Publications by authors named "Catherine Boileau"

187 Publications

Identification of a Variant in Gene as a Major Cause of Hypobetalipoproteinemia in Lebanese Families.

Metabolites 2021 Aug 24;11(9). Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Therapeutics (LBTM), Faculty of Pharmacy, Pôle Technologie-Santé, Saint Joseph University of Beirut, Beirut 17-5208, Lebanon.

Familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL) is a codominant genetic disorder characterized by reduced plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B. To our knowledge, no study on FHBL in Lebanon and the Middle East region has been reported. Therefore, we conducted genetic studies in unrelated families and probands of Lebanese origin presenting with FHBL, in order to identify the causes of this disease. We found that 71% of the recruited probands and their affected relatives were heterozygous for the p.(Arg490Trp) variant in the gene. Haplotype analysis showed that these patients presented the same mutant haplotype. Moreover, there was a decrease in plasma levels of PCSK9 in affected individuals compared to the non-affected and a significant positive correlation between circulating PCSK9 and ApoB levels in all studied probands and their family members. Some of the p.(Arg490Trp) carriers suffered from diabetes, hepatic steatosis or neurological problems. In conclusion, the p.(Arg490Trp) pathogenic variant seems a cause of FHBL in patients from Lebanese origin, accounting for approximately 70% of the probands with FHBL presumably as a result of a founder mutation in Lebanon. This study is crucial to guide the early diagnosis, management and prevention of the associated complications of this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo11090564DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8469161PMC
August 2021

Marfan syndrome.

Nat Rev Dis Primers 2021 09 2;7(1):64. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Montalcino Aortic Consortium (MAC), Houston, TX, USA.

Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant, age-related but highly penetrant condition with substantial intrafamilial and interfamilial variability. MFS is caused by pathogenetic variants in FBN1, which encodes fibrillin-1, a major structural component of the extracellular matrix that provides support to connective tissues, particularly in arteries, the pericondrium and structures in the eye. Up to 25% of individuals with MFS have de novo variants. The most prominent manifestations of MFS are asymptomatic aortic root aneurysms, aortic dissections, dislocation of the ocular lens (ectopia lentis) and skeletal abnormalities that are characterized by overgrowth of the long bones. MFS is diagnosed based on the Ghent II nosology; genetic testing confirming the presence of a FBN1 pathogenetic variant is not always required for diagnosis but can help distinguish MFS from other heritable thoracic aortic disease syndromes that can present with skeletal features similar to those in MFS. Untreated aortic root aneurysms can progress to life-threatening acute aortic dissections. Management of MFS requires medical therapy to slow the rate of growth of aneurysms and decrease the risk of dissection. Routine surveillance with imaging techniques such as transthoracic echocardiography, CT or MRI is necessary to monitor aneurysm growth and determine when to perform prophylactic repair surgery to prevent an acute aortic dissection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41572-021-00298-7DOI Listing
September 2021

MUC5B promoter variant rs35705950 and rheumatoid arthritis associated interstitial lung disease survival and progression.

Semin Arthritis Rheum 2021 Oct 10;51(5):996-1004. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Université de Paris, AP-HP, Hôpital Avicenne, Service de Pneumologie, Bobigny, France.

Background: The major risk factor for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), MUC5B rs35705950, was found to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD). Whilst the MUC5B rs35705950 T risk allele has been associated with better survival in IPF, its impact on RA-ILD prognosis remains to be determined. Our objective was to explore the influence of MUC5B rs35705950 on survival and progression in RA-ILD.

Methods: Through an international retrospective observational study, patients with RA-ILD were genotyped for the MUC5B rs35705950 variant and consecutive pulmonary function tests (PFTs) findings were collected. Longitudinal data up to a 10-year follow-up were considered and analyzed using mixed regression models. Proportional hazards and joint proportional hazards models were used to analyze the association of baseline and longitudinal variables with lung transplant-free survival. Significant progression of RA-ILD was defined as at least an absolute or relative 10% decline of forced vital capacity at 2 years from baseline.

Results: Out of 321 registered patients, 261 were included in the study: 139 women (53.3%), median age at RA-ILD diagnosis 65 years (interquartile range [IQR] 57 to 71), 151 ever smokers (59.2%). Median follow-up was 3.5 years (IQR 1.3 to 6.6). Mortality rate was 32% (95%CI 19 to 42) at 10 years. The MUC5B rs35705950 variant did not impact lung transplant-free survival (HR for the T risk allele carriers=1.26; 95%CI 0.61 to 2.62; P=0.53). Decline in pulmonary function at 2 years was not influenced by MUC5B rs35705950 (OR=0.95; 95%CI 0.44 to 2.05; P=0.89), irrespective of the HRCT pattern.

