Publications by authors named "Catherine A Andrews"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The nurse's lived experience of becoming an interprofessional leader.

J Contin Educ Nurs 2014 Nov 23;45(11):487-93; quiz 494-5. Epub 2014 Oct 23.

In the current complex health care environment, nurses in all practice settings are called on to be leaders in advocating for a healthier future. Health care reform, the rise of the evidence-based practice movement, and the proliferation of new educational options are opening opportunities as never before for nurses to expand their leadership capacity to an interprofessional level. This interpretive phenomenological study conducted with eight nurse participants describes their experience of becoming an interprofessional leader. A team of three nurse researchers interpreted the texts individually and collectively. Interview texts were analyzed hermeneutically to uncover the common shared experience of moving toward common ground with interprofessional leadership as a process, one that not only took time, but also called for self-reflection, deliberate actions, and a new mind-set. This study develops the evidence base for leadership preparation at a time when there is a strong need for interprofessional leaders and educators in health care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/00220124-20141023-03DOI Listing
November 2014

Functional screen of human MCM2-7 variant alleles for disease-causing potential.

Mutat Res 2009 Jun 27;666(1-2):74-8. Epub 2009 Mar 27.

Department of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development, College of Biological Sciences,Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, United States.

Origin licensing builds a fundamental basis for genome stability in DNA replication. Recent studies reported that deregulation of origin licensing is associated with replication stress in precancerous lesions. The heterohexameric complex of minichromosome maintenance proteins (MCM2-7 complex) plays an essential role in origin licensing. Previously, we reported the recovery of the first viable Mcm mutant allele (named Mcm4(Chaos3)) in mice. The Mcm4(Chaos3) allele destabilizes the MCM2-7 complex, leading to chromosome instability and the formation of spontaneous tumors in Mcm4(Chaos3) homozygous mice. Supporting our finding, a recent study reported that mice with reduced expression of MCM2 die with lymphomas within the first few months after birth. These data strongly suggest that mutant Mcm2-7 genes are cancer-causing genes with nearly complete penetrance in mice. This could be the case for humans as well. Nevertheless, related investigations have not been undertaken due to the essential nature of the MCM2-7 genes. To circumvent this problem, we focused on the variant alleles of human MCM2-7 genes derived from single nucleotide polymorphisms. We created a total of 14 variant alleles in the corresponding genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The phenotypic consequence was assayed for minichromosome loss, a surrogate phenotype for genome instability and cancer susceptibility. This screen identified a MCM5 variant allele with pathogenic potential. This allele deserves further investigations on its effect on cancer development in human populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2009.03.006DOI Listing
June 2009

Consideration of digitization precision when building local coordinate axes for a foot model.

J Biomech 2009 Jun 17;42(9):1263-9. Epub 2009 Apr 17.

Program in Physical Therapy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

This study investigated whether points digitized for the purpose of embedding coordinate systems into the foot accurately represented the orientation of the bone described. Eight complete data sets were collected from 9 adult cadaver specimens. Palpable landmarks defined 5 segments to include the calcaneus, navicular, medial cuneiform, first metatarsal, and hallux. With use of the Flock of Birds electromagnetic motion tracking device, a single examiner digitized a minimum of 3 points for each segment. Coordinate definitions followed the right-hand rule, with left-sided data converted to right-sided equivalency. Local axes were created where X projected approximately forward, Y upward, and Z laterally. Matrix transformation computations calculated the angular precision in degrees between coordinates built from points digitized pre- and post-dissection of surface tissues covering bone. The condition of post-dissection was considered the criterion standard for comparison. Change about the X-axis represented the angular precision of the coordinate in the frontal anatomical plane; Y-axis in the transverse plane; Z-axis in the sagittal plane. The calcaneus and navicular coordinate axes changed by an average of <3 degrees across conditions. Mean coordinate angulation of the cuneiform X, Y, Z axes changed by 6.0 degrees , 4.6 degrees , 11.9 degrees , respectively. Change in coordinate angulation was largest for the X-axis at the first metatarsal (48.6 degrees ) and hallux (36.5 degrees ). A two-way repeated measures ANOVA found a significant interaction between the axis and segment (F=8.87, P=0.00). Tukey post-hoc comparisons indicated the change in coordinate angulation at the X-axis for the cuneiform, metatarsal, and hallux to be significantly different (P <0.05) from the calcaneus and navicular. The X-axis of the first metatarsal and hallux was different from all other axis-segment combinations except for the Z-axis of the cuneiform. Differences in locating landmarks reduced angular precision of the coordinate axes most in the smallest foot segments where points digitized were located close together. We can recommend the proposed landmarks for the calcaneus and navicular segments, but kinematics determined about the coordinate axes for the small sized medial cuneiform, and the long (X) axis for the first metatarsal and hallux have excessive error.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2009.03.013DOI Listing
June 2009

In vivo analysis of chromosome condensation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Mol Biol Cell 2007 Feb 6;18(2):557-68. Epub 2006 Dec 6.

