Publications by authors named "Carolyn T Dillon"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Interactions of Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs and Their Bismuth Analogues (BiNSAIDs) with Biological Membrane Mimics at Physiological pH.

Langmuir 2021 02 22;37(4):1337-1352. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

School of Chemistry and Molecular Bioscience, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia.

Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), in particular aspirin, to be used as chemopreventives for colorectal cancer; however, a range of unwanted gastrointestinal side effects limit their effectiveness. Due to the role of bismuth in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, it is hypothesized that bismuth-coordinated NSAIDs (BiNSAIDs) could be used to combat the gastrointestinal side effects of NSAIDs while still maintaining their chemopreventive potential. To further understand the biological activity of these compounds, the present study examined four NSAIDs, namely, tolfenamic acid (tolfH), aspirin (aspH), indomethacin (indoH), and mefenamic acid (mefH) and their analogous homoleptic BiNSAIDs ([Bi(L)]), to determine how these compounds interact with biological membrane mimics composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl--glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) or a mixture of POPC and cholesterol. Electrical impedance spectroscopy studies revealed that each of the NSAIDs and BiNSAIDs influenced membrane conductance, suggesting that temporary pore formation may play a key role in the previously observed cytotoxicity of tolfH and Bi(tolf). Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring showed that all the compounds were able to interact with membrane mimics composed of solely POPC or POPC/cholesterol. Finally, neutron reflectometry studies showed changes in membrane thickness and composition. The location of the compounds within the bilayer could not be determined with certainty; however, a complex interplay of interactions governs the location of small molecules, such as NSAIDs, within lipid membranes. The charged nature of the parent NSAIDs means that interactions with the polar headgroup region are most likely with larger hydrophobic sections, potentially leading to deeper penetration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c02212DOI Listing
February 2021

Anti-cancer Evaluation of Depsides Isolated from Indonesian Folious Lichens: , and .

Biomolecules 2020 10 8;10(10). Epub 2020 Oct 8.

School of Chemistry & Molecular Bioscience and Molecular Horizons, University of Wollongong, and Illawarra Health & Medical Research Institute, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia.

Cancer is a serious health burden on global societies. The discovery and development of new anti-cancer therapies remains a challenging objective. Although it has been shown that lichen secondary metabolites may be potent sources for new anti-cancer agents, the Indonesian- grown folious lichens, and have not yet been explored. In this study exhaustive preparative high-performance liquid chromatography was employed to isolate the lichen constituents with spectroscopic and spectrometric protocols identifying nine depsides -, including the new methyl 4-formyl-2,3-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoate . The cytotoxicity of the depsides towards cancer cells was assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results indicated lowest toxicity of the depsides towards human A549 lung cancer cells. Importantly, the di-depsides (, and ) showed greatest toxicity, indicating that these structures are biologically more active than the mono-depsides against the HepG2 liver cancer, A549 lung cancer and HL-60 leukemia cell lines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10101420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7600581PMC
October 2020

A new class of quadruplex DNA-binding nickel Schiff base complexes.

Dalton Trans 2020 Apr;49(15):4843-4860

School of Chemistry and Molecular Bioscience, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong 2522, Australia. and Molecular Horizons, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong 2522, Australia.

We have prepared six new nickel Schiff base complexes via reactions of substituted benzophenones with different diamines in the presence of nickel(ii). These new complexes were then reacted with 1-(2-choroethyl)piperidine to afford a further six novel nickel(ii) Schiff base complexes bearing pendant ethylpiperidine groups. The complexes bearing the ethylpiperidine moieties had greater solubility in water, and were therefore suitable for use in DNA binding experiments. ESI mass spectra of solutions containing 4 and the parallel, tetramolecular quadruplex Q4, contained ions attributable to formation of non-covalent complexes. In contrast, no ions from non-covalent complexes were observed when the experiments were repeated using 4 and either a double stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecule (D2), or parallel Q1, a unimolecular quadruplex DNA (qDNA). The ESI-MS binding study also revealed that 14 has a significant ability to form non-covalent complexes with qDNA, but does not interact to the same extent with D2. This is supported by the large changes to the ellipticity of bands observed in the circular dichroism spectra of two different unimolecular qDNA molecules (c-kit1 and Q1), including the latter annealed under conditions designed to induce formation of alternative topologies (antiparallel and hybrid). In Fluorescent Indicator Displacement (FID) assays conducted using the new nickel complexes, 14 gave the lowest values of DC50 for experiments conducted with Q1 and Q4. Furthermore, 14 showed greater stabilisation of an antiparallel qDNA molecule in FRET assays than when the other new complexes were examined. These results highlight the potential of 14 as a lead complex for future structure/DNA binding investigations. This is reinforced by the results obtained from cytotoxicity studies performed using four of the nickel complexes, including 14, and Chinese hamster lung cancer (V79) cells, which gave IC50 values between 4 and 12 μM. These complexes were also shown to have the ability to induce apoptosis in the same cancer cell line.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0dt00319kDOI Listing
April 2020