Conclusion: In this study, the MUC5B rs35705950 promoter variant did not influence transplant- free survival or decline in pulmonary function in patients with RA-ILD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2021.07.002DOI Listing
October 2021

Inhibition of HIPK2 Alleviates Thoracic Aortic Disease in Mice With Progressively Severe Marfan Syndrome.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2021 09 29;41(9):2483-2493. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Institute for Systems Biomedicine (C.I.C., J.H., B.C., T.H., R.I., F.R.), Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York.

Objective: Despite considerable research, the goal of finding nonsurgical remedies against thoracic aortic aneurysm and acute aortic dissection remains elusive. We sought to identify a novel aortic PK (protein kinase) that can be pharmacologically targeted to mitigate aneurysmal disease in a well-established mouse model of early-onset progressively severe Marfan syndrome (MFS).

Approach And Results: Computational analyses of transcriptomic data derived from the ascending aorta of MFS mice predicted a probable association between thoracic aortic aneurysm and acute aortic dissection development and the multifunctional, stress-activated HIPK2 (homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2). Consistent with this prediction, Hipk2 gene inactivation significantly extended the survival of MFS mice by slowing aneurysm growth and delaying transmural rupture. HIPK2 also ranked among the top predicted PKs in computational analyses of DEGs (differentially expressed genes) in the dilated aorta of 3 MFS patients, which strengthened the clinical relevance of the experimental finding. Additional in silico analyses of the human and mouse data sets identified the TGF (transforming growth factor)-β/Smad3 signaling pathway as a potential target of HIPK2 in the MFS aorta. Chronic treatment of MFS mice with an allosteric inhibitor of HIPK2-mediated stimulation of Smad3 signaling validated this prediction by mitigating thoracic aortic aneurysm and acute aortic dissection pathology and partially improving aortic material stiffness.

Conclusions: HIPK2 is a previously unrecognized determinant of aneurysmal disease and an attractive new target for antithoracic aortic aneurysm and acute aortic dissection multidrug therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.121.316464DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8530207PMC
September 2021

APOE gene variants in primary dyslipidemia.

Atherosclerosis 2021 07 23;328:11-22. Epub 2021 May 23.

Laboratory for Vascular Translational Science (LVTS), INSERM U1148, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Xavier Bichat, Paris, France; Université de Paris, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a major apolipoprotein involved in lipoprotein metabolism. It is a polymorphic protein and different isoforms are associated with variations in lipid and lipoprotein levels and thus cardiovascular risk. The isoform apoE4 is associated with an increase in LDL-cholesterol levels and thus a higher cardiovascular risk compared to apoE3. Whereas, apoE2 is associated with a mild decrease in LDL-cholesterol levels. In the presence of other risk factors, apoE2 homozygotes could develop type III hyperlipoproteinemia (familial dysbetalipoproteinemia or FD), an atherogenic disorder characterized by an accumulation of remnants of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Several rare APOE gene variants were reported in different types of dyslipidemias including FD, familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH), lipoprotein glomerulopathy and bona fide autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia (ADH). ADH is characterized by elevated LDL-cholesterol levels leading to coronary heart disease, and due to molecular alterations in three main genes: LDLR, APOB and PCSK9. The identification of the APOE-p.Leu167del variant as the causative molecular element in two different ADH families, paved the way to considering APOE as a candidate gene for ADH. Due to non mendelian interacting factors, common genetic and environmental factors and perhaps epigenetics, clinical presentation of lipid disorders associated with APOE variants often strongly overlap. More studies are needed to determine the spectrum of APOE implication in each of the diseases, notably ADH, in order to improve clinical and genetic diagnosis, prognosis and patient management. The purpose of this review is to comment on these APOE variants and on the molecular and clinical overlaps between dyslipidemias.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2021.05.007DOI Listing
July 2021

Hunting for the genetic basis of Susac syndrome.

Eur J Neurol 2021 07 7;28(7):e57-e59. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Département de Médecine Interne, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bichat, Université de Paris, Paris, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.14836DOI Listing
July 2021

Clinical relevance of genotype-phenotype correlations beyond vascular events in a cohort study of 1500 Marfan syndrome patients with FBN1 pathogenic variants.

Genet Med 2021 07 17;23(7):1296-1304. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Université de Paris, LVTS, INSERM U1148, Hôpital Bichat-Claude-Bernard, Paris, France.

Purpose: Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a connective tissue disorder in which several systems are affected with great phenotypic variability. Although known to be associated with pathogenic variants in the FBN1 gene, few genotype-phenotype correlations have been found in proband studies only.

Methods: In 1,575 consecutive MFS probands and relatives from the most comprehensive database worldwide, we established survival curves and sought genotype-phenotype correlations.

