Publications by authors named "Caterina Cancrini"

95 Publications

Premature Senescence and Increased Oxidative Stress in the Thymus of Down Syndrome Patients.

Front Immunol 2021 1;12:669893. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

San Raffaele Telethon Institute for Gene Therapy (SR-TIGET), IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

Down syndrome (DS) patients prematurely show clinical manifestations usually associated with aging. Their immune system declines earlier than healthy individuals, leading to increased susceptibility to infections and higher incidence of autoimmune phenomena. Clinical features of accelerated aging indicate that trisomy 21 increases the biological age of tissues. Based on previous studies suggesting immune senescence in DS, we hypothesized that induction of cellular senescence may contribute to early thymic involution and immune dysregulation. Immunohistochemical analysis of thymic tissue showed signs of accelerated thymic aging in DS patients, normally seen in older healthy subjects. Moreover, our whole transcriptomic analysis on human Epcam-enriched thymic epithelial cells (hTEC), isolated from three DS children, which revealed disease-specific transcriptomic alterations. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) of DS TEC revealed an enrichment in genes involved in cellular response to stress, epigenetic histone DNA modifications and senescence. Analysis of senescent markers and oxidative stress in hTEC and thymocytes confirmed these findings. We detected senescence features in DS TEC, thymocytes and peripheral T cells, such as increased β-galactosidase activity, increased levels of the cell cycle inhibitor p16, telomere length and integrity markers and increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), all factors contributing to cellular damage. In conclusion, our findings support the key role of cellular senescence in the pathogenesis of immune defect in DS while adding new players, such as epigenetic regulation and increased oxidative stress, to the pathogenesis of immune dysregulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.669893DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8204718PMC
June 2021

Gastric cancer, inflammatory bowel disease and polyautoimmunity in a 17-year-old boy: CTLA-4 deficiency successfully treated with Abatacept.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Unit of Digestive Endoscopy and Surgery Unit of Immune and Infectious Diseases, Academic Department of Pediatrics, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, Scientific Institute for Research and Healthcare Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata Department of Pathology and Molecular Histopathology Unit of General and Thoracic Surgery, Department of Pediatric Surgery Department of Pediatric Onco-Hematology, Cell and Gene Therapy, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital - Scientific Institute for Research and Healthcare, Rome Unit of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Cystic Fibrosis Unit, Department of Human Pathology in Adulthood and Childhood 'G. Barresi,' University of Messina, Messina Unit of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, Department of Pediatrics, Vittorio Emanuele University Hospital, University of Catania, Catania Translational Cytogenomics Research Unit, Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, Scientific Institute for Research and Healthcare, Rome, Italy.

Gut involvement is frequent in immunologic disorders, especially with inflammatory manifestations but also with cancer. In the last years, advances in functional and genetic testing have improved the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to immune dysregulation syndromes. CTLA-4 deficiency is a rare disease with variable phenotype, ranging from absence of symptoms to severe multisystem manifestations and complications. We describe a rare case of CTLA-4 deficiency in a boy with gastric cancer, very early onset inflammatory bowel disease and polyautoimmunity, the second-ever reported in the literature with the same characteristics. A 17-year-old boy was referred to Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital of Rome, a tertiary care center, for a gastric mass and a long-term history of very early onset inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes mellitus type 1, polyarthritis and psoriasis. Histology of gastric biopsies revealed the presence of neoplastic signet ring cells. Imaging staging showed localized cancer; therefore, the patient underwent subtotal gastrectomy with termino-lateral gastro-jejunal anastomosis. Immunological work up and genetic testing by next-generation sequencing panels for primary immunodeficiencies led to the diagnosis of CTLA-4 deficiency. Good disease control was obtained with the administration of Abatacept. The patient experienced an asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection without any concern. Eighteen months after treatment initiation, the patient is alive and well. Immunologic and genetic testing, such as next-generation sequencing, should always be part of the diagnostic approach to patients with complex immune dysregulation syndrome, severe clinical course, poor response to treatments or cancer. The early recognition of the monogenic disease is the key for disease management and targeted therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0000000000002185DOI Listing
May 2021

Inborn errors of immunity with atopic phenotypes: A practical guide for allergists.

World Allergy Organ J 2021 Feb 22;14(2):100513. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Giovanni XXIII Pediatric Hospital, Bari, Italy.

Inborn errors of immunity (IEI) are a heterogeneous group of disorders, mainly resulting from mutations in genes associated with immunoregulation and immune host defense. These disorders are characterized by different combinations of recurrent infections, autoimmunity, inflammatory manifestations, lymphoproliferation, and malignancy. Interestingly, it has been increasingly observed that common allergic symptoms also can represent the expression of an underlying immunodeficiency and/or immune dysregulation. Very high IgE levels, peripheral or organ-specific hypereosinophilia, usually combined with a variety of atopic symptoms, may sometimes be the epiphenomenon of a monogenic disease. Therefore, allergists should be aware that severe and/or therapy-resistant atopic disorders might be the main clinical phenotype of some IEI. This could pave the way to target therapies, leading to better quality of life and improved survival in affected patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.waojou.2021.100513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7907539PMC
February 2021