Alkaloids from the root of Indonesian L.

Nat Prod Res 2021 Feb 8;35(3):481-489. Epub 2019 Jul 8.

School of Chemistry & Molecular Bioscience and Molecular Horizons, University of Wollongong, and Illawarra Health & Medical Research Institute, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.

L. has been used traditionally in Indonesia to treat disease. Phytochemical studies on the alkaloid fractions from the root of L. from Malang-Indonesia resulted in the isolation of an unreported benzylisoquinoline alkaloid (+)-xylopine as well as four known alkaloids (-). The crude methanol extract and alkaloid fractions were tested against K1 and against bacteria (, , , , Methicillin-resistant ) with insignificant activities (MIC > 32 µg/mL). Individual alkaloids were tested against a human suspension cancer cell line (HL-60 leukemia cells) and two human fibroblastic cancer cell lines (A549 lung cancer cells and HepG2 liver cancer cells) in which compound as the most toxic alkaloid with IC values ranging from 20 to 80 µM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2019.1638380DOI Listing
February 2021

Copper Uptake, Intracellular Localization, and Speciation in Marine Microalgae Measured by Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Fluorescence and Absorption Microspectroscopy.

Environ Sci Technol 2016 08 2;50(16):8827-39. Epub 2016 Aug 2.

School of Chemistry, University of Wollongong , Wollongong 2522, New South Wales, Australia.

Metal toxicity to aquatic organisms depends on the speciation of the metal and its binding to the critical receptor site(s) (biotic ligand) of the organism. The intracellular nature of the biotic ligand for Cu in microalgal cells was investigated using the high elemental sensitivity of microprobe synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES). The marine microalgae, Ceratoneis closterium, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and Tetraselmis sp. were selected based on their varying sensitivities to Cu (72-h 50% population growth inhibitions of 8-47 μg Cu/L). Intracellular Cu in control cells was similar for all three species (2.5-3.2 × 10(-15) g Cu/cell) and increased 4-fold in C. closterium and Tetraselmis sp. when exposed to copper, but was unchanged in P. tricornutum (72-h exposure to 19, 40, and 40 μg Cu/L, respectively). Whole cell microprobe SR-XRF identified endogenous Cu in the central compartment (cytoplasm) of control (unexposed) cells. After Cu exposure, Cu was colocated with organelles/granules dense in P, S, Ca, and Si and this was clearly evident in thin sections of Tetraselmis sp. XANES indicated coexistence of Cu(I) and Cu(II) in control and Cu-exposed cells, with the Cu ligand (e.g., phytochelatin) in P. tricornutum different from that in C. closterium and Tetraselmis sp. This study supports the hypothesis that Cu(II) is reduced to Cu(I) and that polyphosphate bodies and phytochelatins play a significant role in the internalization and detoxification of Cu in marine microalgae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b00861DOI Listing
August 2016

An investigation into the interactions of gold nanoparticles and anti-arthritic drugs with macrophages, and their reactivity towards thioredoxin reductase.

J Inorg Biochem 2015 Jan 28;142:28-38. Epub 2014 Sep 28.