Results: A risk chart could be established with clinical and genetic data. Premature termination codon variants were not only associated with a shorter life expectancy and a high lifelong risk of aortic event, but also with the highest risk of severe scoliosis and a lower risk for ectopia lentis (EL) surgery. In-frame variants could be subdivided according to their impact on the cysteine content of fibrillin-1 with a global higher severity for cysteine loss variants and the highest frequency of EL surgery for cysteine addition variants.

Conclusion: This study shows that FBN1 genotype-phenotype correlations exist for both aortic and extra-aortic features. It can be used for optimal risk stratification of patients with a great importance for genetic counseling and personalized medicine. This also provides additional data for the overall understanding of the role of fibrillin-1 in various organs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-021-01132-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8257477PMC
July 2021

Unsuspected somatic mosaicism for FBN1 gene contributes to Marfan syndrome.

Genet Med 2021 05 25;23(5):865-871. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Université de Paris, Laboratory for Vascular Translational Science, INSERM U1148, Hôpital Bichat-Claude-Bernard, Paris, France.

Purpose: Individuals with mosaic pathogenic variants in the FBN1 gene are mainly described in the course of familial screening. In the literature, almost all these mosaic individuals are asymptomatic. In this study, we report the experience of our team on more than 5,000 Marfan syndrome (MFS) probands.

Methods: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) capture technology allowed us to identify five cases of MFS probands who harbored a mosaic pathogenic variant in the FBN1 gene.

Results: These five sporadic mosaic probands displayed classical features usually seen in Marfan syndrome. Combined with the results of the literature, these rare findings concerned both single-nucleotide variants and copy-number variations.

Conclusion: This underestimated finding should not be overlooked in the molecular diagnosis of MFS patients and warrants an adaptation of the parameters used in bioinformatics analyses. The five present cases of symptomatic MFS probands harboring a mosaic FBN1 pathogenic variant reinforce the fact that apparently asymptomatic mosaic parents should have a complete clinical examination and a regular cardiovascular follow-up. We advise that individuals with a typical MFS for whom no single-nucleotide pathogenic variant or exon deletion/duplication was identified should be tested by NGS capture panel with an adapted variant calling analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-01078-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8105163PMC
May 2021

Agreement in the CARTaGENE cohort between self-reported medication use and claim data.

Chronic Illn 2021 Jan 10:1742395320985913. Epub 2021 Jan 10.

Centre for Outcomes Research and Evaluation and Division of Clinical Epidemiology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Canada.

Objectives: To describe the agreement of self-reported medication use with claim prescription records and to ascertain factors associated with agreement between the two data sources.

Methods: Baseline data on self-reported medication use was extracted from CARTaGENE, a cohort study in Quebec, Canada, and from the provincial health insurance records (dispensation database) of the same individuals. Kappa statistics were used to estimate concordance beyond chance between the two data sources. Logistic regression models were adjusted to estimate the association between agreement and selected individual's characteristics (sex, age, education, region, income, utilization of health care system, and comorbidities).

Results: Agreement between self-reported medication use and administrative data varied considerably across medication classes (kappa 0.54 for respiratory system and 0.91 for systemic hormonal preparations). Overall, agreement improved when a fixed time window of 90 days was used for exposure measurement. Sex, education level, frequency of health care use and the number of reported medications were associated with agreement.

Discussion: Overall, there was a reasonable agreement between the two data sources, but important variations were found for the different drug classes. These results could be used by researchers to more accurately assess drug exposures using real-world data, which are increasingly important to regulators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1742395320985913DOI Listing
January 2021

The Laboratory for Vascular Translational Science (LVTS).

Eur Heart J 2020 08;41(31):2928-2931

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa256DOI Listing
August 2020

Pathogenic variants in THSD4, encoding the ADAMTS-like 6 protein, predispose to inherited thoracic aortic aneurysm.

Genet Med 2021 01 28;23(1):111-122. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Laboratory for Vascular Translational Science, INSERM U1148, Université de Paris, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Xavier Bichat, APHP, Paris, France.

Purpose: Thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (TAAD) is a life-threatening disease with often unrecognized inherited forms. We sought to identify novel pathogenic variants associated with autosomal dominant inheritance of TAAD.

Methods: We analyzed exome sequencing data from 35 French TAAD families and performed next-generation sequencing capture panel of genes in 1114 unrelated TAAD patients. Functional effects of pathogenic variants identified were validated in cell, tissue, and mouse models.

Results: We identified five functional variants in THSD4 of which two heterozygous variants lead to a premature termination codon. THSD4 encodes ADAMTSL6 (member of the ADAMTS/L superfamily), a microfibril-associated protein that promotes fibrillin-1 matrix assembly. The THSD4 variants studied lead to haploinsufficiency or impaired assembly of fibrillin-1 microfibrils. Thsd4 mice showed progressive dilation of the thoracic aorta. Histologic examination of aortic samples from a patient carrying a THSD4 variant and from Thsd4 mice, revealed typical medial degeneration and diffuse disruption of extracellular matrix.