Chondrodysplasia and growth failure in children after early hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for non-oncologic disorders.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 02 4;185(2):517-527. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Division of Genetic Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Bone dysplasias (osteochondrodysplasias) are a large group of conditions associated with short stature, skeletal disproportion, and radiographic abnormalities of skeletal elements. Nearly all are genetic in origin. We report a series of seven children with similar findings of chondrodysplasia and growth failure following early hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for pediatric non-oncologic disease: hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis or HLH (five children, three with biallelic HLH-associated variants [in PRF1 and UNC13D] and one with HLH secondary to visceral Leishmaniasis), one child with severe combined immunodeficiency and one with Omenn syndrome (both children had biallelic RAG1 pathogenic variants). All children had normal growth and no sign of chondrodysplasia at birth and prior to their primary disease. After HSCT, all children developed growth failure, with standard deviation scores for height at or below -3. Radiographically, all children had changes in the spine, metaphyses and epiphyses, compatible with a spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia. Genomic sequencing failed to detect pathogenic variants in genes associated with osteochondrodysplasias. We propose that such chondrodysplasia with growth failure is a novel, rare, but clinically important complication following early HSCT for non-oncologic pediatric diseases. The pathogenesis is unknown but could possibly involve loss or perturbation of the cartilage-bone stem cell population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.62021DOI Listing
February 2021

Immunological basis of virus-host interaction in COVID-19.

Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2020 11;31 Suppl 26:75-78

Department of Pediatrics, Giovanni XXIII Pediatric Hospital, Bari, Italy.

COVID-19 is a complex new viral disease, in which a strict balance between anti-viral immune response and the ensuing organ inflammation has a critical role in determining the clinical course. In adults, compelling evidence exists indicating that an uncontrolled inflammatory response ("cytokine storm") is pivotal in determining disease progression and mortality. Children may rarely present with severe disease. Modulating factors related to the host's genetic factors, age-related susceptibility, and the capability to mount appropriate immune responses might play a role in control virus load at an early stage and regulating the inflammatory reaction. Elucidating these mechanisms seems crucial in developing target therapies according to patient's age, immunologic status, and disease evolution in COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pai.13363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7753582PMC
November 2020

Seletalisib for Activated PI3Kδ Syndromes: Open-Label Phase 1b and Extension Studies.

J Immunol 2020 12 28;205(11):2979-2987. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Imagine Institute, University of Paris, 75015 Paris, France.

Mutations in two genes can result in activated PI3Kδ syndrome (APDS), a rare immunodeficiency disease with limited therapeutic options. Seletalisib, a potent, selective PI3Kδ inhibitor, was evaluated in patients with APDS1 and APDS2. In the phase 1b study (European Clinical Trials Database 2015-002900-10) patients with genetic and clinical confirmation of APDS1 or APDS2 received 15-25 mg/d seletalisib for 12 wk. Patients could enter an extension study (European Clinical Trials Database 2015-005541). Primary endpoints were safety and tolerability, with exploratory efficacy and immunology endpoints. Seven patients (median age 15 years; APDS1 = 3; APDS2 = 4) received seletalisib; five completed the phase 1b study. For the extension study, four patients entered, one withdrew consent (week 24), three completed ≥84 wk of treatment. In the phase 1b study, patients had improved peripheral lymphadenopathy ( = 2), lung function ( = 1), thrombocyte counts ( = 1), and chronic enteropathy ( = 1). Overall, effects were maintained in the extension. In the phase 1b study, percentages of transitional B cells decreased, naive B cells increased, and senescent CD8 T cells decreased (human cells); effects were generally maintained in the extension. Seletalisib-related adverse events occurred in four of seven patients (phase 1b study: hepatic enzyme increased, dizziness, aphthous ulcer, arthralgia, arthritis, increased appetite, increased weight, restlessness, tendon disorder, and potential drug-induced liver injury) and one of four patients had adverse events in the extension (aphthous ulcer). Serious adverse events occurred in three of seven patients (phase 1b study: hospitalization, colitis, and potential drug-induced liver injury) and one of four patients had adverse events in the extension (stomatitis). Patients with APDS receiving seletalisib had improvements in variable clinical and immunological features, and a favorable risk-benefit profile was maintained for ≤96 wk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.2000326DOI Listing
December 2020

Update in Primary Immunodeficiencies.

Acta Biomed 2020 09 15;91(11-S):e2020010. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Department of Pediatrics and Emergency, Pediatric Allergy and Pulmunology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera-Universitaria Consorziale-Policlinico, Ospedale Pediatrico Giovanni XXIII, Bari, Italy.

Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are inherited disorders classically characterized by increased susceptibility to infections. Nevertheless, in the last two decades, genomic analysis (such as NGS) coupled with biochemical and cellular studies led to a more accurate definition for a growing number of novel genetic disorders associated with PIDs. This revealed new aspects of the immune system and its function and regulation within these diseases. In particular, it has been clarified that the clinical features of PIDs are much broader that originally thought and extend beyond an increased susceptibility to infections. More specifi- cally, immune dysregulation is very often described in novel characterized PIDs and can lead to multiple autoimmune diseases, lymphoproliferation and malignancies. If not promptly diagnosed, these could negatively impact patient's prognosis. The aim of this review is to increase the awareness of recently discovered PIDs, characterized predominantly by immune dysregulation phenotypes. Findings highlighted in this review  suggest screening for immunodeficiency in patients with lymphoproliferation or early onset/multiple autoimmune diseases. Prompt diagnosis would potentially allow most successful treatment and clinical outcome for patients with PIDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23750/abm.v91i11-S.10314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8023064PMC
September 2020

Consensus of the Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network on transition management from pediatric to adult care in patients affected with childhood-onset inborn errors of immunity.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2020 11 19;146(5):967-983. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, IRCCS Bambino Gesù Childrens' Hospital, Sapienza, University of Rome, Rome Italy.

