Publications by authors named "Catherine Demuynck"

14 Publications

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Therapeutic prevention of COVID-19 in elderly: a case-control study.

Geroscience 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

ICube Laboratory, UMR 7357 and CNRS, University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

COVID-19 is a particularly aggressive disease for the elderly as 86% of deaths related to COVID-19 occur in people over 65 years of age. Despite the urgent need for a preventive treatment, there are currently no serious leads, other than the vaccination. The aim of this retrospective case-control study is to find a pharmacological preventive treatment of COVID-19 in elderly patients. One-hundred-seventy-nine patients had been in contact with other COVID-19 patients at home or in hospital, of whom 89 had tested RT-PCR-positive (COVID-pos) for the virus and 90 had tested RT-PCR-negative (COVID-neg). Treatments within 15 days prior to RT-PCR (including antihypertensive drugs, antipsychotics, antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), oral antidiabetics (OADs), corticosteroids, immunosuppressants), comorbidities, symptoms, laboratory values, and clinical outcome were all collected. COVID-pos patients more frequently had a history of diabetes (P = .016) and alcoholism (P = .023), a lower leukocyte count (P = .014) and a higher mortality rate - 29.2% versus 14.4% - (P = .014) when compared to COVID-neg patients. Patients on PPIs were 2.3 times less likely (odds ratio [OR] = 0.4381, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.2331, 0.8175], P = .0053) to develop COVID-19 infection, compared to those not on PPIs. No other treatment decreased or increased this risk. COVID-pos patients on antipsychotics (P = .0013) and OADs (P = .0153), particularly metformin (P = .0237), were less likely to die. Thus, patients on treatment with PPI were less likely to develop COVID-19 infection, and those on antipsychotics or metformin had a lower risk of mortality. However, prospective studies, including clinical trials, are needed to confirm or not these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11357-021-00397-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8285285PMC
July 2021

Cerebrovascular disease, neurodegeneration, and clinical phenotype in dementia with Lewy bodies.

Neurobiol Aging 2021 May 14;105:252-261. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Electronic address:

We investigated whether cerebrovascular disease contributes to neurodegeneration and clinical phenotype in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Regional cortical thickness and subcortical gray matter volumes were estimated from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 165 DLB patients. Cortical and subcortical infarcts were recorded and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) were assessed. Subcortical only infarcts were more frequent (13.3%) than cortical only infarcts (3.1%) or both subcortical and cortical infarcts (2.4%). Infarcts, irrespective of type, were associated with WMHs. A higher WMH volume was associated with thinner orbitofrontal, retrosplenial, and posterior cingulate cortices, smaller thalamus and pallidum, and larger caudate volume. A higher WMH volume was associated with the presence of visual hallucinations and lower global cognitive performance, and tended to be associated with the absence of probable rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. Presence of infarcts was associated with the absence of parkinsonism. We conclude that cerebrovascular disease is associated with gray matter neurodegeneration in patients with probable DLB, which may have implications for the multifactorial treatment of probable DLB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2021.04.029DOI Listing
May 2021

Association of cerebral microbleeds with cerebrospinal fluid Alzheimer-biomarkers and clinical symptoms in early dementia with Lewy bodies.

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2021 06 26;36(6):851-857. Epub 2020 Dec 26.

IMIS Team and IRIS Plateform, ICube Laboratory, UMR 7357, French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), Strasbourg, France.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence, localization and associations of cerebral microbleeds (CMB) in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) with its core clinical symptoms and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We hypothesize DLB patients with CMB have increased amyloid burden compared to those without CMB, which could also translate into clinical differences.

Methods: Retrospective cross-sectional analysis from the AlphaLewyMA study (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01876459). Patients underwent a standardized protocol of brain MRI including 3D T1, 3D FLAIR and T2* sequences, and CSF analysis of AD biomarkers. CMB and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) were visually assessed in prodromal and mild demented (DLB, N = 91) and AD (AD, N = 67) patients.