Conclusion: These findings highlight the role of ADAMTSL6 in aortic physiology and TAAD pathogenesis. They will improve TAAD management and help develop new targeted therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-00947-4DOI Listing
January 2021

Methotrexate and rheumatoid arthritis associated interstitial lung disease.

Eur Respir J 2021 02 11;57(2). Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Dept of Rheumatology, Hôpital Avicenne, APHP, Bobigny, France.

Question Addressed By The Study: Methotrexate (MTX) is a key anchor drug for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) management. Fibrotic interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common complication of RA. Whether MTX exposure increases the risk of ILD in patients with RA is disputed. We aimed to evaluate the association of prior MTX use with development of RA-ILD.

Methods: Through a case-control study design with discovery and international replication samples, we examined the association of MTX exposure with ILD in 410 patients with chronic fibrotic ILD associated with RA (RA-ILD) and 673 patients with RA without ILD. Estimates were pooled over the different samples using meta-analysis techniques.

Results: Analysis of the discovery sample revealed an inverse relationship between MTX exposure and RA-ILD (adjusted OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.24-0.90; p=0.022), which was confirmed in the replication samples (pooled adjusted OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.19-0.79; p=0.009). The combined estimate using both the derivation and validation samples revealed an adjusted OR of 0.43 (95% CI 0.26-0.69; p=0.0006). MTX ever-users were less frequent among patients with RA-ILD compared to those without ILD, irrespective of chest high-resolution computed tomography pattern. In patients with RA-ILD, ILD detection was significantly delayed in MTX ever-users compared to never-users (11.4±10.4 years and 4.0±7.4 years, respectively; p<0.001).

Answer To The Question: Our results suggest that MTX use is not associated with an increased risk of RA-ILD in patients with RA, and that ILD was detected later in MTX-treated patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.00337-2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8212188PMC
February 2021

Marfan sartan saga, episode X.

Eur Heart J 2020 11;41(43):4188-4190

Centre national de référence pour le syndrome de Marfan et apparentés, VASCERN HTAD European Reference Center, AP-HP, Hôpital Bichat, Paris, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa418DOI Listing
November 2020

Quantifying the Genetic Basis of Marfan Syndrome Clinical Variability.

Genes (Basel) 2020 05 20;11(5). Epub 2020 May 20.

INSERM U1148, 75018 Paris, France.

Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder with considerable inter- and intra-familial clinical variability. The contribution of inherited modifiers to variability has not been quantified. We analyzed the distribution of 23 clinical features in 1306 well-phenotyped MFS patients carrying mutations. We found strong correlations between features within the same system (i.e., ophthalmology vs. skeletal vs. cardiovascular) suggesting common underlying determinants, while features belonging to different systems were largely uncorrelated. We adapted a classical quantitative genetics model to estimate the heritability of each clinical feature from phenotypic correlations between relatives. Most clinical features showed strong familial aggregation and high heritability. We found a significant contribution by the major locus on the phenotypic variance only for ectopia lentis using a new strategy. Finally, we found evidence for the "Carter effect" in the MFS cardiovascular phenotype, which supports a polygenic model for MFS cardiovascular variability and indicates additional risk for children of MFS mothers with an aortic event. Our results demonstrate that an important part of the phenotypic variability in MFS is under the control of inherited modifiers, widely shared between features within the same system, but not among different systems. Further research must be performed to identify genetic modifiers of MFS severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes11050574DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7288268PMC
May 2020

Excess of de novo variants in genes involved in chromatin remodelling in patients with marfanoid habitus and intellectual disability.

J Med Genet 2020 07 10;57(7):466-474. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Centre de Compétence Anomalies du Développement et Syndromes Malformatifs Sud-Est, CHI de Toulon - La Seyne-sur-Mer, France.

Purpose: Marfanoid habitus (MH) combined with intellectual disability (ID) (MHID) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous presentation. The combination of array CGH and targeted sequencing of genes responsible for Marfan or Lujan-Fryns syndrome explain no more than 20% of subjects.

Methods: To further decipher the genetic basis of MHID, we performed exome sequencing on a combination of trio-based (33 subjects) or single probands (31 subjects), of which 61 were sporadic.

Results: We identified eight genes with de novo variants (DNVs) in at least two unrelated individuals ( and ). Using simulation models, we showed that five genes ( and ) met conservative Bonferroni genomewide significance for an excess of the observed de novo point variants. Overall, at least one pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant was identified in 54.7% of subjects (35/64). These variants fell within 27 genes previously associated with Mendelian disorders, including and , which are known to be mutated in overgrowth syndromes.

