Publications by authors named "Catherine A Kelley"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Factors contributing to suboptimal rates of childhood vaccinations in Vermont.

J Child Health Care 2015 Dec 12;19(4):558-68. Epub 2014 May 12.

University of Vermont College of Medicine, USA

Childhood immunizations are invaluable in preventing contagious diseases. Nonetheless, vaccines have become increasingly controversial with growing numbers of caregivers refusing to vaccinate their children. The percentage of fully vaccinated children in Vermont is one of the lowest nationally. This study set out to determine Vermont caregivers' attitudes toward immunizations to better explain why the percentage of fully vaccinated children has fallen in Vermont. A survey regarding caregivers' health care knowledge about children, their vaccination concerns, and their children's vaccination status was sent to participants in the Vermont Women, Infants and Children's Program from two districts. In total, 83% (n = 379) of respondents reported their children received all recommended vaccinations for their age. Respondents who considered themselves highly knowledgeable regarding their children's health care and confident about the safety of vaccinations were significantly associated with reporting their children as being current on vaccinations and with their intent to continue vaccinations. Respondents indicated highest concern regarding the safety and number of vaccinations administered during one visit. Primary care providers were indicated as important resources for addressing concerns about vaccinations and health care knowledge of children. The results help to understand low vaccination rates in Vermont and can be used for targeting health campaigns to improve vaccination rates.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1367493514530955DOI Listing
December 2015

Gastric inhibitory peptide, serotonin, and glucagon are unexpected chloride secretagogues in the rectal gland of the skate (Leucoraja erinacea).

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2014 May 19;306(9):R674-80. Epub 2014 Feb 19.

Nephrology Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut;

Since the discovery of the rectal gland of the dogfish shark 50 years ago, experiments with this tissue have greatly aided our understanding of secondary active chloride secretion and the secretagogues responsible for this function. In contrast, very little is known about the rectal gland of skates. In the present experiments, we performed the first studies in the perfused rectal gland of the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), an organ weighing less than one-tenth of the shark rectal gland. Our results indicate that the skate gland can be studied by modified perfusion techniques and in primary culture monolayers, and that secretion is blocked by the inhibitors of membrane proteins required for secondary active chloride secretion. Our major finding is that three G protein-coupled receptor agonists, the incretin gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), also known as glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, as well as glucagon and serotonin, are unexpected potent chloride secretagogues in the skate but not the shark. Glucagon stimulated chloride secretion to a mean value of 1,661 ± 587 μeq·h(-1)·g(-1) and serotonin stimulated to 2,893 ± 699 μeq·h(-1)·g(-1). GIP stimulated chloride secretion to 3,733 ± 679 μeq·h(-1)·g(-1) and significantly increased tissue cAMP content compared with basal conditions. This is the first report of GIP functioning as a chloride secretagogue in any species or tissue.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00531.2013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4010662PMC
May 2014

cGMP inhibition of type 3 phosphodiesterase is the major mechanism by which C-type natriuretic peptide activates CFTR in the shark rectal gland.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2014 Feb 20;306(4):C343-53. Epub 2013 Nov 20.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands;

The in vitro perfused rectal gland of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) and filter-grown monolayers of primary cultures of shark rectal gland (SRG) epithelial cells were used to analyze the signal transduction pathway by which C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) stimulates chloride secretion. CNP binds to natriuretic receptors in the basolateral membrane, elevates cellular cGMP, and opens cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channels in the apical membrane. CNP-provoked chloride secretion was completely inhibitable by the nonspecific protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine and the PKA inhibitor H89 but insensitive to H8, an inhibitor of type I and II isoforms of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGKI and cGKII). CNP-induced secretion could not be mimicked by nonhydrolyzable cGMP analogs added alone or in combination with the protein kinase C activator phorbolester, arguing against a role for cGK or for cGMP-induced PKC signaling. We failed to detect a dogfish ortholog of cGKII by molecular cloning and affinity chromatography. However, inhibitors of the cGMP-inhibitable isoform of phosphodiesterase (PDE3) including milrinone, amrinone, and cilostamide but not inhibitors of other PDE isoenzymes mimicked the effect of CNP on chloride secretion in perfused glands and monolayers. CNP raised cGMP and cAMP levels in the SRG epithelial cells. This rise in cAMP as well as the CNP and amrinone-provoked chloride secretion, but not the rise in cGMP, was almost completely blocked by the Gαi-coupled adenylyl cyclase inhibitor somatostatin, arguing against a role for cGMP cross-activation of PKA in CNP action. These data provide molecular, functional, and pharmacological evidence for a CNP/cGMP/PDE3/cAMP/PKA signaling cascade coupled to CFTR in the SRG.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00326.2013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3919979PMC
February 2014
-->