Centre for Medical and Molecular Bioscience, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia; School of Chemistry, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia; Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia. Electronic address:

Gold(I) complexes are an important tool in the arsenal of established approaches for treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA), while some recent studies have suggested that gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) may also be therapeutically efficacious. These observations prompted the current biological studies involving gold(I) anti-RA agents and Au NPs, which are aimed towards improving our knowledge of how they work. The cytotoxicity of auranofin, aurothiomalate, aurothiosulfate and Au NPs towards RAW264.7 macrophages was evaluated using the MTT assay, with the former compound proving to be the most toxic. The extent of cellular uptake of the various gold agents was determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, while their distribution within macrophages was examined using microprobe synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The latter technique showed accumulation of gold in discrete regions of the cell, and co-localisation with sulfur in the case of cells treated with aurothiomalate or auranofin. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was used to characterize thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) in which the penultimate selenocysteine residue was replaced by cysteine. Mass spectra of solutions of TrxR and aurothiomalate, aurothiosulfate or auranofin showed complexes containing bare gold atoms bound to the protein, or protein adducts containing gold atoms retaining some of their initial ligands. These results support TrxR being an important target of gold(I) drugs used to treat RA, while the finding that Au NPs are incorporated into macrophages, but elicit little toxicity, indicates further exploration of their potential for treatment of RA is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2014.09.013DOI Listing
January 2015

Biological evaluation of bismuth non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (BiNSAIDs): stability, toxicity and uptake in HCT-8 colon cancer cells.

J Inorg Biochem 2014 Jun 1;135:28-39. Epub 2014 Mar 1.

School of Chemistry, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, 2522, Australia. Electronic address:

Recent studies showed that the metal-coordinated non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), copper indomethacin, reduced aberrant crypt formation in the rodent colon cancer model, while also exhibiting gastrointestinal sparing properties. In the present study, the stability and biological activity of three BiNSAIDs of the general formula [Bi(L)3]n, where L=diflunisal (difl), mefenamate (mef) or tolfenamate (tolf) were examined. NMR spectroscopy of high concentrations of BiNSAIDs (24h in cell medium, 37°C) indicated that their structural stability and interactions with cell medium components were NSAID specific. Assessment of cell viability using the [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium]bromide (MTT) assay showed that the toxicity ranking of the BiNSAIDs paralleled those of the respective free NSAIDs: diflH
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2014.02.012DOI Listing
June 2014

Secondary vitellogenesis persists despite disrupted fecundity in amphipods maintained on metal-contaminated sediment: X-ray fluorescence assessment of oocyte metal content.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2013 Jul 28;93:31-8. Epub 2013 Apr 28.

Centre for Ecotoxicology, Office of Environment and Heritage, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 Australia.

Melita plumulosa is an epibenthic, detritivorous amphipod found in estuaries along the eastern coast of Australia. It has been utilized as a test organism in rapid ten to thirteen days reproduction toxicity tests for sediment quality assessment. The fecundity of females in the toxicity test has been found to be inhibited by exposure of the amphipods to contaminated sediments enriched with zinc and other metals. This study investigated the proposal that interference in vitellogenesis is the cause of reproductive toxicity of metals in crustaceans. Inspection of the ovaries from amphipods on day 6 of the test either from control or Zn/Pb/Cd/Cu-spiked sediment, that were nearing completion of vitellogenesis, showed that the females in all treatments were producing similar numbers of oocytes undergoing secondary vitellogenesis. The distribution of the Zn, Cu and Pb in the oocytes and ventral caeca of females was examined by X-ray fluorescence microscopy. Elemental mapping revealed a dense accumulation of Zn in primary oocytes and a uniform distribution of Zn and Cu in the secondary oocytes in all treatments. Zn and Cu were also observed to be uniformly distributed in the ventral caeca. Pb was not detected in either of these tissues. The apparent normal morphology and the typical number of oocytes undergoing secondary vitellogenesis suggest that vitellogenesis was not being disrupted by Pb displacing Zn in the metal-binding domain of vitellogenin in amphipods exposed to the contaminated sediment during the test. Alternative mechanisms for the reproductive toxicity of amphipods exposed for six days to metal-contaminated sediment are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2013.03.028DOI Listing
July 2013

Does cytotoxicity of metallointercalators correlate with cellular uptake or DNA affinity?

Dalton Trans 2012 Aug 28;41(31):9417-26. Epub 2012 Jun 28.

Centre for Medicinal Chemistry, School of Chemistry, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia.