Conclusion: We demonstrated that DNVs were enriched in chromatin remodelling (p=2×10) and genes regulated by the fragile X mental retardation protein (p=3×10), highlighting overlapping genetic mechanisms between MHID and related neurodevelopmental disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2019-106425DOI Listing
July 2020

A Case of Trisomy 13 Mosaicism Presenting with a Severe Aortic Root Dilatation and Marfanoid Habitus due to an Unpredictable Cytogenetic Mechanism.

Cytogenet Genome Res 2020 18;160(2):72-79. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

In this report, we present a new case of mosaic trisomy 13 with prolonged survival, firstly detected by array-CGH analysis which was carried out because of moderate intellectual disability with postaxial hexadactyly, dermatologic features, ventricular septal defect, bicuspid aortic valve, and aortic dystrophy in a 19-year-old male patient. In a subset of 15% of the cells, the patient carried a derivative chromosome 10 generated by a nonreciprocal (10;13) translocation inherited from his healthy mother who carried the translocation in a balanced and homogeneous state. FISH analyses showed interstitial telomeric sequences at the breakpoints. To our knowledge, this is the second report of a patient with trisomy 13 mosaicism displaying a severe aortic root dilatation. We also discuss the mechanisms which could explain the mosaic state, the most likely one being related to the instability of the interstitial telomere.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000506319DOI Listing
April 2020

Clinical and genetic data of 22 new patients with SMAD3 pathogenic variants and review of the literature.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2020 05 10;8(5):e1132. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Service de génétique médicale, Hôpital Purpan, CHU de Toulouse, Toulouse, France.

Background: Pathogenic SMAD3 variants are responsible for a cardiovascular phenotype, mainly thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. Precocious identification of the vascular risk such as aortic dilatation in mutated patients has a major impact in terms of management, particularly to avoid dissection and sudden death. These vascular damages are classically associated with premature osteoarthritis and skeletal abnormalities. However, variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance are common with SMAD3 variants.

Methods: To investigate the clinical variability observed within SMAD3 patients, we reviewed the phenotypic and genetic data of 22 new patients from our Centre and of 133 patients reported in the literature. From this cohort of 155 mutated individuals, we first aimed to delineate an estimated frequency of the main clinical signs associated with SMAD3 pathogenic variants and, then, to look for genotype-phenotype correlations, mainly to see if the aortic phenotype (AP) could be predicted by the SMAD3 variant type.

Results: We showed, herein, the absence of correlation between the SMAD3 variant type and the occurrence of an AP in patients.

Conclusion: Therefore, this report brings additional data for the genotype-phenotype correlations of SMAD3 variants and the need to explore in more detail the effects of genetic modifiers that could influence the phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.1132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7216810PMC
May 2020

First heterozygous mutation in familial pulmonary fibrosis.

Eur Respir J 2020 06 11;55(6). Epub 2020 Jun 11.

2nd Pulmonary Medicine Dept, General University Hospital "Attikon", Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.02465-2019DOI Listing
June 2020

Pathogenic FBN1 Genetic Variation and Aortic Dissection in Patients With Marfan Syndrome.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2020 03;75(8):843-853

Centre de référence pour le syndrome de Marfan et apparentés, VASCERN HTAD European Reference Center, AP-HP, Hôpital Bichat, Paris, France; INSERM U1148, LVTS, Hôpital Bichat, Paris, France; Université de Paris, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Background: Aortic risk has not been evaluated in patients with Marfan syndrome and documented pathogenic variants in the FBN1 gene.

Objectives: This study sought to describe aortic risk in a population with Marfan syndrome with pathogenic variants in the FBN1 gene as a function of aortic root diameter.

Methods: Patients carrying an FBN1 pathogenic variant who visited our reference center at least twice were included, provided they had not undergone aortic surgery or had an aortic dissection before their first visit. Aortic events (aortic surgery or aortic dissection) and deaths were evaluated during the 2 years following each patient visit. The risk was calculated as the number of events divided by the number of years of follow-up.

Results: A total of 954 patients were included (54% women; mean age 23 years). During follow-up (9.1 years), 142 patients underwent prophylactic aortic root surgery, 5 experienced type A aortic dissection, and 12 died (noncardiovascular causes in 3, unknown etiology in 3, post-operative in 6). When aortic root diameter was <50 mm, risk for proven type A dissection (0.4 events/1,000 patient-years) and risk for possible aortic dissection (proven aortic dissection plus death of unknown cause, 0.7 events/1,000 patients-years) remained low in this population that was treated according to guidelines. Three type A aortic dissections occurred in this population during the 8,594 years of follow-up, including 1 in a patient with a tubular aortic diameter of 50 mm, but none in patients with a family history of aortic dissection. The risk for type B aortic dissection in the same population was 0.5 events/1,000 patient-years.

