Publications by authors named "Carsten Schelmbauer"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Recirculating IL-1R2 Tregs fine-tune intrathymic Treg development under inflammatory conditions.

Cell Mol Immunol 2021 Jan 27;18(1):182-193. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Department of Experimental Immunology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany.

The vast majority of Foxp3 regulatory T cells (Tregs) are generated in the thymus, and several factors, such as cytokines and unique thymic antigen-presenting cells, are known to contribute to the development of these thymus-derived Tregs (tTregs). Here, we report the existence of a specific subset of Foxp3 Tregs within the thymus that is characterized by the expression of IL-1R2, which is a decoy receptor for the inflammatory cytokine IL-1. Detailed flow cytometric analysis of the thymocytes from Foxp3xRAG1 reporter mice revealed that the IL-1R2 Tregs are mainly RAG1 and CCR6CCR7, demonstrating that these Tregs are recirculating cells entering the thymus from the periphery and that they have an activated phenotype. In the spleen, the majority of IL-1R2 Tregs express neuropilin-1 (Nrp-1) and Helios, suggesting a thymic origin for these Tregs. Interestingly, among all tissues studied, the highest frequency of IL-1R2 Tregs was observed in the thymus, indicating preferential recruitment of this Treg subset by the thymus. Using fetal thymic organ cultures (FTOCs), we demonstrated that increased concentrations of exogenous IL-1β blocked intrathymic Treg development, resulting in a decreased frequency of CD25Foxp3 tTregs and an accumulation of CD25Foxp3 Treg precursors. Interestingly, the addition of IL-1R2 Tregs, but not IL-1R2 Tregs, to reaggregated thymic organ cultures (RTOCs) abrogated the IL-1β-mediated blockade, demonstrating that these recirculating IL-1R2 Tregs can quench IL-1 signaling in the thymus and thereby maintain thymic Treg development even under inflammatory conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41423-019-0352-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7853075PMC
January 2021

Cutting Edge: IL-6-Driven Immune Dysregulation Is Strictly Dependent on IL-6R α-Chain Expression.

J Immunol 2020 02 10;204(4):747-751. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Institute for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, 55131 Mainz, Germany.

IL-6 binds to the IL-6R α-chain (IL-6Rα) and signals via the signal transducer gp130. Recently, IL-6 was found to also bind to the cell surface glycoprotein CD5, which would then engage gp130 in the absence of IL-6Rα. However, the biological relevance of this alternative pathway is under debate. In this study, we developed a mouse model, in which murine IL-6 is overexpressed in a CD11c-Cre-dependent manner. Transgenic mice developed a lethal immune dysregulation syndrome with increased numbers of Ly-6G neutrophils and Ly-6C monocytes/macrophages. IL-6 overexpression promoted activation of CD4 T cells while suppressing CD5 B-1a cell development. However, additional ablation of IL-6Rα protected IL-6-overexpressing mice from IL-6-triggered inflammation and fully phenocopied IL-6Rα-deficient mice without IL-6 overexpression. Mechanistically, IL-6Rα deficiency completely prevented downstream activation of STAT3 in response to IL-6. Altogether, our data clarify that IL-6Rα is the only biologically relevant receptor for IL-6 in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1900876DOI Listing
February 2020

Regulation of IL-1 signaling by the decoy receptor IL-1R2.

J Mol Med (Berl) 2018 10 15;96(10):983-992. Epub 2018 Aug 15.

Institute for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Langenbeckstrasse 1, 55131, Mainz, Germany.

The pleiotropic cytokine IL-1 mediates its biological functions via association with the signaling receptor IL-1R1. Despite an apparent simplicity in IL-1 signaling activation, multiple negative regulators have been identified. The decoy receptor IL-1R2 (also known as CD121b) can suppress IL-1 maturation, sequester its active forms or hinder the signaling complex assembly. IL-1R2 is differentially expressed among numerous cell types and displays cis- and trans- modes of action. In this review, we link different forms of IL-1R2 (membrane-bound (mIL-1R2), secreted (sIL-1R2), shedded (shIL-1R2), cytoplasmic, and intracellular domain (IL-1R2) restricted) with their ability to interfere with IL-1, thereby regulating immune responses. We also discuss the intriguing possible function of IL-1R2 as a transcriptional regulator. Finally, we summarize the known impact of IL-1R2 in disease pathogenesis and discuss its potential role in treatment of inflammatory conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00109-018-1684-zDOI Listing
October 2018

IL-1 signaling is critical for expansion but not generation of autoreactive GM-CSF+ Th17 cells.

EMBO J 2017 01 8;36(1):102-115. Epub 2016 Nov 8.

Institute for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Mainz, Germany

Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is implicated in numerous pathologies, including multiple sclerosis and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the exact mechanism by which IL-1 is involved in the generation of pathogenic T cells and in disease development remains largely unknown. We found that following EAE induction, pertussis toxin administration leads to IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1)-dependent IL-1β expression by myeloid cells in the draining lymph nodes. This myeloid-derived IL-1β did not vitally contribute to the generation and plasticity of Th17 cells, but rather promoted the expansion of a GM-CSF Th17 cell subset, thereby enhancing its encephalitogenic potential. Lack of expansion of GM-CSF-producing Th17 cells led to ameliorated disease in mice deficient for IL-1R1 specifically in T cells. Importantly, pathogenicity of IL-1R1-deficient T cells was fully restored by IL-23 polarization and expansion in vitro Therefore, our data demonstrate that IL-1 functions as a mitogenic mediator of encephalitogenic Th17 cells rather than qualitative inducer of their generation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/embj.201694615DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5210124PMC
January 2017

Generation of a Novel T Cell Specific Interleukin-1 Receptor Type 1 Conditional Knock Out Mouse Reveals Intrinsic Defects in Survival, Expansion and Cytokine Production of CD4 T Cells.

PLoS One 2016 23;11(8):e0161505. Epub 2016 Aug 23.

Institute for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Interleukin-1 (IL-1) plays a crucial role in numerous inflammatory diseases via action on its only known signaling IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1). To investigate the role of IL-1 signaling in selected cell types, we generated a new mouse strain in which exon 5 of the Il1r1 gene is flanked by loxP sites. Crossing of these mice with CD4-Cre transgenic mice resulted in IL-1R1 loss of function specifically in T cells. These mice, termed IL-1R1ΔT, displayed normal development under steady state conditions. Importantly, isolated CD4 positive T cells retained their capacity to differentiate toward Th1 or Th17 cell lineages in vitro, and strongly proliferated in cultures supplemented with either anti-CD3/CD28 or Concanavalin A, but, as predicted, were completely unresponsive to IL-1β administration. Furthermore, IL-1R1ΔT mice were protected from gut inflammation in the anti-CD3 treatment model, due to dramatically reduced frequencies and absolute numbers of IL-17A and interferon (IFN)-γ producing cells. Taken together, our data shows the necessity of intact IL-1 signaling for survival and expansion of CD4 T cells that were developed in an otherwise IL-1 sufficient environment.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0161505PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4995027PMC
July 2017