The cytotoxicity of the metallointercalators, [Pt(5,6-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline)(trans-1R,2R-diaminocyclohexane)](2+) ([56MERR]) and [Pt(5,6-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline)(trans-1S,2S-diaminocyclohexane)](2+) ([56MESS]), towards A549 human lung cancer cells was examined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The IC(50) value obtained following exposure of A549 cells to [56MESS] for 4 h was approximately three times smaller than that obtained when [56MERR] was administered under the same conditions, indicating that the former complex displayed greater cytotoxicity. Both IC(50) values were greater than that obtained after exposure of A549 cells to cisplatin, demonstrating that the latter compound was the most cytotoxic of the three examined. Microprobe synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) analyses of metallointercalator-treated A549 cells showed that platinum became localised in DNA-rich regions of the nucleus. In contrast, when the same cells were treated with cisplatin the metal became distributed throughout the cell. Determination of the maximum concentration of platinum present inside the cells using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GFAAS) of platinum-treated cells suggested that there was greater uptake of [56MERR] compared to [56MESS] by the A549 cells, and that platinum uptake did not account for the greater toxicity of [56MESS], as assessed by the MTT assay. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic studies of solutions containing either [56MERR] or [56MESS], and a duplex hexadecamer molecule, showed the two metallointercalators displayed very similar affinity towards the nucleic acid. Overall these results indicate that the difference in cytotoxicity of the two platinum metallointercalators is probably the result of variations in their interactions with other cellular components.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c2dt30217aDOI Listing
August 2012

Inhibition of experimental colorectal cancer and reduction in renal and gastrointestinal toxicities by copper-indomethacin in rats.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2010 Sep 25;66(4):755-64. Epub 2009 Dec 25.

School of Chemistry, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

Purpose: To evaluate, for the first time, the efficacy of copper-indomethacin in the inhibition of aberrant crypt foci formation using the azoxymethane-induced adenocarcinoma model, to examine cell viability in the HCT-116 colorectal cancer cell line, gastrointestinal permeability, mitochondrial oxidative damage, and renal toxicity in rat models.

Methods: Azoxymethane-induced adenocarcinoma rats were dosed with indomethacin and copper-indomethacin for 28 days and aberrant crypt foci were evaluated. HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells were exposed to indomethacin and copper-indomethacin at 0-250 microg/mL (0-698 microM for indomethacin, and 0-147 microM for copper-indomethacin), and cell viability was measured. Acute gastrointestinal toxicity was measured using gastrointestinal permeability markers, gastrointestinal ulceration and bleeding, and measurement of an acute-phase protein haptoglobin. Effects of acute and chronic administration of indomethacin and copper-indomethacin on urinary electrolyte concentrations were examined.

Results: Both indomethacin and copper-indomethacin resulted in a significant reduction in aberrant crypt foci in azoxymethane-treated rats. In parallel, high concentrations of indomethacin and copper-indomethacin also reduced cell viability in HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells. However, copper-indomethacin was considerably safer in all measures of gastrointestinal toxicity compared to indomethacin. In addition, indomethacin reduced urinary electrolytes at an ulcerogenic dose of 10 mg/kg acutely and chronically at 3.0 mg/kg for 28 days, whereas copper-indomethacin at equimolar doses of indomethacin affected urine electrolytes after acute dosing but not after chronic dosing for 28 days.

Conclusions: Copper-indomethacin has both gastrointestinal and renal sparing properties while maintaining efficacy in experimental adenocarcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00280-009-1220-5DOI Listing
September 2010

Does the metal influence non-covalent binding of complexes to DNA?

Dalton Trans 2009 Jan 25(3):504-13. Epub 2008 Nov 25.

School of Chemistry, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia.

Electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry, absorption spectrophotometry and circular dichroism spectroscopy were used to investigate the binding of a series of nickel complexes with the general formula [Ni(phen)2L]2+ (L = phen, dpq, dpqC and dppz) to a double stranded DNA hexadecamer. In addition, the binding of the complexes to pUC9 negatively supercoiled plasmid DNA was examined using gel electrophoresis, and their ability to inhibit DNA transcription was measured. Each of the above techniques showed that DNA binding strengthened as the size of the unique ligand L was increased. Comparison of the above results with those obtained previously, and presented here for the first time for the analogous series of ruthenium complexes [Ru(phen)2L]2+, showed that changing the metal ion from nickel to ruthenium consistently resulted in significant increases in DNA binding affinity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b814156hDOI Listing
January 2009

Microprobe XRF mapping and XAS investigations of the intracellular metabolism of arsenic for understanding arsenic-induced toxicity.