Results: CMB prevalence did not differ among DLB and AD (24.2% vs. 37.3%; p = 0.081). CMB were mainly distributed in lobar topographies in both DLB (74%) and AD (89%). CMB in DLB was not associated with global cognitive performance, executive functioning, speed of information processing, or AD CSF biomarkers. Similarly, there was no difference regarding specific clinical symptoms: fluctuations, psychotic phenomena, sleep behavior disorder and Parkinsonism between DLB patients with and without CMB. AD patients with CMB had increased burden of WMH compared to those without (2.1 ± 0.86 vs. 1.4 ± 0.89; p = 0.005), according to Fazekas scale, whereas no significant difference was observed in DLB patients (1.68 ± 0.95 vs. 1.42 ± 0.91; p = 0.25).

Conclusion: CMB were equally prevalent with similar topographic distribution in both DLB and AD patients. CMB was not associated with CSF AD biomarkers or core clinical symptoms in DLB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.5485DOI Listing
June 2021

Differential diagnostic value of total alpha-synuclein assay in the cerebrospinal fluid between Alzheimer's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies from the prodromal stage.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2020 09 29;12(1):120. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

CM2R (Research and Resources Memory Centre), Geriatric Day Hospital and Neuropsychology Unit, Geriatrics Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Background: Several studies have investigated the value of alpha-synuclein assay in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) patients in the differential diagnosis of these two pathologies. However, very few studies have focused on this assay in AD and DLB patients at the MCI stage.

Methods: All patients were enrolled under a hospital clinical research protocol from the tertiary Memory Clinic (CM2R) of Alsace, France, by an experienced team of clinicians. A total of 166 patients were included in this study: 21 control subjects (CS), 51 patients with DLB at the prodromal stage (pro-DLB), 16 patients with DLB at the demented stage (DLB-d), 33 AD patients at the prodromal stage (pro-AD), 32 AD patients at the demented stage (AD-d), and 13 patients with mixed pathology (AD+DLB). CSF levels of total alpha-synuclein were assessed using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for alpha-synuclein (AJ Roboscreen). Alzheimer's biomarkers (t-Tau, P-Tau, Aβ42, and Aβ40) were also measured.

Results: The alpha-synuclein assays showed a significant difference between the AD and DLB groups. Total alpha-synuclein levels were significantly higher in AD patients than in DLB patients. However, the ROC curves show a moderate discriminating power between AD and DLB (AUC = 0.78) which does not improve the discriminating power of the combination of Alzheimer biomarkers (AUC = 0.95 with or without alpha-synuclein). Interestingly, the levels appeared to be altered from the prodromal stage in both AD and DLB.

Conclusions: The modification of total alpha-synuclein levels in the CSF of patients occurs early, from the prodromal stage. The adding of alpha-synuclein total to the combination of Alzheimer's biomarker does not improve the differential diagnosis between AD and DLB.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01876459 (AlphaLewyMa).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13195-020-00684-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7523311PMC
September 2020

Environmental exposure to phthalates and dementia with Lewy bodies: contribution of metabolomics.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2020 09 7;91(9):968-974. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Institut de Biologie Moléculaire des Plantes, Plant Imaging and Mass Spectrometry (PIMS), CNRS, University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Background: In neurodegenerative diseases, alongside genetic factors, the possible intervention of environmental factors in the pathogenesis is increasingly being considered. In particular, recent evidence suggests the intervention of a pesticide-like xenobiotic in the initiation of disease with Lewy bodies (DLB).

Objectives: To test for the presence of pesticides or other xenobiotics in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with DLB.

Methods: A total of 45 patients were included in this study: 16 patients with DLB at the prodromal stage, 8 patients with DLB at the demented stage, 8 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) at the prodromal stage and 13 patients with AD at the demented stage. CSF was obtained by lumbar puncture and analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Results: Among the compounds detected in greater abundance in the CSF of patients with DLB compared with patients with AD, only one had a xenobiotic profile potentially related to the pathophysiology of DLB. After normalisation and scaling, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate was more abundant in the CSF of patients with DLB (whole cohort: 2.7-fold abundant in DLB, p=0.031; patients with dementia: 3.8-fold abundant in DLB, p=0.001).