Conclusions: In patients with FBN1 pathogenic variants who receive beta-blocker therapy and who limit strenuous exercise, aortic risk remains low when maximal aortic diameter is <50 mm. The risk of type B aortic dissection is close to the remaining risk of type A aortic dissection in this population, which underlines the global aortic risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2019.12.043DOI Listing
March 2020

A new mutational hotspot in the SKI gene in the context of MFS/TAA molecular diagnosis.

Hum Genet 2020 Apr 24;139(4):461-472. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Centre de Génétique et Centre de Référence Anomalies du Développement et Syndromes Malformatifs de l'interrégion Est et FHU TRANSLAD, Hôpital d'Enfants, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Dijon, 14, Rue Gaffarel, 21079, Dijon Cedex, France.

SKI pathogenic variations are associated with Shprintzen-Goldberg Syndrome (SGS), a rare systemic connective tissue disorder characterized by craniofacial, skeletal and cardiovascular features. So far, the clinical description, including intellectual disability, has been relatively homogeneous, and the known pathogenic variations were located in two different hotspots of the SKI gene. In the course of diagnosing Marfan syndrome and related disorders, we identified nine sporadic probands (aged 2-47 years) carrying three different likely pathogenic or pathogenic variants in the SKI gene affecting the same amino acid (Thr180). Seven of these molecular events were confirmed de novo. All probands displayed a milder morphological phenotype with a marfanoid habitus that did not initially lead to a clinical diagnosis of SGS. Only three of them had learning disorders, and none had intellectual disability. Six out of nine presented thoracic aortic aneurysm, which led to preventive surgery in the oldest case. This report extends the phenotypic spectrum of variants identified in the SKI gene. We describe a new mutational hotspot associated with a marfanoid syndrome with no intellectual disability. Cardiovascular involvement was confirmed in a significant number of cases, highlighting the importance of accurately diagnosing SGS and ensuring appropriate medical treatment and follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-019-02102-9DOI Listing
April 2020

Phenotypic spectrum of TGFB3 disease-causing variants in a Dutch-French cohort and first report of a homozygous patient.

Clin Genet 2020 05 16;97(5):723-730. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Département de Génétique, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Bichat, Paris, France.

Disease-causing variants in TGFB3 cause an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder which is hard to phenotypically delineate because of the small number of identified cases. The purpose of this retrospective cross-sectional multicenter study is to elucidate the genotype and phenotype in an international cohort of TGFB3 patients. Eleven (eight novel) TGFB3 disease-causing variants were identified in 32 patients (17 families). Aortic root dilatation and mitral valve disease represented the most common cardiovascular findings, reported in 29% and 32% of patients, respectively. Dissection involving distal aortic segments occurred in two patients at age 50 and 52 years. A high frequency of systemic features (65% high-arched palate, 63% arachnodactyly, 57% pectus deformity, 52% joint hypermobility) was observed. In familial cases, incomplete penetrance and variable clinical expressivity were noted. Our cohort included the first described homozygous patient, who presented with a more severe phenotype compared to her heterozygous relatives. In conclusion, TGFB3 variants were associated with a high percentage of systemic features and aortic disease (dilatation/dissection) in 35% of patients. No deaths occurred from cardiovascular events or pregnancy-related complications. Nevertheless, homozygosity may be driving a more severe phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.13700DOI Listing
May 2020

Patients With High Genome-Wide Polygenic Risk Scores for Coronary Artery Disease May Receive Greater Clinical Benefit From Alirocumab Treatment in the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES Trial.

Circulation 2020 02 11;141(8):624-636. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc, Tarrytown, NY (A.D., P.B., G.M., R.P., J.D.O., L.A.L., G.D.Y., G.R.A., A.B., C.P.).

Background: Alirocumab, an antibody that blocks PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9), was associated with reduced major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and death in the ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab). In this study, higher baseline levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) predicted greater benefit from alirocumab treatment. Recent studies indicate high polygenic risk scores (PRS) for coronary artery disease (CAD) identify individuals at higher risk who derive increased benefit from statins. We performed post hoc analyses to determine whether high PRS for CAD identifies higher-risk individuals, independent of baseline LDL-C and other known risk factors, who might derive greater benefit from alirocumab treatment.

Methods: ODYSSEY OUTCOMES was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing alirocumab or placebo in 18 924 patients with acute coronary syndrome and elevated atherogenic lipoproteins despite optimized statin treatment. The primary endpoint (MACE) comprised death of CAD, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring hospitalization. A genome-wide PRS for CAD comprising 6 579 025 genetic variants was evaluated in 11 953 patients with available DNA samples. Analysis of MACE risk was performed in placebo-treated patients, whereas treatment benefit analysis was performed in all patients.