Medical advances have dramatically improved the long-term prognosis of children and adolescents with inborn errors of immunity (IEIs). Transfer of the medical care of individuals with pediatric IEIs to adult facilities is also a complex task because of the large number of distinct disorders, which requires involvement of patients and both pediatric and adult care providers. To date, there is no consensus on the optimal pathway of the transitional care process and no specific data are available in the literature regarding patients with IEIs. We aimed to develop a consensus statement on the transition process to adult health care services for patients with IEIs. Physicians from major Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network centers formulated and answered questions after examining the currently published literature on the transition from childhood to adulthood. The authors voted on each recommendation. The most frequent IEIs sharing common main clinical problems requiring full attention during the transitional phase were categorized into different groups of clinically related disorders. For each group of clinically related disorders, physicians from major Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network institutions focused on selected clinical issues representing the clinical hallmark during early adulthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2020.08.010DOI Listing
November 2020

The Italian Registry for Primary Immunodeficiencies (Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network; IPINet): Twenty Years of Experience (1999-2019).

J Clin Immunol 2020 10 15;40(7):1026-1037. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.

Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are heterogeneous disorders, characterized by variable clinical and immunological features. National PID registries offer useful insights on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and natural history of these disorders. In 1999, the Italian network for primary immunodeficiencies (IPINet) was established. We report on data collected from the IPINet registry after 20 years of activity. A total of 3352 pediatric and adult patients affected with PIDs are registered in the database. In Italy, a regional distribution trend of PID diagnosis was observed. Based on the updated IUIS classification of 2019, PID distribution in Italy showed that predominantly antibody deficiencies account for the majority of cases (63%), followed by combined immunodeficiencies with associated or syndromic features (22.5%). The overall age at diagnosis was younger for male patients. The minimal prevalence of PIDs in Italy resulted in 5.1 per 100.000 habitants. Mortality was similar to other European registries (4.2%). Immunoglobulin replacement treatment was prescribed to less than one third of the patient cohort. Collectively, this is the first comprehensive description of the PID epidemiology in Italy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-020-00844-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7505879PMC
October 2020

A 23-Year Follow-Up of a Patient with Gain-of-Function IkB-Alpha Mutation and Stable Full Chimerism After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

J Clin Immunol 2020 08 2;40(6):927-933. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

University Department of Pediatrics, Unit of Immune and Infectious Diseases, Childrens' Hospital Bambino Gesù, Piazza S. Onofrio 4, Rome, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-020-00780-zDOI Listing
August 2020

Partial T cell defects and expanded CD56 NK cells in an SCID patient carrying hypomorphic mutation in the IL2RG gene.

J Leukoc Biol 2020 08 11;108(2):739-748. Epub 2020 May 11.

Unit of Immune and Infectious Diseases, Academic Department of Pediatrics, Bambino Gesù Childrens' Hospital-Scientific Institute for Research and Healthcare (IRCCS), Rome, Italy.

X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) caused by full mutation of the IL2RG gene leads to T B NK phenotype and is usually associated with severe opportunistic infections, diarrhea, and failure to thrive. When IL2RG hypomorphic mutation occurs, diagnosis could be delayed and challenging since only moderate reduction of T and NK cells may be present. Here, we explored phenotypic insights and the impact of the p.R222C hypomorphic mutation (IL2RG ) in distinct cell subsets in an 8-month-old patient with atypical X-SCID. We found reduced CD4 T cell counts, a decreased frequency of naïve CD4 and CD8 T cells, and an expansion of B cells. Ex vivo STAT5 phosphorylation was impaired in CD4 CD45RO T cells, yet compensated by supraphysiological doses of IL-2. Sanger sequencing on purified cell subsets showed a partial reversion of the mutation in total CD3 cells, specifically in recent thymic emigrants (RTE), effector memory (EM), and CD45RA terminally differentiated EM (EMRA) CD4 T cells. Of note, patient's NK cells had a normal frequency compared to age-matched healthy subjects, but displayed an expansion of CD56 cells with higher perforin content and cytotoxic potential, associated with accumulation of NK-cell stimulatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-7, IL-15). Overall, this report highlights an alteration in the NK-cell compartment that, together with the high disease-phenotype variability, should be considered in the suspicion of X-SCID with hypomorphic IL2RG mutation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JLB.5MA0220-239RDOI Listing
August 2020

Urogenital Abnormalities in Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency.

J Clin Immunol 2020 05 19;40(4):610-618. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Pediatric Immunohematology and Stem Cell Program, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina, 60, 20132, Milan, Italy.

Background: Improved survival in ADA-SCID patients is revealing new aspects of the systemic disorder. Although increasing numbers of reports describe the systemic manifestations of adenosine deaminase deficiency, currently there are no studies in the literature evaluating genital development and pubertal progress in these patients.

Methods: We collected retrospective data on urogenital system and pubertal development of 86 ADA-SCID patients followed in the period 2000-2017 at the Great Ormond Street Hospital (UK) and 5 centers in Italy. In particular, we recorded clinical history and visits, and routine blood tests and ultrasound scans were performed as part of patients' follow-up.