Department of Genetics, Cell Biology, and Development, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

Although chromosome condensation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been widely studied, visualization of this process in vivo has not been achieved. Using Lac operator sequences integrated at two loci on the right arm of chromosome IV and a Lac repressor-GFP fusion protein, we were able to visualize linear condensation of this chromosome arm during G2/M phase. As previously determined in fixed cells, condensation in yeast required the condensin complex. Not seen after fixation of cells, we found that topoisomerase II is required for linear condensation. Further analysis of perturbed mitoses unexpectedly revealed that condensation is a transient state that occurs before anaphase in budding yeast. Blocking anaphase progression by activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint caused a loss of condensation that was dependent on Mad2, followed by a delayed loss of cohesion between sister chromatids. Release of cells from spindle checkpoint arrest resulted in recondensation before anaphase onset. The loss of condensation in preanaphase-arrested cells was abrogated by overproduction of the aurora B kinase, Ipl1, whereas in ipl1-321 mutant cells condensation was prematurely lost in anaphase/telophase. In vivo analysis of chromosome condensation has therefore revealed unsuspected relationships between higher order chromatin structure and cell cycle control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1091/mbc.e06-05-0454DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1783779PMC
February 2007

A viable allele of Mcm4 causes chromosome instability and mammary adenocarcinomas in mice.

Nat Genet 2007 Jan 3;39(1):93-8. Epub 2006 Dec 3.

Department of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development, College of Biological Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA.

Mcm4 (minichromosome maintenance-deficient 4 homolog) encodes a subunit of the MCM2-7 complex (also known as MCM2-MCM7), the replication licensing factor and presumptive replicative helicase. Here, we report that the mouse chromosome instability mutation Chaos3 (chromosome aberrations occurring spontaneously 3), isolated in a forward genetic screen, is a viable allele of Mcm4. Mcm4(Chaos3) encodes a change in an evolutionarily invariant amino acid (F345I), producing an apparently destabilized MCM4. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that we engineered to contain a corresponding allele (resulting in an F391I change) showed a classical minichromosome loss phenotype. Whereas homozygosity for a disrupted Mcm4 allele (Mcm4(-)) caused preimplantation lethality, Mcm(Chaos3/-) embryos died late in gestation, indicating that Mcm4(Chaos3) is hypomorphic. Mutant embryonic fibroblasts were highly susceptible to chromosome breaks induced by the DNA replication inhibitor aphidicolin. Most notably, >80% of Mcm4(Chaos3/Chaos3) females succumbed to mammary adenocarcinomas with a mean latency of 12 months. These findings suggest that hypomorphic alleles of the genes encoding the subunits of the MCM2-7 complex may increase breast cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng1936DOI Listing
January 2007

Topoisomerase II checkpoints: universal mechanisms that regulate mitosis.

Cell Cycle 2006 Sep 1;5(17):1925-8. Epub 2006 Sep 1.

Department of Genetics, Cell Biology & Development, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA.

Checkpoint controls confer order to the cell cycle and help prevent genome instability. Here we discuss the Topoisomerase II (Decatenation) Checkpoint which functions to regulate mitotic progression so that chromosomes can be efficiently condensed in prophase and can be segregated with high fidelity in anaphase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/cc.5.17.3200DOI Listing
September 2006

A mitotic topoisomerase II checkpoint in budding yeast is required for genome stability but acts independently of Pds1/securin.

Genes Dev 2006 May;20(9):1162-74

Department of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA.

Topoisomerase II (Topo II) performs topological modifications on double-stranded DNA molecules that are essential for chromosome condensation, resolution, and segregation. In mammals, G2 and metaphase cell cycle delays induced by Topo II poisons have been proposed to be the result of checkpoint activation in response to the catenation state of DNA. However, the apparent lack of such controls in model organisms has excluded genetic proof that Topo II checkpoints exist and are separable from the conventional DNA damage checkpoint controls. But here, we define a Topo II-dependent G2/M checkpoint in a genetically amenable eukaryote, budding yeast, and demonstrate that this checkpoint enhances cell survival. Conversely, a lack of the checkpoint results in aneuploidy. Neither DNA damage-responsive pathways nor Pds1/securin are needed for this checkpoint. Unusually, spindle assembly checkpoint components are required for the Topo II checkpoint, but checkpoint activation is not the result of failed chromosome biorientation or a lack of spindle tension. Thus, compromised Topo II function activates a yeast checkpoint system that operates by a novel mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gad.1367206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1472475PMC
May 2006

Evidence that the yeast spindle assembly checkpoint has a target other than the anaphase promoting complex.

Cell Cycle 2005 Nov 5;4(11):1555-7. Epub 2005 Nov 5.

Department of Genetics, Cell Biology & Development, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA.