Results: The incidence of MACE in the placebo group was related to PRS for CAD: 17.0% for high PRS patients (>90th percentile) and 11.4% for lower PRS patients (≤90th percentile; <0.001); this PRS relationship was not explained by baseline LDL-C or other established risk factors. Both the absolute and relative reduction of MACE by alirocumab compared with placebo was greater in high versus low PRS patients. There was an absolute reduction by alirocumab in high versus low PRS groups of 6.0% and 1.5%, respectively, and a relative risk reduction by alirocumab of 37% in the high PRS group (hazard ratio, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.46-0.86]; =0.004) versus a 13% reduction in the low PRS group (hazard ratio, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.78-0.98]; =0.022; interaction =0.04).

Conclusions: A high PRS for CAD is associated with elevated risk for recurrent MACE after acute coronary syndrome and a larger absolute and relative risk reduction with alirocumab treatment, providing an independent tool for risk stratification and precision medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.044434DOI Listing
February 2020

Myelodysplastic syndromes and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a dangerous liaison.

Respir Res 2019 Aug 13;20(1):182. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

2nd Pulmonary Medicine Department, General University Hospital "Attikon" Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 1 Rimini Street, 12462 Haidari, Athens, Greece.

Previous studies have shown that the co-existence of bone marrow failure and pulmonary fibrosis in a single patient or in a family is suggestive of telomere related genes (TRG) germline mutations. This study presents the genetic background, clinical characteristics, and outcome of a group of five Greek patients co-affected with IPF and MDS. Four out of five patients developed an IPF acute exacerbation that was not reversible. We failed to detect any mutation in the TERT, TERC, DKC1, TINF2, RTEL1, PARN, NAF1, ACD, NHP2 and NOP10 genes in any patient. Moreover, telomere length was normal in the two patients tested. This could suggest that although the co-occurence of IPF and MDS are suggestive of TRG mutation in patients < 65 years old, in the elderly it may occur without germline mutations and could negatively affect prognosis. Physicians should be aware for possible IPF deterioration and therapeutic options for MDS should be wisely considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12931-019-1151-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6693222PMC
August 2019

Genetic testing for aortopathies: primer for the nongeneticist.

Curr Opin Cardiol 2019 11;34(6):585-593

VASCERN HTAD European Reference Centre, Centre National Maladies Rares pour le Syndrome de Marfan et apparente[Combining Acute Accent]s.

Purpose Of Review: Although the majority of thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAD) in the overall population are mainly related to arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis, Heritable Thoracic Aortic Disease (HTAD) are increasingly recognized, especially in younger individuals. As fatal events in the setting of HTAD are preventable with timely detection and appropriate management, this review aims to provide an overview of the genetic basis of HTAD and practical recommendations for genetic evaluation in this setting.

Recent Findings: Thanks in part to a number of important efforts to set up (inter)national networks and consortia for collecting clinical and genetic data from patients with these rare disorders, significant progress has been made in understanding the natural evolution of these disorders. These insights are now starting to enable the development of recommendations for the management of these patients.In addition, pathogenic variants in a number of new genes have been identified in HTAD patients. On the basis of more extensive genetic screening in cohorts of patients with TAD, it is becoming clear that there is no strict boundary between syndromal and nonsyndromal HTAD entities. It is, therefore, important to at least consider genetic evaluation, not only for patients presenting with syndromic forms but also for more isolated TAD.Finally, there are indications that we will -- up to a certain point -- soon be able to draw up a more precise policy for individual patients, based on the underlying genetic defects SUMMARY: Genetic evaluation in (young) patients with both syndromic and nonsyndromic forms of HTAD should be considered and is helpful for the development of more precise medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HCO.0000000000000669DOI Listing
November 2019

Core-Shell Polymer-Based Nanoparticles Deliver miR-155-5p to Endothelial Cells.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2019 Sep 4;17:210-222. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Université de Paris, LVTS, INSERM U1148, Université Paris 13, 75018 Paris, France. Electronic address:

Heart failure occurs in over 30% of the worldwide population and most commonly originates from cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction. microRNAs (miRNAs) target and silence specific mRNAs, thereby regulating gene expression. Because the endogenous miR-155-5p has been ascribed to vasculoprotection, loading it onto positively charged, core-shell poly(isobutylcyanoacrylate) (PIBCA)-polysaccharide nanoparticles (NPs) was attempted. NPs showed a decrease (p < 0.0001) in surface electrical charge (ζ potential), with negligible changes in size or shape when loaded with the anionic miR-155-5p. Presence of miR-155-5p in loaded NPs was further quantified. Cytocompatibility up to 100 μg/mL of NPs for 2 days with human coronary artery endothelial cells (hCAECs) was documented. NPs were able to enter hCAECs and were localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Expression of miR-155-5p was increased within the cells by 75-fold after 4 hours of incubation (p < 0.05) and was still noticeable at day 2. Differences between loaded NP-cultured cells and free miRNA, at days 1 (p < 0.05) and 2 (p < 0.001) suggest the ability of prolonged load release in physiological conditions. Expression of miR-155-5p downstream target BACH1 was decreased in the cells by 4-fold after 1 day of incubation (p < 0.05). This study is a first proof of concept that miR-155-5p can be loaded onto NPs and remain intact and biologically active in endothelial cells (ECs). These nanosystems could potentially increase an endogenous cytoprotective response and decrease damage within infarcted hearts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtn.2019.05.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6610682PMC
September 2019

Systems pharmacology-based integration of human and mouse data for drug repurposing to treat thoracic aneurysms.