Chem Res Toxicol 2008 Sep 3;21(9):1760-9. Epub 2008 Jul 3.

School of Chemistry, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia.

Arsenic (As) is responsible for mass-poisonings worldwide following the ingestion of As-contaminated drinking water. Importantly, however, As toxicity is exploited in the antileukemia drug, Trisenox (As2O3), which successfully cures 65-80% of patients suffering relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia. In an effort to determine the intracellular organelle and biomolecular targets of As, microprobe X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analyses were performed on HepG2 cells following their exposure to high doses of arsenite (1 mM) or arsenate (20 mM). Microprobe XRF elemental mapping of thin-sectioned cells showed As accumulation in the euchromatin region of the cell nucleus (following arsenite exposure) synonymous with As targeting of DNA or proteins involved in DNA transcription. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of arsenite-treated cells, however, showed the predominance of an As tris-sulfur species, providing increased credence to As interactions with nuclear proteins as a key factor in As-induced toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/tx800128dDOI Listing
September 2008

The endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor, H2O2, promotes metal-ion efflux in aortic endothelial cells: elemental mapping by a hard X-ray microprobe.

Biochemistry 2006 Oct;45(41):12500-9

Vascular Biology Group, ANZAC Research Institute, Hospital Road, Concord Repatriation General Hospital, Concord, NSW 2139, Australia.

Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is a physiologic oxidant implicated in vascular cell signaling, although little is known about the biochemical consequences of its reaction with endothelial cells. Submicrometer-resolution hard X-ray elemental mapping of cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAEC) has provided data on the global changes for intracellular elemental density within PAEC and indicates an efflux of metal ions and phosphorus from the cytoplasm after H(2)O(2) treatment. The synchrotron-radiation-induced X-ray emission experiments (SRIXE) show that H(2)O(2)-treated cells are irregularly shaped and exhibit blebbing indicative of increased permeability due to the damaged membrane. The SRIXE results suggest that H(2)O(2)-induced damage is largely restricted to the cell membrane as judged by the changes to membrane and cytoplasmic components rather than the cell nucleus. The SRIXE data also provide a mechanism for cell detoxification as the metal-ion efflux resulting from the initial H(2)O(2)-mediated changes to cell membrane potentially limits intracellular metal-mediated redox processes through Fenton-like chemistry. They may also explain the increased levels of these ions in atherosclerotic plaques, regardless of whether they are involved in plaque formation. Finally, the SRIXE data support the notion that cultured endothelial cells exposed to H(2)O(2) respond with enhanced cellular metal-ion efflux into the extracellular space.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi0604375DOI Listing
October 2006

Genotoxicity and transmission electron microscopy studies of molybdocene dichloride.

J Inorg Biochem 2006 Jul 9;100(7):1194-8. Epub 2006 Mar 9.

School of Chemistry, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

The cytotoxic effects of molybdocene dichloride (Cp(2)MoCl(2)) were investigated in V79 Chinese hamster lung cells using the micronucleus assay. Cp(2)MoCl(2) produced significant genotoxic damage whereby 0.2micronuclei/1000 binucleated cells were induced per muM of Cp(2)MoCl(2). Transmission electron microscopic analysis of thin-sectioned cells treated with Cp(2)MoCl(2) (300microM) showed distinct morphological alterations of the nuclei, condensation of chromatin, and a high incidence of polynucleated cells. Implications for the mechanism of antitumor action of molybdocene dichloride are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2006.01.034DOI Listing
July 2006

Intracellular mapping of the distribution of metals derived from the antitumor metallocenes.

J Biol Inorg Chem 2005 Aug 23;10(5):443-52. Epub 2005 Sep 23.