Results And Discussion: We found a higher frequency of congenital and acquired undescended testes compared with healthy children (congenital, 22% in our sample, 0.5-4% described in healthy children; acquired, 16% in our sample, 1-3% in healthy children), mostly requiring orchidopexy. No urogenital abnormalities were noted in females. Spontaneous pubertal development occurred in the majority of female and male patients with a few cases of precocious or delayed puberty; no patient presented high FSH values. Neither ADA-SCID nor treatment performed (PEG-ADA, BMT, or GT) affected pubertal development or gonadic function.

Conclusion: In summary, this report describes a high prevalence of cryptorchidism in a cohort of male ADA-SCID patients which could represent an additional systemic manifestation of ADA-SCID. Considering the impact urogenital and pubertal abnormalities can have on patients' quality of life, we feel it is essential to include urogenital evaluation in ADA-SCID patients to detect any abnormalities, initiate early treatment, and prevent long-term complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-020-00777-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253380PMC
May 2020

Long-term follow-up of 168 patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia reveals increased morbidity and mortality.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2020 08 10;146(2):429-437. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

University Department of Pediatrics, Unit of Immune and Infectious Diseases, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, University of Rome Tor Vergata, and the Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

Background: X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is the prototype of primary humoral immunodeficiencies. Long-term follow-up studies regarding disease-related complications and outcome are scarce.

Objective: Our aim was to describe the natural history of XLA.

Methods: A nationwide multicenter study based on the Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network registry was established in 2000 in Italy. Affected patients were enrolled by documenting centers, and the patients' laboratory, clinical, and imaging data were recorded on an annual base.

Results: Data on the patients (N = 168) were derived from a cumulative follow-up of 1370 patient-years, with a mean follow-up of 8.35 years per patient. The mean age at diagnosis decreased after establishment of the Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network registry (84 months before vs 23 months after). Respiratory, skin, and gastrointestinal manifestations were the most frequent clinical symptoms at diagnosis and during long-term follow-up. Regular immunoglobulin replacement treatment reduced the incidence of invasive infections. Affected patients developed chronic lung disease over time (47% after 40 years of follow-up) in the presence of chronic sinusitis (84%). Malignancies were documented in a minority of cases (3.7%). Overall survival for affected patients was significantly reduced when compared with that for the healthy male Italian population, and it further deteriorated in the presence of chronic lung disease.

Conclusions: This is the first detailed long-term follow-up study for patients with XLA, revealing that although immunoglobulin replacement treatment reduces the incidence of invasive infections, it does not appear to influence the development of chronic lung disease. The overall survival of affected patients is reduced. Further studies are warranted to improve patients' clinical management and increase awareness among physicians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2020.03.001DOI Listing
August 2020

The Interplay between CD27 and CD27 B Cells Ensures the Flexibility, Stability, and Resilience of Human B Cell Memory.

Cell Rep 2020 03;30(9):2963-2977.e6

Multifactorial Disease and Complex Phenotype Research Area, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCSS, 00146 Rome, Italy.

Memory B cells (MBCs) epitomize the adaptation of the immune system to the environment. We identify two MBC subsets in peripheral blood, CD27 and CD27 MBCs, whose frequency changes with age. Heavy chain variable region (VH) usage, somatic mutation frequency replacement-to-silent ratio, and CDR3 property changes, reflecting consecutive selection of highly antigen-specific, low cross-reactive antibody variants, all demonstrate that CD27 and CD27 MBCs represent sequential MBC developmental stages, and stringent antigen-driven pressure selects CD27 into the CD27 MBC pool. Dynamics of human MBCs are exploited in pregnancy, when 50% of maternal MBCs are lost and CD27 MBCs transit to the more differentiated CD27 stage. In the postpartum period, the maternal MBC pool is replenished by the expansion of persistent CD27 clones. Thus, the stability and flexibility of human B cell memory is ensured by CD27 MBCs that expand and differentiate in response to change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.02.022DOI Listing
March 2020

Phenotypical T Cell Differentiation Analysis: A Diagnostic and Predictive Tool in the Study of Primary Immunodeficiencies.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:2735. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Unit of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Academic Department of Pediatrics, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, Rome, Italy.

Multiparametric flow cytometry (MFC) represents a rapid, highly reproducible, and sensitive diagnostic technology for primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs), which are characterized by a wide range of T cell perturbations and a broad clinical and genetic heterogeneity. MFC data from CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets were examined in 100 patients referred for Primary Immunodeficiencies to our center. Naïve, central memory, effector memory, and terminal effector memory cell differentiation stages were defined by the combined expression CD45RA/CD27 for CD4 and CD45RA/CCR7 for CD8. Principal component analysis (PCA), a non-hypothesis driven statistical analysis, was applied to analyze MFC data in order to distinguish the diverse PIDs. Among severe lymphopenic patients, those affected by severe combined and combined immunodeficiency (SCID and CID) segregated in a specific area, reflecting a homogenous, and a more severe T cell impairment, compared to other lymphopenic PID, such as thymectomized and partial DiGeorge syndrome patients. PID patients with predominantly antibody defects were distributed in a heterogeneous pattern, but unexpectedly PCA was able to cluster some patients' resembling CID, hence warning for additional and more extensive diagnostic tests and a diverse clinical management. In conclusion, PCA applied to T cell MFC data might help the physician to estimate the severity of specific PID and to diversify the clinical and diagnostic approach of the patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.02735DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6896983PMC
November 2020

NFKB2 regulates human Tfh and Tfr pool formation and germinal center potential.