JCI Insight 2019 06 6;4(11). Epub 2019 Jun 6.

Department of Pharmacological Sciences and Institute for Systems Biomedicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

Marfan syndrome (MFS) is associated with mutations in fibrillin-1 that predispose afflicted individuals to progressive thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) leading to dissection and rupture of the vessel wall. Here we combined computational and experimental approaches to identify and test FDA-approved drugs that may slow or even halt aneurysm progression. Computational analyses of transcriptomic data derived from the aortas of MFS patients and MFS mice (Fbn1mgR/mgR mice) predicted that subcellular pathways associated with reduced muscle contractility are key TAA determinants that could be targeted with the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen. Systemic administration of baclofen to Fbn1mgR/mgR mice validated our computational prediction by mitigating arterial disease progression at the cellular and physiological levels. Interestingly, baclofen improved muscle contraction-related subcellular pathways by upregulating a different set of genes than those downregulated in the aorta of vehicle-treated Fbn1mgR/mgR mice. Distinct transcriptomic profiles were also associated with drug-treated MFS and wild-type mice. Thus, systems pharmacology approaches that compare patient- and mouse-derived transcriptomic data for subcellular pathway-based drug repurposing represent an effective strategy to identify potential new treatments of human diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.127652DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6629138PMC
June 2019

Clinical Significance of Aortic Root Modification Associated With Bicuspid Aortic Valve in Marfan Syndrome.

Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2019 03;12(3):e008129

Centre National de Référence pour le syndrome de Marfan et apparentés, Paris, France (O.M., F.A., C. Bouleti, G.D., M.L., M.T., C. Boileau, G.J.).

Background: Both bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and Marfan syndrome have been associated with aortic dissection risk, but it is unknown whether the presence of BAV is associated with an increased aortic risk in patients with an FBN1 gene mutation. We evaluated aortic diameters, aortic valve function, and aortic shape in Marfan syndrome patients with and without BAV and reported aortic events during follow-up.

Methods: All patients with an FBN1 gene mutation evaluated in our clinic were included. Aortic root diameters were measured, and the aortic valve was studied using echocardiography at each visit.

Results: Of the 1437 patients with an FBN1 gene mutation, 26 patients (1.8%) had a BAV. Both aortic root maximal diameter and normalized Z score were larger at all ages, in patients with BAV when compared with patients with tricuspid aortic valve. Prophylactic aortic root surgery tended to be performed in younger patients when BAV was present, although aortic diameter threshold was similar in the 2 populations. No aortic dissection was observed in Marfan syndrome patients with BAV.

Conclusions: In patients with a FBN1 mutation, BAV is associated with larger aortic root diameter, with no difference in evolution of Z score with age. We found a trend towards prophylactic aortic root surgery at younger ages but similar aortic diameter thresholds without occurrence of aortic dissection. We did not find any evidence for lowering aortic diameter thresholds used to propose preventive aortic root surgery in the presence of BAV in patients with FBN1 mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.118.008129DOI Listing
March 2019

Reference Expression Profile of Three Transcript Isoforms and Their Association with Clinical Variability in Marfan Syndrome.

Genes (Basel) 2019 02 11;10(2). Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Laboratory for Vascular Translational Science, INSERM U1148, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Xavier Bichat, 46 rue Henri Huchard, 75018 Paris, France.

Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a rare connective tissue disorder mainly due to mutations in the gene. Great phenotypic variability is notable for age of onset, the presence and absence, and the number and the severity of the symptoms. Our team showed that gene expression level was a good surrogate endpoint for severity of some MFS clinical features. Eight alternative transcripts are referenced for the gene. We hypothesized that MFS clinical variability could be related to specific isoforms. Isoform expression profiles were investigated in skin and adventitial fibroblasts from controls and MFS patients. The results of the study showed that, in skin and adventitial fibroblasts, only three isoforms were found: , , and . The main isoform was and it was significantly reduced in skin and adventitial fibroblasts of MFS patients. The expressions of and isoforms were similar between controls and MFS patients. However, the expression of the three isoforms was correlated only in patients. Furthermore, their expression levels were associated with the presence of ectopia lentis in MFS patients. Therefore, our results highlight that the two minor alternatively spliced isoforms play a possible role in the pathogenesis of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes10020128DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6409622PMC
February 2019
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