School of Chemistry, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

The intracellular distribution of transition metals in V79 Chinese hamster lung cells treated with subtoxic doses of the organometallic anticancer complexes Cp(2)MCl(2), where Cp is eta (5) -cyclopentadienyl and M is Mo, Nb, Ti, or V, has been studied by synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (XRF). While significantly higher concentrations of Mo and Nb were found in treated cells compared with control cells, distinct differences in the cellular distribution of each metal were observed. Analysis of thin sections of cells was consistent with some localization of Mo in the nucleus. Studies with a noncytotoxic thiol derivative of molybdocene dichloride showed an uneven distribution of Mo in the cells. For comparison, the low levels of Ti and V in cells treated with the more toxic titanocene and vanadocene complexes, respectively, resulted in metal concentrations at the detection limit of XRF. The results agree with independent chemical studies that have concluded that the biological chemistry of each of the metallocene dihalides is unique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00775-005-0649-1DOI Listing
August 2005

Organometallic anticancer agents: cellular uptake and cytotoxicity studies on thiol derivatives of the antitumor agent molybdocene dichloride.

J Med Chem 2005 Mar;48(6):2093-9

School of Chemistry and Electron Microscope Unit, Australian Key Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia.

The effect of aqueous solubility, charge, and lability of four thiol derivatives of the antitumor metallocene molybdocene dichloride (Cp(2)MoCl(2)) on the cell uptake and cytotoxicity against V79 Chinese hamster lung cells has been determined. Addition of 4-thiol-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzoic acid, 1-thio-beta-d-glucose, and 1-thio-2,3,4,5-tetraacetyl-beta-d-glucose to aqueous solutions of molybdocene dichloride afforded the corresponding metallocenes in which the deprotonated thiols are coordinated to the metal center. These metallocenes were studied, along with the previously reported glutathione derivative Cp(2)Mo(GS)(2), which has been proposed to be formed from molybdocene dichloride in blood plasma. In contrast to Cp(2)MoCl(2) which rapidly loses the chloride ligands to form a positively charged aquated complex at pH 7, the thiol derivatives are stable to ligand hydrolysis in 50 mM salt at 37 degrees C for 24 h. Cytotoxicity values determined by a modified 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay gave an IC(50) value of 350 microM for molybdocene dichloride with V79 cells, with similar values obtained with human breast MCF-7 (620 microM) and ovarian 2008 (700 microM) cell lines. The water-soluble thiol derivatives were not cytotoxic, while the acetylated sugar derivative was insoluble in water or aqueous dimethyl sulfoxide. Cell uptake experiments in which the molybdenum content in cells treated with each metallocene for 24 h was measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy showed that the fluorinated aromatic derivative was most efficiently transported into cells, followed by molybdocene dichloride, with the lowest uptake observed for Cp(2)Mo(GS)(2) and the glucose derivative. The cell uptake results do not correlate with overall charge of the complexes or the measured IC(50) values. The distinct cytotoxicity and cell uptake profiles of Cp(2)MoCl(2) compared with Cp(2)Mo(GS)(2) show that while rapid coordination of Cp(2)MoCl(2) to glutathione occurs in water at pH 7, significant deactivation of molybdocene dichloride by conversion to Cp(2)Mo(GS)(2) does not occur in cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm049585oDOI Listing
March 2005

Time-dependent uptake, distribution and biotransformation of chromium(VI) in individual and bulk human lung cells: application of synchrotron radiation techniques.

J Biol Inorg Chem 2005 Mar 16;10(2):105-18. Epub 2005 Feb 16.

Centre for Heavy Metals Research, and Centre for Structural Biology and Structural Chemistry, School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Chromium(VI) is a human carcinogen, primarily affecting the respiratory tract probably via active transport into cells, followed by the reduction to Cr(III) with the formation of DNA-damaging intermediates. Distribution of Cr and endogenous elements within A549 human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells, following treatment with Cr(VI) (100 microM, 20 min or 4 h) were studied by synchrotron-radiation-induced X-ray emission (SRIXE) of single freeze-dried cells. After the 20-min treatment, Cr was confined to a small area of the cytoplasm and strongly co-localized with S, Cl, K, and Ca. After the 4-h treatment, Cr was distributed throughout the cell, with higher concentrations in the nucleus and the cytoplasmic membrane. This time-dependence corresponded to approximately 100% or 0% clonogenic survival of the cells following the 20-min or 4-h treatments, respectively, and could potentially be explained by a new cellular protective mechanism. Such processes may also be important in reducing the potential hazards of Cr(III) dietary supplements, for which there is emerging evidence that they exert their anti-diabetic effects via biological oxidation to Cr(VI). The predominance of Cr(III) was confirmed by micro-XANES spectroscopy of intracellular Cr hotspots. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES and EXAFS, using freeze-dried cells after the 0-4-h treatments) was used to gain insight into the chemical structures of Cr(III) complexes formed during the intracellular reduction of Cr(VI). The polynuclear nature of such complexes (probably with a combination of carboxylato and hydroxo bridging groups and O-donor atoms of small peptides or proteins) was established by XAFS data analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00775-004-0617-1DOI Listing
March 2005