Conclusions: This study is the first reported presence of a phthalate in the CSF of patients with DLB. This molecule, which is widely distributed in the environment and enters the body orally, nasally and transdermally, was first introduced in the 1920s as a plasticizer. Thereafter, the first cases of DLB were described in the 1960s and 1970s. These observations suggest that phthalates may be involved in the pathophysiology of DLB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2020-322815DOI Listing
September 2020

Changes in gray matter volume and functional connectivity in dementia with Lewy bodies compared to Alzheimer's disease and normal aging: implications for fluctuations.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2020 01 6;12(1). Epub 2020 Jan 6.

ICube Laboratory UMR 7357 and FMTS (Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle de Strasbourg), Team IMIS, University of Strasbourg and CNRS, Strasbourg, France.

Background: Fluctuations are one of the core clinical features characterizing dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). They represent a determining factor for its diagnosis and strongly impact the quality of life of patients and their caregivers. However, the neural correlates of this complex symptom remain poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the structural and functional changes in DLB patients, compared to Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and healthy elderly subjects, and their potential links with fluctuations.

Methods: Structural and resting-state functional MRI data were collected from 92 DLB patients, 70 AD patients, and 22 control subjects, who also underwent a detailed clinical examination including the Mayo Clinic Fluctuation Scale. Gray matter volume changes were analyzed using whole-brain voxel-based morphometry, and resting-state functional connectivity was investigated using a seed-based analysis, with regions of interest corresponding to the main nodes of the salience network (SN), frontoparietal network (FPN), dorsal attention network (DAN), and default mode network (DMN).

Results: At the structural level, fluctuation scores in DLB patients did not relate to the atrophy of insular, temporal, and frontal regions typically found in this pathology, but instead showed a weak correlation with more subtle volume reductions in different regions of the cholinergic system. At the functional level, the DLB group was characterized by a decreased connectivity within the SN and attentional networks, while the AD group showed decreases within the SN and DMN. In addition, higher fluctuation scores in DLB patients were correlated to a greater connectivity of the SN with the DAN and left thalamus, along with a decreased connectivity between the SN and DMN, and between the right thalamus and both the FPN and DMN.

Conclusions: Functional connectivity changes, rather than significant gray matter loss, could play an important role in the emergence of fluctuations in DLB. Notably, fluctuations in DLB patients appeared to be related to a disturbed external functional connectivity of the SN, which may lead to less relevant transitions between different cognitive states in response to internal and environmental stimuli. Our results also suggest that the thalamus could be a key region for the occurrence of this symptom.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13195-019-0575-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6945518PMC
January 2020

Insular cognitive impairment at the early stage of dementia with Lewy bodies: a preliminary study.

Geriatr Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil 2017 Sep;15(3):329-338

Centre mémoire ressource et recherche (CMRR), Département de gériatrie, Hôpital de jour gériatrique ; Service de neurologie, Unité de neuropsychologie, Hôpital universitaire de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France, Laboratoire ICube UMR 7357 et Fédération de médecine translationnelle de Strasbourg (FMTS), Équipe IMIS/Neurocrypto, Université de Strasbourg et CNRS, Strasbourg, France, Centre d'investigation clinique, Hôpital universitaire de Strasbourg et Inserm, Strasbourg, France.

Background: The anterior part of the insula appears atrophied in the early stage of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) whereas it is not the case in early Alzheimer's disease (AD).

Objective: The objective of this study was to develop neuropsychological markers supposed to reflect insular dysfunction, which would facilitate early diagnosis of DLB, namely in comparison to AD.

Methods: Twelve patients with DLB, 12 patients with AD, all at the stage of Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia, as well as 10 Controls subjects (CS) participated in the study. Cognitive functions supposedly related to the insula were evaluated with a battery of tests: a facial expression recognition test, a test assessing the feeling of disgust with images, a test evaluating idioms' comprehension, an empathy questionnaire and a questionnaire screening for disgusting behaviors.

Results: Compared to AD patients and CS, DLB patients experienced less disgust when they were shown disgusting images, whereas their ability to recognize emotional expression of disgust appeared to be preserved. Furthermore, DLB patients seemed less empathetic than AD patients. Finally, compared to CS, DLB patients were less effective to provide an intuitive decision about idioms' signification since they needed significantly more time to answer.