Clin Immunol 2020 01 18;210:108309. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Division of Immunology Transplantation and Infectious Diseases (DITID), Diabetes Research Institute (DRI) IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Mutations affecting the non-canonical pathway of NF-κB were recently identified to underlie a form of common variable immunodeficiency strongly associated with autoimmunity. Although intrinsic B-cell abnormalities explain most of the humoral defects of this disease, detailed data on the impact of NFKB2 on follicular helper (Tfh) and regulatory (Tregs) T cells are scarce. Here, we show that Tfh, CXCR5, and CXCR5 Treg cell subsets were significantly reduced in patients heterozygous for a truncating mutation of NFKB2. Plasma CXCL13 levels were reduced, underlining an important role for NFKB2 in regulating the germinal center (GC) response. Proinflammatory IFNγ, IL-17 and IL-10 cytokine production by CD4 T cells was lower in the mutated patients, but the production of IL-4 and IL-21 was not altered. Taken together, our findings show that NFKB2 influences the quality and efficiency of human GC reaction, by affecting not only the B cells but also GC-relevant T cell subsets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2019.108309DOI Listing
January 2020

Novel Compound Heterozygous Mutations in α Gene in a 15-Month-Old Girl Presenting With Thrombocytopenia, Normal T Cell Count and Maternal Engraftment.

Front Immunol 2019 30;10:2471. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Unit of Immune and Infectious Diseases, Academic Department of Pediatrics, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) exhibit T lymphopenia and profound impairments in cellular and humoral immunity. IL-7 receptor α (IL-7Rα) deficiency is a rare form of SCID that usually presents in the first months of life with severe and opportunistic infections, failure to thrive and high risk of mortality unless treated. Here, we reported an atypical and delayed onset of IL7Rα-SCID in a 15-month-old girl presenting with thrombocytopenia. Immunological investigations showed a normal lymphocyte count with isolated CD4-penia, absence of naïve T cells, marked hypergammaglobulinemia, and maternal T cell engraftment. Targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) revealed two novel compound heterozygous mutations in the α gene: c.160T>C (p.S54P) and c.245G>T (p.C82F). The atypical onset and the unusual immunological phenotype expressed by our patient highlights the diagnostic challenge in the field of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) and in particular in SCID patients where prompt diagnosis and therapy greatly affects survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.02471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6831519PMC
October 2020

A novel disorder involving dyshematopoiesis, inflammation, and HLH due to aberrant CDC42 function.

J Exp Med 2019 12 10;216(12):2778-2799. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Baylor-Hopkins Center for Mendelian Genomics, Houston, TX.

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is characterized by immune dysregulation due to inadequate restraint of overactivated immune cells and is associated with a variable clinical spectrum having overlap with more common pathophysiologies. HLH is difficult to diagnose and can be part of inflammatory syndromes. Here, we identify a novel hematological/autoinflammatory condition (NOCARH syndrome) in four unrelated patients with superimposable features, including neonatal-onset cytopenia with dyshematopoiesis, autoinflammation, rash, and HLH. Patients shared the same de novo mutation (Chr1:22417990C>T, p.R186C) and altered hematopoietic compartment, immune dysregulation, and inflammation. mutations had been associated with syndromic neurodevelopmental disorders. In vitro and in vivo assays documented unique effects of p.R186C on CDC42 localization and function, correlating with the distinctiveness of the trait. Emapalumab was critical to the survival of one patient, who underwent successful bone marrow transplantation. Early recognition of the disorder and establishment of treatment followed by bone marrow transplant are important to survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20190147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6888978PMC
December 2019

Clinical, Immunological, and Molecular Features of Typical and Atypical Severe Combined Immunodeficiency: Report of the Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network.

Front Immunol 2019 13;10:1908. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, Rome, Italy.

Severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCIDs) are a group of inborn errors of the immune system, usually associated with severe or life-threatening infections. Due to the variability of clinical phenotypes, the diagnostic complexity and the heterogeneity of the genetic basis, they are often difficult to recognize, leading to a significant diagnostic delay (DD). Aim of this study is to define presenting signs and natural history of SCID in a large cohort of patients, prior to hematopoietic stem cell or gene therapies. To this purpose, we conducted a 30-year retro-prospective multicenter study within the Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network. One hundred eleven patients, diagnosed as typical or atypical SCID according to the European Society for Immune Deficiencies criteria, were included. Patients were subsequently classified based on the genetic alteration, pathogenic mechanism and immunological classification. A positive relationship between the age at onset and the DD was found. SCID patients with later onset were identified only in the last decade of observation. Syndromic SCIDs represented 28% of the cohort. Eight percent of the subjects were diagnosed in Intensive Care Units. Fifty-three percent had an atypical phenotype and most of them exhibited a discordant genotype-immunophenotype. Pre-treatment mortality was higher in atypical and syndromic patients. Our study broadens the knowledge of clinical and laboratory manifestations and genotype/phenotype correlation in patients with SCID and may facilitate the diagnosis of both typical and atypical forms of the disease in countries where newborn screening programs have not yet been implemented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.01908DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6700292PMC
September 2020

Rituximab Unveils Hypogammaglobulinemia and Immunodeficiency in Children with Autoimmune Cytopenia.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2020 01 2;8(1):273-282. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

Paediatric Immunopathology and Allergology Unit, Tor Vergata University Hospital, University of Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

Background: Rituximab (RTX; anti-CD20 mAb) is a treatment option in children with refractory immune thrombocytopenia, autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AHA), and Evans syndrome (ES). Prevalence and clinical course of RTX-induced hypogammaglobulinemia in these patients are poorly known.

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for persistent hypogammaglobulinemia (PH) after RTX use.