Synthesis and characterization of a chromium(V) cis-dioxo bis(1,10-phenanthroline) complex and crystal and molecular structures of its chromium(III) precursor.

Inorg Chem 2004 Nov;43(24):7844-56

Centre for Heavy Metals Research, School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

The first structurally characterized Cr(V) dioxo complex, cis-[CrV(O)2(phen)2](BF4) (2, phen=1,10-phenanthroline) has been synthesized by the oxidation of a related Cr(III) complex, cis-[Cr(III)(phen)2(OH2)2](NO3)3.2.5H2O (1, characterized by X-ray crystallography), with NaOCl in aqueous solutions in the presence of excess NaBF4, and its purity has been confirmed by electrospray mass spectrometry (ESMS), EPR spectroscopy, and analytical techniques. Previously reported methods for the generation of Cr(V)-phen complexes, such as the oxidation of 1 with PbO2 or PhIO, have been shown by ESMS to lead to mixtures of Cr(III), Cr(V), Cr(VI), and in some cases Cr(IV) species, 3. Species 3 was assigned as [CrIV(O)(OH)(phen)2]+, based on ESMS and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements. A distorted octahedral structure for 2 (CrO, 1.63 A; Cr-N, 2.04 and 2.16 A) was established by multiple-scattering (MS) modeling of XAFS spectra (solid, 10 K). The validity of the model was verified by a good agreement between the results of MS XAFS fitting and X-ray crystallography for 1 (distorted octahedron; Cr-O, 1.95 A; Cr-N, 2.06 A). Unlike for the well-studied Cr(V) 2-hydroxycarboxylato complexes, 2 was equally or more stable in aqueous media (hours at pH=1-13 and 25 degrees C) compared with polar aprotic solvents. A stable Cr(III)-Cr(VI) dimer, [Cr(III)(Cr(VI)O4)(phen)2]+ (detected by ESMS), is formed during the decomposition of 2 in nonaqueous media. Comparative studies of the oxidation of 1 by NaOCl or PbO2 have shown that [Cr(V)(O)2(phen)2]+ was the active species responsible for the previously reported oxidative DNA damage, bacterial mutagenicity, and increased incidence of micronuclei in mammalian cells, caused by the oxidation products of 1 with PbO2. Efficient oxidation of 1 to a genotoxic species, [Cr(V)(O)2(phen)2]+, in neutral aqueous media by a biological oxidant, hypochlorite, supports the hypothesis on a significant role of reoxidation of Cr(III) complexes, formed during the intracellular reduction of Cr(VI), in Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenicity. Similar oxidation reactions may contribute to the reported adverse effects of a popular nutritional supplement, Cr(III) picolinate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic049008qDOI Listing
November 2004

Copper and zinc complexes as antiinflammatory drugs.

Met Ions Biol Syst 2004 ;41:253-77

Centre for Heavy Metals Research, School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia.

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July 2004

The cellular distribution and oxidation state of platinum(II) and platinum(IV) antitumour complexes in cancer cells.

J Biol Inorg Chem 2003 Sep 12;8(7):726-32. Epub 2003 Jul 12.

Centre for Heavy Metals Research, School of Chemistry F11, The University of Sydney, 2006, N.S.W., Australia.