The spindle assembly checkpoint monitors biorientation of chromosomes on the metaphase spindle and inhibits the Anaphase Promoting Complex (APC) specificity factor Cdc20. If APC-Cdc20 is the sole target of the spindle checkpoint, then cells lacking APC and its targets, B-type cyclin and securin, would lack spindle checkpoint function. We tested this hypothesis in yeast cells that are APC-null. Surprisingly, we find that such yeast cells are able to activate the spindle assembly checkpoint, delaying cell cycle progression in G2/M phase. These data suggest that the spindle checkpoint has a non-APC target that can restrain anaphase onset.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/cc.4.11.2144DOI Listing
November 2005

Regulated separation of sister centromeres depends on the spindle assembly checkpoint but not on the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome.

Cell Cycle 2005 Nov 7;4(11):1561-75. Epub 2005 Nov 7.

Department of Genetics, Cell Biology & Development, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA.

Key to faithful genetic inheritance is the cohesion between sister centromeres that physically links replicated sister chromatids and is then abruptly lost at the onset of anaphase. Misregulated cohesion causes aneuploidy, birth defects and perhaps initiates cancers. Loss of centromere cohesion is controlled by the spindle checkpoint and is thought to depend on a ubiquitin ligase, the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC). But here we present evidence that the APC pathway is dispensable for centromere separation at anaphase in mammals, and that anaphase proceeds in the presence of cyclin B and securin. Arm separation is perturbed in the absence of APC, compromising the fidelity of segregation, but full sister chromatid separation is achieved after a delayed anaphase. Thereafter, cells arrest terminally in telophase with high levels of cyclin B. Extending these findings we provide evidence that the spindle checkpoint regulates centromere cohesion through an APC-independent pathway. We propose that this Centromere Linkage Pathway (CLiP) is a second branch that stems from the spindle checkpoint to regulate cohesion preferentially at the centromeres and that Sgo1 is one of its components.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/cc.4.11.2146DOI Listing
November 2005

MRX (Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2) mutants reveal dual intra-S-phase checkpoint systems in budding yeast.

Cell Cycle 2005 Aug 19;4(8):1073-7. Epub 2005 Aug 19.

Department of Genetics, Cell Biology & Development, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

The intra-S-phase checkpoint is a signaling pathway that induces slow DNA replication in the presence of DNA damage. In humans, defects in this checkpoint pathway might account for phenotypes seen in autosomal recessive diseases including ataxia telangiectasia-like disorder and Nijmegen breakage syndrome, where MRN complex components,Mre11 and Nbs1, are mutated. Here we provide evidence that the equivalent budding yeast complex, MRX (Mre11/Rad50/Xrs2), is not required for the intra-S-phase checkpoint in response to DNA alkylation damage, but is required in the presence of double-stranded DNA breaks. These data indicate, at least in budding yeast, that alternate pathways enforce replication slowing depending on the particular DNA lesion.
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August 2005

Cdc20 in S-phase: the Banquo at replication's banquet.

Cell Cycle 2004 Mar 1;3(3):276-9. Epub 2004 Mar 1.

Department of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA.

The Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that covalently attaches ubiquitins onto proteins to target them for proteolysis by the 26S proteasome. During mitosis, the APC/C is instrumental in allowing the cell to enter and exit from mitosis. The APC/C accomplishes this by using different specificity factors to recognize, interact with, and ubiquitylate key proteins that block cell cycle progression. The specificity factors, Cdc20p and Cdh1p, are not always associated with the APC/C and indeed they have the ability to interact with substrates in isolation. The molecular events that take place in order for Cdc20p and Cdh1p to couple substrates and APC/C are currently being resolved. Meanwhile, evidence has emerged suggesting that at least one of the specificity factors, Cdc20p, might be capable of functioning independently of the APC/C.
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March 2004

S-phase checkpoint controls mitosis via an APC-independent Cdc20p function.

Nat Cell Biol 2003 Oct 21;5(10):928-35. Epub 2003 Sep 21.

The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

Cells divide with remarkable fidelity, allowing complex organisms to develop and possess longevity. Checkpoint controls contribute by ensuring that genome duplication and segregation occur without error so that genomic instability, associated with developmental abnormalities and a hallmark of most human cancers, is avoided. S-phase checkpoints prevent cell division while DNA is replicating. Budding yeast Mec1p and Rad53p, homologues of human checkpoint kinases ATM/ATR and Chk2, are needed for this control system. How Mec1p and Rad53p prevent mitosis in S phase is not known. Here we provide evidence that budding yeasts avoid mitosis during S phase by regulating the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) specificity factor Cdc20p: Mec1p and Rad53p repress the accumulation of Cdc20p in S phase. Because precocious Cdc20p accumulation causes anaphase onset and aneuploidy, Cdc20p concentrations must be precisely regulated during each and every cell cycle. Catastrophic mitosis induced by Cdc20p in S phase occurs even in the absence of core APC components. Thus, Cdc20p can function independently of the APC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncb1046DOI Listing
October 2003

Are you scaring students away?

RN 2003 Jul;66(7):48-9

Edgewood College, Madison, Wis., USA.

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July 2003