin levels peaked at the end of cardiopulmonary bypass and haptoglobin levels continued to fall throughout all time points. There were 44 patients with severe hemolysis (change in cell-free plasma hemoglobin > 50 mg/dL). Younger age (odds ratio/SD 0.45 [95% CI, 0.25-0.81]) and higher mean PaO2 × cardiopulmonary bypass duration (31.11 [1.46-664.64]) were identified as risk factors for severe hemolysis in multivariable analysis. Severe hemolysis was associated with longer hospital and ICU lengths of stay as well as acute kidney injury.

Conclusions: We observed younger age and the exposure to both oxygen and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass as risk factors for hemolysis. Oxygen delivery through the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit is an easily modifiable risk factor. Its role in the production of reactive oxygen species that could alter the erythrocyte membrane deserves further examination in larger prospective studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0000000000002814DOI Listing
September 2021

Bioactive Oxylipins in Infants and Children With Congenital Heart Disease Undergoing Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2020 01;21(1):33-41

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

Objectives: To determine the production of 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid during cardiopulmonary bypass in infants and children undergoing cardiac surgery, evaluate their relationship with increase in cell-free plasma hemoglobin, provide evidence of bioactivity through markers of inflammation and vasoactivity (WBC count, milrinone use, vasoactive-inotropic score), and examine their association with overall clinical burden (ICU/hospital length of stay and mechanical ventilation duration).

Design: Prospective observational study.

Setting: Twelve-bed cardiac ICU in a university-affiliated children's hospital.

Patients: Children were prospectively enrolled during their preoperative clinic appointments with the following criteria: greater than 1 month to less than 18 years old, procedures requiring cardiopulmonary bypass INTERVENTIONS:: None.

Measurements And Main Results: Plasma was collected at the start and end of cardiopulmonary bypass in 34 patients. 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, plasma hemoglobin, and WBC increased. 9:13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid at the start of cardiopulmonary bypass was associated with vasoactive-inotropic score at 2-24 hours postcardiopulmonary bypass (R = 0.25; p < 0.01), milrinone use (R = 0.17; p < 0.05), and WBC (R = 0.12; p < 0.05). 9:13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid at the end of cardiopulmonary bypass was associated with vasoactive-inotropic score at 2-24 hours (R = 0.17; p < 0.05), 24-48 hours postcardiopulmonary bypass (R = 0.12; p < 0.05), and milrinone use (R = 0.19; p < 0.05). 9:13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid at the start and end of cardiopulmonary bypass were associated with the changes in plasma hemoglobin (R = 0.21 and R = 0.23; p < 0.01). The changes in plasma hemoglobin was associated with milrinone use (R = 0.36; p < 0.001) and vasoactive-inotropic score less than 2 hours (R = 0.22; p < 0.01), 2-24 hours (R = 0.24; p < 0.01), and 24-48 hours (R = 0.48; p < 0.001) postcardiopulmonary bypass. Cardiopulmonary bypass duration, 9:13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid at start of cardiopulmonary bypass, and plasma hemoglobin may be risk factors for high vasoactive-inotropic score. Cardiopulmonary bypass duration, changes in plasma hemoglobin, 9:13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, and vasoactive-inotropic score correlate with ICU and hospital length of stay and/mechanical ventilation days.

Conclusions: In low-risk pediatric patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass, 9:13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid was associated with changes in plasma hemoglobin, vasoactive-inotropic score, and WBC count, and may be a risk factor for high vasoactive-inotropic score, indicating possible inflammatory and vasoactive effects. Further studies are warranted to delineate the role of hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids and plasma hemoglobin in cardiopulmonary bypass-related dysfunction and to explore hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid production as a potential therapeutic target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0000000000002036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7388063PMC
January 2020

Cell-Free Plasma Hemoglobin and Male Gender Are Risk Factors for Acute Kidney Injury in Low Risk Children Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

Crit Care Med 2017 Nov;45(11):e1123-e1130

1Department of Critical Care Medicine, UPMC and University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. 2Department of Emergency Medicine, UPMC and University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. 3Safar Center for Resuscitation Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. 4Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, UPMC and University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. 5Department of Cardiovascular Services, Nemours Children's Hospital, Orlando, FL. 6Pittsburgh Heart, Lung, Blood and Vascular Medicine Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. 7Department of Medicine UPMC and University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

Objectives: To determine the relationship between the production of cell-free plasma hemoglobin and acute kidney injury in infants and children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass for cardiac surgery.

Design: Prospective observational study.

Setting: Twelve-bed cardiac ICU in a university-affiliated children's hospital.

Patients: Children were prospectively enrolled during their preoperative outpatient appointment with the following criteria: greater than 1 month to less than 18 years old, procedures requiring cardiopulmonary bypass, no preexisting renal dysfunction.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: Plasma and urine were collected at baseline (in a subset), the beginning and end of cardiopulmonary bypass, and 2 hours and 24 hours after cardiopulmonary bypass in 60 subjects. Levels of plasma hemoglobin increased during cardiopulmonary bypass and were associated (p < 0.01) with cardiopulmonary bypass duration (R = 0.22), depletion of haptoglobin at end and 24 hours after cardiopulmonary bypass (R = 0.12 and 0.15, respectively), lactate dehydrogenase levels at end cardiopulmonary bypass (R = 0.27), and change in creatinine (R = 0.12). Forty-three percent of patients developed acute kidney injury. There was an association between plasma hemoglobin level and change in creatinine that varied by age (overall [R = 0.12; p < 0.01]; in age > 2 yr [R = 0.22; p < 0.01]; and in < 2 yr [R = 0.03; p = 0.42]). Change in plasma hemoglobin and male gender were found to be risk factors for acute kidney injury (odds ratio, 1.02 and 3.78, respectively; p < 0.05).

Conclusions: Generation of plasma hemoglobin during cardiopulmonary bypass and male gender are associated with subsequent renal dysfunction in low-risk pediatric patients, especially in those older than 2 years. Further studies are needed to determine whether specific subgroups of pediatric patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass would benefit from potential treatments for hemolysis and plasma hemoglobin-associated renal dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000002703DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5657595PMC
November 2017
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