The cellular distribution of platinum in A2780 ovarian cancer cells treated with cisplatin and platinum(IV) complexes with a range of reduction potentials has been examined using elemental analysis (synchrotron radiation-induced X-ray emission). The cellular distribution of platinum(IV) drugs after 24 h is similar to that of cisplatin, consistent with the majority of administered platinum(IV) drugs being reduced. Micro-X-ray absorption near-edge spectra of cells treated with cisplatin and platinum(IV) complexes confirmed the reduction of platinum(IV) to platinum(II). In cells treated, the most difficult to reduce complex, cis, trans, cis-[PtCl(2)(OH)(2)(NH(3))(2)], platinum(IV) was detected in the cells along with platinum(II). The observations are in accordance with the relative ease of reduction of the platinum(IV) complexes used and support the requirement of reduction for activation of platinum(IV) complexes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00775-003-0471-6DOI Listing
September 2003

Gastrointestinal toxicity, antiinflammatory activity, and superoxide dismutase activity of copper and zinc complexes of the antiinflammatory drug indomethacin.

Chem Res Toxicol 2003 Jan;16(1):28-37

Centre for Heavy Metals Research, School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia.

Gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity is one of the major problems associated with antiinflammatory drugs. The complexation of the powerful antiinflammatory drug (IndoH) by metal ions, as a means of reducing GI toxicity, has been studied. The in vitro superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, in vivo antiinflammatory activity, and gastrointestinal ulcerogenic properties of IndoH, [Cu2(Indo)4(DMF)2], and [Zn2(Indo)4(DMA)2] are reported. No SOD activity was observed for IndoH or [Zn2(Indo)4(DMA)2], but [Cu2(Indo)4(DMF)2] inhibited the reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) at an IC50 value of 0.23 microM. All three compounds exhibited antiinflammatory activity in male Sprague-Dawley rats at an equivalent Indo dose of 10 mg/kg following oral administration of the drugs in 2% CMC solution. The severity of the toxicity (macroscopic ulcerations) in the stomach following oral dosing with [Zn2(Indo)4(DMF)2] was not significantly lower than that induced by IndoH (P = 0.78). Gastric ulcerations induced by [Cu2(Indo)4(DMF)2] were significantly lower than those induced by IndoH or [Zn2(Indo)4(DMA)2] (P = 0.0012 and P = 0.0175, respectively) but significantly greater than the control (P = 0.0013). The intestinal ulcerations induced by [Cu2(Indo)4(DMF)2] or [Zn2(Indo)4(DMA)2] were approximately 15 times lower than those of IndoH. A further indicator of gastrointestinal toxicity, caecal haemoglobin, increased in the following order: control < [Cu2(Indo)4(DMF)2] < [Zn2(Indo)4(DMA)2] < IndoH.[Cu2(Indo)4(DMF)2] exhibited the most promising results of the Indo complexes assayed, in that it exhibited SOD activity and the lowest gastrointestinal damage while also exhibiting antiinflammatory activity that was comparable to that for IndoH. Low-temperature EPR analyses also showed that the formulation used for [Cu2(Indo)4(DMF)2] administration was crucial to the integrity of the complex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/tx020078oDOI Listing
January 2003

Hard X-ray microprobe studies of chromium(VI)-treated V79 Chinese hamster lung cells: intracellular mapping of the biotransformation products of a chromium carcinogen.

J Biol Inorg Chem 2002 Jun 26;7(6):640-5. Epub 2002 Feb 26.

Centre for Heavy Metals Research, School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

The uptake of carcinogenic and mutagenic Cr compounds and the intracellular distribution of their biotransformation products in V79 Chinese hamster lung cells were studied by synchrotron-radiation-induced X-ray emission (SRIXE). SRIXE analysis was performed on whole cells that had been treated with either Cr(III) or Cr(V) 1,10-phenanthroline complexes, or Cr(VI). The high spatial resolution (0.3 microm) and elemental sensitivity (~10(-15) g Cr/cell) of the technique provided detailed maps of Cr and other cellular elements in thin sections prepared from Cr(VI)-treated cells. The Cr carcinogen concentrated in P-rich regions corresponding to the nucleus, as well as other areas of the cell that are likely to correspond to organelles. This is the first study that has enabled the determination of the localization of the biotransformation products of Cr(VI) carcinogens in a target lung cell.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00775-002-0343-5DOI Listing
June 2002
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