Methods: Clinical and immunologic data from children treated with RTX for immune thrombocytopenia, AHA, and ES were collected from 16 Italian centers and 1 UK center at pre-RTX time point (0), +6 months, and yearly, up to 4 years post-RTX. Patients with previously diagnosed malignancy or primary immune deficiency (PID) were excluded.

Results: We analyzed 53 children treated with RTX for immune thrombocytopenia (n = 36), AHA (n = 13), and ES (n = 4). Median follow-up was 30 months (range, 12-48). Thirty-two percent of patients (17 of 53) experienced PH, defined as IgG levels less than 2 SD for age at last follow-up (>12 months after RTX). Significantly delayed B-cell recovery was observed in children experiencing PH (hazard ratio, 0.55; P < .05), and 6 of 17 (35%) patients had unresolved B-cell lymphopenia at last follow-up. PH was associated with IgA and IgM deficiency, younger age at RTX use (51 vs 116 months; P < .01), a diagnosis of AHA/ES, and better response to RTX. Nine patients with PH (9 of 17 [53%]) were eventually diagnosed with a PID.

Conclusions: Post-RTX PH is a frequent condition in children with autoimmune cytopenia; a sizable proportion of patients with post-RTX PH were eventually diagnosed with a PID. In-depth investigation for PID is therefore recommended in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2019.07.032DOI Listing
January 2020

Diagnostic Approach to Monogenic Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Clinical Practice: A Ten-Year Multicentric Experience.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2020 04;26(5):720-727

Institute for Maternal and Child Health, IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Trieste, Italy.

Background And Aims: Multiple monogenic disorders present as very early onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD) or as IBD with severe and atypical features. Establishing a genetic diagnosis may change patients' management and prognosis. In this study, we describe the diagnostic approach to suspected monogenic IBD in a real clinical setting, discussing genetic and phenotypic findings and therapeutic implications of molecular diagnosis.

Methods: Information of patients with VEO-IBD and early onset IBD with severe/atypical phenotypes (EO-IBD s/a) managed between 2008-2017 who underwent a genetic workup were collected.

Results: Ninety-three patients were included, and 12 (13%) reached a genetic diagnosis. Candidate sequencing (CS) was performed in 47 patients (50%), and next generation sequencing (NGS) was performed in 84 patients (90%). Candidate sequencing had a good diagnostic performance only when guided by clinical features specific for known monogenic diseases, whereas NGS helped finding new causative genetic variants and would have anticipated one monogenic diagnosis (XIAP) and consequent bone marrow transplant (BMT). Patients with monogenic IBD more frequently were male (92% vs 54%; P = 0.02), had extraintestinal findings (100% vs 34%; P < 0.001), and had disease onset ≤1 month of life (25% vs 1%; P = 0.006). Genetic diagnosis impacted patient management in 11 patients (92%), 7 of whom underwent BMT.

Conclusion: A genetic diagnosis can be established in a significant proportion of suspected monogenic IBD and has an impact on patients' management. Candidate sequencing may be deployed when clinical findings orientate toward a specific diagnosis. Next generation sequencing should be preferred in patients with nonspecific phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ibd/izz178DOI Listing
April 2020

DNAM-1 Activating Receptor and Its Ligands: How Do Viruses Affect the NK Cell-Mediated Immune Surveillance during the Various Phases of Infection?

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Jul 30;20(15). Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Academic Department of Pediatrics, Research Unit of Congenital and Perinatal Infection, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, 00165 Rome, Italy.

Natural Killer (NK) cells play a critical role in host defense against viral infections. The mechanisms of recognition and killing of virus-infected cells mediated by NK cells are still only partially defined. Several viruses induce, on the surface of target cells, the expression of molecules that are specifically recognized by NK cell-activating receptors. The main NK cell-activating receptors involved in the recognition and killing of virus-infected cells are NKG2D and DNAM-1. In particular, ligands for DNAM-1 are nectin/nectin-like molecules involved also in mechanisms allowing viral infection. Viruses adopt several immune evasion strategies, including those affecting NK cell-mediated immune surveillance, causing persistent viral infection and the development of virus-associated diseases. The virus's immune evasion efficacy depends on molecules differently expressed during the various phases of infection. In this review, we overview the molecular strategies adopted by viruses, specifically cytomegalovirus (CMV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), herpes virus (HSV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), aiming to evade NK cell-mediated surveillance, with a special focus on the modulation of DNAM-1 activating receptor and its ligands in various phases of the viral life cycle. The increasing understanding of mechanisms involved in the modulation of activating ligands, together with those mediating the viral immune evasion strategies, would provide critical tools leading to design novel NK cell-based immunotherapies aiming at viral infection control, thus improving cure strategies of virus-associated diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20153715DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6695959PMC
July 2019

Efficacy and Adverse Events During Janus Kinase Inhibitor Treatment of SAVI Syndrome.

J Clin Immunol 2019 07 29;39(5):476-485. Epub 2019 May 29.

U.O.C. Clinica Pediatrica e Reumatologia, IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genoa, Italy.

Objectives: Mutations affecting the TMEM173 gene cause STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI). No standard immunosuppressive treatment approach is able to control disease progression in patients with SAVI. We studied the efficacy and safety of targeting type I IFN signaling with the Janus kinase inhibitor, ruxolitinib.

Methods: We used DNA sequencing to identify mutations in TMEM173 in patients with peripheral blood type I IFN signature. The JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib was administered on an off-label basis.