Conclusion: This preliminary study suggests the existence of a potential « insular cognitive impairment » profile in DLB at the early stage. These results provide interesting leads to develop tools facilitating the differential diagnosis of DLB and AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/pnv.2017.0684DOI Listing
September 2017

Insular atrophy at the prodromal stage of dementia with Lewy bodies: a VBM DARTEL study.

Sci Rep 2017 08 25;7(1):9437. Epub 2017 Aug 25.

ICube, UMR 7357, CNRS, Université de Strasbourg, Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Diffuse atrophy including the insula was previously demonstrated in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) patients but little is known about the prodromal stage of DLB (pro-DLB). In this prospective study, we used SPM8-DARTEL to measure gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) atrophy in pro-DLB patients (n = 54), prodromal Alzheimer's disease (pro-AD) patients (n = 16), DLB patients at the stage of dementia (mild-DLB) (n = 15), and Alzheimer's disease patients at the stage of dementia (mild-AD) (n = 28), and compared them with healthy elderly controls (HC, n = 22). Diminished GM volumes were found in bilateral insula in pro-DLB patients, a trend to significance in right hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus in pro-AD patients, in left insula in mild-DLB patients, and in medial temporal lobes and insula in mild-AD patients. The comparison between prodromal groups did not showed any differences. The comparison between groups with dementia revealed atrophy around the left middle temporal gyrus in mild-AD patients. Reduced WM volume was observed in mild-DLB in the pons. The insula seems to be a key region in DLB as early as the prodromal stage. MRI studies looking at perfusion, and functional and anatomical connectivity are now needed to better understand the role of this region in DLB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-08667-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5573371PMC
August 2017

Long-term cognitive outcome of Alzheimer's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies: dual disease is worse.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2017 Jun 27;9(1):47. Epub 2017 Jun 27.

University of Strasbourg, Laboratory of Biostatistics and French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), ICube Laboratory, Team Modèles, Images et Vision (MIV), Strasbourg, France.

Background: Longitudinal studies of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are rare. Clinically, DLB is usually considered to worsen into Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of our study was to compare the rate of the cognitive decline in DLB, AD, and the association of the two diseases (AD + DLB).

Methods: Using the Regional Network for Diagnostic Aid and Management of Patients with Cognitive Impairment database, which includes all the patients seen at all memory clinics (medical consultation and day hospitals) in four French regions, and beta regression, we compared the longitudinal the Mini-Mental State Examination scores of 1159 patients with AD (n = 1000), DLB (n = 131) and AD + DLB (association of the two) (n = 28) during follow-up of at least 4 years.

Results: The mean follow-up of the patients was 5.88 years. Using beta regression without propensity scores, the comparison of the decline of patients with AD and patients with DLB did not show a significant difference, but the decline of patients with AD + DLB was worse than that of either patients with DLB (P = 0.006) or patients with AD (P < 0.001). Using beta regression weighted by a propensity score, comparison of patients with AD and patients with DLB showed a faster decline for patients with DLB (P < 0.001). The comparison of the decline of patients with AD + DLB with that of patients with DLB (P < 0.001) and patients with AD (P < 0.001) showed that the decline was clearly worse in the patients with dual disease.

Conclusions: Whatever the analysis, the rate of decline is faster in patients with AD + DLB dual disease. The identification of such patients is important to enable clinicians to optimise treatment and care and to better inform and help patients and caregivers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13195-017-0272-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5488368PMC
June 2017

Cognitive profile in prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2017 Mar 16;9(1):19. Epub 2017 Mar 16.

Neuropsychology Unit, Neurology Department, University Hospitals of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Background: Cortical and subcortical cognitive impairments have been found in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Roughly, they comprise visuoconstructive and executive dysfunction, whereas memory would remain relatively spared. However, the cognitive profile of patients with prodromal DLB remains poorly illustrated to date.

Methods: We included 37 patients with prodromal DLB (age 67.2 ± 8.6 years, 18 men, Mini Mental State Examination [MMSE] score 27.4 ± 2) and 29 healthy control subjects (HCs; age 68.8 ± 7.9 years, 15 men, MMSE score 29.0 ± 0.9). They were presented with an extensive neuropsychological test battery to assess memory; speed of processing; executive function; visuoperceptual, visuospatial and visuoconstructive abilities; language; and social cognition.

