Publications by authors named "Carsten Krumbholz"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Adenylate cyclases of Trypanosoma brucei inhibit the innate immune response of the host.

Science 2012 Jul 14;337(6093):463-6. Epub 2012 Jun 14.

Laboratory of Molecular Parasitology, Institute for Molecular Biology and Medicine, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 12, rue des Professeurs Jeener et Brachet, B6041 Gosselies, Belgium.

The parasite Trypanosoma brucei possesses a large family of transmembrane receptor-like adenylate cyclases. Activation of these enzymes requires the dimerization of the catalytic domain and typically occurs under stress. Using a dominant-negative strategy, we found that reducing adenylate cyclase activity by about 50% allowed trypanosome growth but reduced the parasite's ability to control the early innate immune defense of the host. Specifically, activation of trypanosome adenylate cyclase resulting from parasite phagocytosis by liver myeloid cells inhibited the synthesis of the trypanosome-controlling cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α through activation of protein kinase A in these cells. Thus, adenylate cyclase activity of lyzed trypanosomes favors early host colonization by live parasites. The role of adenylate cyclases at the host-parasite interface could explain the expansion and polymorphism of this gene family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1222753DOI Listing
July 2012

Cytokinesis of Trypanosoma brucei bloodstream forms depends on expression of adenylyl cyclases of the ESAG4 or ESAG4-like subfamily.

Mol Microbiol 2012 Apr 6;84(2):225-42. Epub 2012 Mar 6.

Laboratory of Molecular Parasitology, Institute of Molecular Biology and Medicine, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 12, rue des Professeurs Jeener et Brachet, B-6041 Gosselies, Belgium.

Antigenic variation of the parasite Trypanosoma brucei operates by monoallelic expression of a variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) from a collection of multiple telomeric expression sites (ESs). Each of these ESs harbours a long polycistronic transcription unit containing several expression site-associated genes (ESAGs). ESAG4 copies encode bloodstream stage-specific adenylyl cyclases (AC) and belong to a larger gene family of around 80 members, the majority of which, termed genes related to ESAG4 (GRESAG4s), are not encoded in ESs and are expressed constitutively in the life cycle. Here we report that ablation of ESAG4 from the active ES did not affect parasite growth, neither in culture nor upon rodent infection, and did not significantly change total AC activity. In contrast, inducible RNAi-mediated knock-down of an AC subfamily that includes ESAG4 and two ESAG4-like GRESAG4 (ESAG4L) genes, decreased total AC activity and induced a lethal phenotype linked to impaired cytokinesis. In the Δesag4 line compensatory upregulation of apparently functionally redundant ESAG4L genes was observed, suggesting that the ESAG4/ESAG4L-subfamily ACs are involved in the control of cell division. How deregulated adenylyl cyclases or cAMP might impair cytokinesis is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2958.2012.08013.xDOI Listing
April 2012

Identification and functional characterisation of genes and corresponding enzymes involved in carnitine metabolism of Proteus sp.

Arch Microbiol 2005 Mar 25;183(3):176-89. Epub 2005 Feb 25.

Pharmazie und Psychologie, Fakultät für Biowissenschaften, Institut für Biochemie, Universität Leipzig, Germany.

Enzymes involved in carnitine metabolism of Proteus sp. are encoded by the cai genes organised as the caiTABCDEF operon. The complete operon could be sequenced from the genomic DNA of Proteus sp. Amino acid sequence similarities and/or enzymatic analysis confirmed the function assigned to each protein involved in carnitine metabolism. CaiT was suggested to be an integral membrane protein responsible for the transport of betaines. The caiA gene product was shown to be a crotonobetainyl-CoA reductase catalysing the irreversible reduction of crotonobetainyl-CoA to gamma-butyrobetainyl-CoA. CaiB and CaiD were identified to be the two components of the crotonobetaine hydrating system, already described. CaiB and caiD were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. After purification of both proteins, their individual enzymatic functions were solved. CaiB acts as betainyl-CoA transferase specific for carnitine, crotonobetaine, gamma-butyrobetaine and its CoA derivatives. Transferase reaction proceeds, following a sequential bisubstrate mechanism. CaiD was identified to be a crotonobetainyl-CoA hydratase belonging to the crotononase superfamily. Because of amino acid sequence similarities, CaiC was suggested to be a betainyl-CoA ligase. Taken together, these results show that the metabolism of carnitine and crotonobetaine in Proteus sp. proceeds at the CoA level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00203-005-0760-2DOI Listing
March 2005