Results: We identified three patients with SAVI presenting with skin involvement and progressive severe interstitial lung disease. Indirect echocardiographic signs of pulmonary hypertension were present in one case. Following treatment with ruxolitinib, we observed improvements of respiratory function including increased forced vital capacity in two patients, with discontinuation of oxygen therapy and resolution of echocardiographic abnormalities in one case. Efficacy was persistent in one patient and only transitory in the other two patients. Clinical control of skin complications was obtained, and one patient discontinued steroid treatment. One patient, who presented with kidney involvement, showed resolution of hematuria. One patient experienced increased recurrence of severe viral respiratory infections. Monitoring of peripheral blood type I interferon signature during ruxolitinib treatment did not show a stable decrease.

Conclusions: We conclude that targeting type I IFN receptor signaling may represent a promising therapeutic option for a subset of patients with SAVI syndrome and severe lung involvement. However, the occurrence of viral respiratory infection might represent an important cautionary note for the application of such form of treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-019-00645-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7086512PMC
July 2019

Targeted NGS Platforms for Genetic Screening and Gene Discovery in Primary Immunodeficiencies.

Front Immunol 2019 11;10:316. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

Primary Immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are a heterogeneous group of genetic immune disorders. While some PIDs can manifest with more than one phenotype, signs, and symptoms of various PIDs overlap considerably. Recently, novel defects in immune-related genes and additional variants in previously reported genes responsible for PIDs have been successfully identified by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), allowing the recognition of a broad spectrum of disorders. To evaluate the strength and weakness of targeted NGS sequencing using custom-made Ion Torrent and Haloplex (Agilent) panels for diagnostics and research purposes. Five different panels including known and candidate genes were used to screen 105 patients with distinct PID features divided in three main PID categories: and . The Ion Torrent sequencing platform was used in 73 patients. Among these, 18 selected patients without a molecular diagnosis and 32 additional patients were analyzed by Haloplex enrichment technology. The complementary use of the two custom-made targeted sequencing approaches allowed the identification of causative variants in 28.6% ( = 30) of patients. Twenty-two out of 73 (34.6%) patients were diagnosed by Ion Torrent. In this group 20 were included in the SCID/CID category. Eight out of 50 (16%) patients were diagnosed by Haloplex workflow. Ion Torrent method was highly successful for those cases with well-defined phenotypes for immunological and clinical presentation. The Haloplex approach was able to diagnose 4 SCID/CID patients and 4 additional patients with complex and extended phenotypes, embracing all three PID categories in which this approach was more efficient. Both technologies showed good gene coverage. NGS technology represents a powerful approach in the complex field of rare disorders but its different application should be weighted. A relatively small NGS target panel can be successfully applied for a robust diagnostic suspicion, while when the spectrum of clinical phenotypes overlaps more than one PID an in-depth NGS analysis is required, including also whole exome/genome sequencing to identify the causative gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00316DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6470723PMC
September 2020

Thymic Epithelium Abnormalities in DiGeorge and Down Syndrome Patients Contribute to Dysregulation in T Cell Development.

Front Immunol 2019 15;10:447. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Division of Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cells and Gene Therapy, Telethon Institute for Gene Therapy (SR-Tiget), IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

The thymus plays a fundamental role in establishing and maintaining central and peripheral tolerance and defects in thymic architecture or AIRE expression result in the development of autoreactive lymphocytes. Patients with partial DiGeorge Syndrome (pDGS) and Down Syndrome (DS) present alterations in size and architecture of the thymus and higher risk to develop autoimmunity. We sought to evaluate thymic architecture and thymocyte development in DGS and DS patients and to determine the extent to which thymic defects result in immune dysregulation and T cell homeostasis perturbation in these patients. Thymi from pediatric patients and age-matched controls were obtained to evaluate cortex and medullary compartments, AIRE expression and thymocyte development. In the same patients we also characterized immunophenotype of peripheral T cells. Phenotypic and functional characterization of thymic and peripheral regulatory T (Treg) cells was finally assessed. Histologic analysis revealed peculiar alterations in thymic medulla size and maturation in DGS and DS patients. Perturbed distribution of thymocytes and altered thymic output was also observed. DGS patients showed lower mature CD4 and CD8 T cell frequency, associated with reduced proportion and function of Tregs both in thymus and peripheral blood. DS patients showed increased frequency of single positive (SP) thymocytes and thymic Treg cells. However, Tregs isolated both from thymus and peripheral blood of DS patients showed reduced suppressive ability. Our results provide novel insights on thymic defects associated with DGS and DS and their impact on peripheral immune dysregulation. Indeed, thymic abnormalities and defect in thymocyte development, in particular in Treg cell number and function could contribute in the pathogenesis of the immunodysregulation present in pDGS and in DS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00447DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6436073PMC
September 2020

X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA):Phenotype, diagnosis, and therapeutic challenges around the world.

World Allergy Organ J 2019 22;12(3):100018. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Medicine and Sciences of Aging, University "G. d'Annunzio" of Chieti-Pescara, Italy.

Background: X-linked agammaglobulinemia is an inherited immunodeficiency recognized since 1952. In spite of seven decades of experience, there is still a limited understanding of regional differences in presentation and complications. This study was designed by the Primary Immunodeficiencies Committee of the World Allergy Organization to better understand regional needs, challenges and unique patient features.