Results: Compared with HCs, patients had lower scores on a visual recognition memory test (Delayed Matching to Sample-48 items; p ≤ 0.021) and lower free recall (all p ≤ 0.035), but not total recall, performance on a verbal episodic memory test (Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test). Short-term memory (p = 0.042) and working memory (p = 0.002) scores were also lower in patients. Assessment of executive function showed no slowing but overall lower performance in patients than in HCs (all p ≤ 0.049), whereas assessment of instrumental function yielded mixed results. Indeed, patients had lower scores on language tests (p ≤ 0.022), apraxia for pantomime of tool use (p = 0.002) and imitation of meaningless gesture (p = 0.005), as well as weakened visuospatial abilities (p = 0.047). Visuoconstruction was also impaired in patients. However, visuoperceptual abilities did not differ between groups. Finally, theory of mind abilities were lower in patients than in HCs (p < 0.05), but their emotion recognition abilities were similar.

Conclusions: This study presents the cognitive profile in patients with prodromal DLB. In line with the literature on DLB with dementia, our results show lower performance on tests of executive function and visuoconstruction. However, we found, from a prodromal stage of DLB, memory (free recall and visual recognition) and social cognition deficits, as well as weakened visuospatial and praxic abilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13195-017-0242-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5356316PMC
March 2017

Grey matter atrophy in prodromal stage of dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2016 07 20;8:31. Epub 2016 Jul 20.

Institute of Neuroscience, Campus for Aging and Vitality, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Background: Little is known about the patterns of brain atrophy in prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies (pro-DLB).

Methods: In this study, we used SPM8 with diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra to measure grey matter (GM) volume and investigate patterns of GM atrophy in pro-DLB (n = 28) and prodromal Alzheimer's disease (pro-AD) (n = 27) and compared and contrasted them with those in elderly control subjects (n = 33) (P ≤ 0.05 corrected for family-wise error).

Results: Patients with pro-DLB showed diminished GM volumes of bilateral insulae and right anterior cingulate cortex compared with control subjects. Comparison of GM volume between patients with pro-AD and control subjects showed a more extensive pattern, with volume reductions in temporal (hippocampi and superior and middle gyri), parietal and frontal structures in the former. Direct comparison of prodromal groups suggested that more atrophy was evident in the parietal lobes of patients with pro-AD than patients with pro-DLB. In patients with pro-DLB, we found that visual hallucinations were associated with relative atrophy of the left cuneus.

Conclusions: Atrophy in pro-DLB involves the insulae and anterior cingulate cortex, regions rich in von Economo neurons, which we speculate may contribute to the early clinical phenotype of pro-DLB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13195-016-0198-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4970221PMC
July 2016

Cognitive and affective theory of mind in dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2016 Mar 16;8(1):10. Epub 2016 Mar 16.

Neuropsychology Unit, Memory Resource and Research Centre (CMRR), Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Background: Theory of mind (ToM) refers to the ability to attribute mental states, thoughts (cognitive component) or feelings (affective component) to others. This function has been studied in many neurodegenerative diseases; however, to our knowledge, no studies investigating ToM in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) have been published. The aim of our study was to assess ToM in patients with DLB and to search for neural correlates of potential deficits.

Methods: Thirty-three patients with DLB (DLB group) and 15 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD group), all in the early stage of the disease, as well as 16 healthy elderly control subjects (HC group), were included in the study. After a global cognitive assessment, we used the Faux Pas Recognition (FPR) test, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes (RME) test and Ekman's Facial Emotion Recognition test to assess cognitive and affective components of ToM. Patients underwent cerebral 3-T magnetic resonance imaging, and atrophy of grey matter was analysed using voxel-based morphometry. We performed a one-sample t test to investigate the correlation between each ToM score and grey matter volume and a two-sample t test to compare patients with DLB impaired with those non-impaired for each test.

Results: The DLB group performed significantly worse than the HC group on the FPR test (P = 0.033) and the RME test (P = 0.015). There was no significant difference between the AD group and the HC group or between the DLB group and the AD group. Some brain regions were associated with ToM impairments. The prefrontal cortex, with the inferior frontal cortex and the orbitofrontal cortex, was the main region, but we also found correlations with the temporoparietal junction, the precuneus, the fusiform gyrus and the insula.

Conclusions: This study is the first one to show early impairments of ToM in DLB. The two cognitive and affective components both appear to be affected in this disease. Among patients with ToM difficulties, we found atrophy in brain regions classically involved in ToM, which reinforces the neuronal network of ToM. Further studies are now needed to better understand the neural basis of such impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13195-016-0179-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4793654PMC
March 2016

Diagnostic Value of Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers (Phospho-Tau181, total-Tau, Aβ42, and Aβ40) in Prodromal Stage of Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia with Lewy Bodies.

J Alzheimers Dis 2016 ;51(4):1069-83

University Hospital of Strasbourg, Neuropsychology Unit, Neurology Service, Strasbourg, France.

Background: Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) symptoms are close to those of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the differential diagnosis is difficult especially early in the disease. Unfortunately, AD biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and more particularly Aβ1 - 42, appear to be altered in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). However, the level of these biomarkers has never been studied in the prodromal stage of the disease.

Objective: To compare these biomarkers between DLB and AD, with a particular focus on the prodromal stage.

Methods: A total of 166 CSF samples were collected at the memory clinic of Strasbourg. They were obtained from prodromal DLB (pro-DLB), DLB dementia, prodromal AD (pro-AD), and AD dementia patients, and elderly controls. Phospho-Tau181, total-Tau, Aβ42, and Aβ40 were measured in the CSF.

Results: At the prodromal stage, contrary to AD patients, DLB patients' biomarker levels in the CSF were not altered. At the demented stage of DLB, Aβ42 levels were reduced as well as Aβ40 levels. Thus, the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio remained unchanged between the prodromal and demented stages, contrary to what was observed in AD. Tau and Phospho-Tau181 levels were unaltered in DLB patients.

Conclusions: We have shown that at the prodromal stage the DLB patients had no pathological profile. Consequently, CSF AD biomarkers are extremely useful for differentiating AD from DLB patients particularly at this stage when the clinical diagnosis is difficult. Thus, these results open up new perspectives on the interpretation of AD biomarkers in DLB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-150731DOI Listing
December 2016

Cortical Thickness in Dementia with Lewy Bodies and Alzheimer's Disease: A Comparison of Prodromal and Dementia Stages.

PLoS One 2015 10;10(6):e0127396. Epub 2015 Jun 10.

Institute of Neuroscience, Campus for Aging and Vitality, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.

Objectives: To assess and compare cortical thickness (CTh) of patients with prodromal Dementia with Lewy bodies (pro-DLB), prodromal Alzheimer's disease (pro-AD), DLB dementia (DLB-d), AD dementia (AD-d) and normal ageing.

Methods: Study participants(28 pro-DLB, 27 pro-AD, 31 DLB-d, 54 AD-d and 33 elderly controls) underwent 3Tesla T1 3D MRI and detailed clinical and cognitive assessments. We used FreeSurfer analysis package to measure CTh and investigate patterns of cortical thinning across groups.

Results: Comparison of CTh between pro-DLB and pro-AD (p<0.05, FDR corrected) showed more right anterior insula thinning in pro-DLB, and more bilateral parietal lobe and left parahippocampal gyri thinning in pro-AD. Comparison of prodromal patients to healthy elderly controls showed the involvement of the same regions. In DLB-d (p<0.05, FDR corrected) cortical thinning was found predominantly in the right temporo-parietal junction, and insula, cingulate, orbitofrontal and lateral occipital cortices. In AD-d(p<0.05, FDR corrected),the most significant areas affected included the entorhinal cortices, parahippocampal gyri and parietal lobes. The comparison of AD-d and DLB-d demonstrated more CTh in AD-d in the left entorhinal cortex (p<0.05, FDR corrected).

Conclusion: Cortical thickness is a sensitive measure for characterising patterns of grey matter atrophy in early stages of DLB distinct from AD. Right anterior insula involvement may be a key region at the prodromal stage of DLB and needs further investigation.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0127396PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4489516PMC
March 2016