Methods: A survey instrument was designed by the Primary Immunodeficiencies Committee of the World Allergy Organization to collect both structured and semi-structured data on X-linked agammaglobulinemia. The survey was sent to 54 centers around the world chosen on the basis of World Allergy Organization participation and/or registration in the European Society for Immunodeficiencies. There were 40 centers that responded, comprising 32 countries.

Results: This study reports on 783 patients from 40 centers around the world. Problems with diagnosis are highlighted by the reported delays in diagnosis>24 months in 34% of patients and the lack of genetic studies in 39% of centers Two infections exhibited regional variation. Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis was seen only in countries with live polio vaccination and two centers reported mycobacteria. High rates of morbidity were reported. Acute and chronic lung diseases accounted for 41% of the deaths. Unusual complications such as inflammatory bowel disease and large granular lymphocyte disease, among others were specifically enumerated, and while individually uncommon, they were collectively seen in 20.3% of patients. These data suggest that a broad range of both inflammatory, infectious, and autoimmune conditions can occur in patients. The breadth of complications and lack of data on management subsequently appeared as a significant challenge reported by centers. Survival above 20 years of age was lowest in Africa (22%) and reached above 70% in Australia, Europe and the Americas. Centers were asked to report their challenges and responses (n = 116) emphasized the difficulties in access to immunoglobulin products (16%) and reflected the ongoing need for education of both patients and referring physicians.

Conclusions: This is the largest study of patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia and emphasizes the continued morbidity and mortality of XLA despite progress in diagnosis and treatment. It presents a world view of the successes and challenges for patients and physicians alike. A pivotal finding is the need for education of physicians regarding typical symptoms suggesting a possible diagnosis of X-linked agammaglobulinemia and sharing of best practices for the less common complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.waojou.2019.100018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6439403PMC
March 2019

Immunophenotype Anomalies Predict the Development of Autoimmune Cytopenia in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2019 Sep - Oct;7(7):2369-2376. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

University Department of Pediatrics, Unit of Immune and Infectious Diseases, Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù, IRCCS, Rome, Italy; Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

Background: Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) may develop severe thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic anemia. There are no reliable predictors for the development of hematologic autoimmunity (HA) in these patients.

Objective: To describe the peculiar B and T subpopulation defects in patients with 22q11DS who have developed HA and test if these defects precede the development of HA.

Methods: We performed a case-control multicenter study. Patients with HA were compared with a control population of 22q11.2DS without HA (non-HA). A complete immunological evaluation was performed at diagnosis and at the last follow-up including extensive T and B phenotypes.

Results: Immunophenotype at the last follow-up was available in 23 HA and 45 non-HA patients. HA patients had significantly decreased percentage of naïve CD4 cells (26.8% vs 43.2%, P = .003) and recent thymic emigrants (48.6% vs 80.5%, P = .046); decreased class-switched B cells (2.0% vs 5.9%, P = .04) and increased naive B cells (83.5% vs 71.4%, P = .02); increased CD16+/56+ both in absolute number (312 vs 199, P = .009) and percentage (20.0% vs 13.0%, P = .03). Immunophenotype was performed in 36 patients (11 HA and 25 non-HA) at diagnosis. Odds ratio (OR) of immune cytopenia were estimated for both CD4 naïve ≤30% (OR 14.0, P = .002) and switched memory B cells ≤2% (OR 44.0, P = .01). The estimated survival curves reached statistical significance, respectively, P = .0001 and P = .002.

Conclusions: Among patients with 22q11.2DS, those with HA have characteristic lymphocyte anomalies that appear considerably before HA onset. Systematic immunophenotyping of patients with 22q11.2DS at diagnosis is advisable for early identification of patients at risk for this severe complication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2019.03.014DOI Listing
October 2020

Outcomes and Treatment Strategies for Autoimmunity and Hyperinflammation in Patients with RAG Deficiency.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2019 Jul - Aug;7(6):1970-1985.e4. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Division of Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC.

Background: Although autoimmunity and hyperinflammation secondary to recombination activating gene (RAG) deficiency have been associated with delayed diagnosis and even death, our current understanding is limited primarily to small case series.

Objective: Understand the frequency, severity, and treatment responsiveness of autoimmunity and hyperinflammation in RAG deficiency.

Methods: In reviewing the literature and our own database, we identified 85 patients with RAG deficiency, reported between 2001 and 2016, and compiled the largest case series to date of 63 patients with prominent autoimmune and/or hyperinflammatory pathology.

Results: Diagnosis of RAG deficiency was delayed a median of 5 years from the first clinical signs of immune dysregulation. Most patients (55.6%) presented with more than 1 autoimmune or hyperinflammatory complication, with the most common etiologies being cytopenias (84.1%), granulomas (23.8%), and inflammatory skin disorders (19.0%). Infections, including live viral vaccinations, closely preceded the onset of autoimmunity in 28.6% of cases. Autoimmune cytopenias had early onset (median, 1.9, 2.1, and 2.6 years for autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia, respectively) and were refractory to intravenous immunoglobulin, steroids, and rituximab in most cases (64.7%, 73.7%, and 71.4% for autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia, respectively). Evans syndrome specifically was associated with lack of response to first-line therapy. Treatment-refractory autoimmunity/hyperinflammation prompted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in 20 patients.

Conclusions: Autoimmunity/hyperinflammation can be a presenting sign of RAG deficiency and should prompt further evaluation. Multilineage cytopenias are often refractory to immunosuppressive treatment and may require hematopoietic cell transplantation for definitive management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2019.02.038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6612449PMC
September 2020