Publications by authors named "Carolyn S P Lam"

324 Publications

Cardiovascular outcomes with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors vs other glucose-lowering drugs in 13 countries across three continents: analysis of CVD-REAL data.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2021 Jul 31;20(1):159. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolism, BioPharmaceuticals Medical, AstraZeneca, Cambridge, CB2 8PA, UK.

Background: Randomized, controlled cardiovascular outcome trials may not be fully representative of the management of patients with type 2 diabetes across different geographic regions. We conducted analyses of data from the multinational CVD-REAL consortium to determine the association between initiation of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) and cardiovascular outcomes, including subgroup analyses based on patient characteristics.

Methods: De-identified health records from 13 countries across three continents were used to identify patients newly-initiated on SGLT-2i or other glucose-lowering drugs (oGLDs). Propensity scores for SGLT-2i initiation were developed in each country, with 1:1 matching for oGLD initiation. In the matched groups hazard ratios (HRs) for hospitalization for heart failure (HHF), all-cause death (ACD), the composite of HHF or ACD, myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke were estimated by country, and pooled using a weighted meta-analysis. Multiple subgroup analyses were conducted across patient demographic and clinical characteristics to examine any heterogeneity in treatment effects.

Results: Following matching, 440,599 new users of SGLT-2i and oGLDs were included in each group. Mean follow-up time was 396 days for SGLT-2i initiation and 406 days for oGLDs initiation. SGLT-2i initiation was associated with a lower risk of HHF (HR: 0.66, 95%CI 0.58-0.75; p < 0.001), ACD (HR: 0.52, 95%CI 0.45-0.60; p < 0.001), the composite of HHF or ACD (HR: 0.60, 95%CI 0.53-0.68; p < 0.001), MI (HR: 0.85, 95%CI 0.78-0.92; p < 0.001), and stroke (HR: 0.78, 95%CI 0.72-0.85; p < 0.001); regardless of patient characteristics, including established cardiovascular disease, or geographic region.

Conclusions: This CVD-REAL study extends the findings from the SGLT-2i clinical trials to the broader setting of an ethnically and geographically diverse population, and across multiple subgroups. Trial registration NCT02993614.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12933-021-01345-zDOI Listing
July 2021

Scientists on the Spot: A fraction of wisdom on heart failure.

Cardiovasc Res 2021 Jul;117(9):e114-e115

Department of Cardiology, National Heart Centre Singapore, Singapore, 169609.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvab230DOI Listing
July 2021

Biomarker Testing Considerations in the Evaluation and Management of Patients with Heart Failure: Perspectives from the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Committee.

J Card Fail 2021 Jul 10. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Hennepin Healthcare/HCMC, Minneapolis, MN 55415; USA and Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cardfail.2021.06.018DOI Listing
July 2021

Methods and rationale of the DISCOVER CKD global observational study.

Clin Kidney J 2021 Jun 11;14(6):1570-1578. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Renal Medicine, University College London, London, UK.

Background: Real-world data for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), specifically pertaining to clinical management, metabolic control, treatment patterns, quality of life (QoL) and dietary patterns, are limited. Understanding these gaps using real-world, routine care data will improve our understanding of the challenges and consequences faced by patients with CKD, and will facilitate the long-term goal of improving their management and prognosis.

Methods: DISCOVER CKD follows an enriched hybrid study design, with both retrospective and prospective patient cohorts, integrating primary and secondary data from patients with CKD from China, Italy, Japan, Sweden, the UK and the USA. Data will be prospectively captured over a 3-year period from >1000 patients with CKD who will be followed up for at least 1 year via electronic case report form entry during routine clinical visits and also via a mobile/tablet-based application, enabling the capture of patient-reported outcomes (PROs). In-depth interviews will be conducted in a subset of ∼100 patients. Separately, secondary data will be retrospectively captured from >2 000 000 patients with CKD, extracted from existing datasets and registries.

Results: The DISCOVER CKD program captures and will report on patient demographics, biomarker and laboratory measurements, medical histories, clinical outcomes, healthcare resource utilization, medications, dietary patterns, physical activity and PROs (including QoL and qualitative interviews).

Conclusions: The DISCOVER CKD program will provide contemporary real-world insight to inform clinical practice and improve our understanding of the epidemiology and clinical and economic burden of CKD, as well as determinants of clinical outcomes and PROs from a range of geographical regions in a real-world CKD setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ckj/sfab046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8264307PMC
June 2021

NT-proBNP for Risk Prediction in Heart Failure: Identification of Optimal Cutoffs Across Body Mass Index Categories.

JACC Heart Fail 2021 Jun 29. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Singapore General Hospital, Singapore.

Objectives: The goal of this study was to assess the predictive power of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and the decision cutoffs in heart failure (HF) across body mass index (BMI) categories.

Background: Concentrations of NT-proBNP predict outcome in HF. Although the influence of BMI to reduce levels of NT-proBNP is known, the impact of obesity on prognostic value remains uncertain.

Methods: Individual data from the BIOS (Biomarkers In Heart Failure Outpatient Study) consortium were analyzed. Patients with stable HF were classified as underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m), normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m), overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m), and mildly (BMI 30-34.9 kg/m), moderately (BMI 35-39.9 kg/m), or severely (BMI ≥40 kg/m) obese. The prognostic role of NT-proBNP was tested for the endpoints of all-cause and cardiac death.

Results: The study population included 12,763 patients (mean age 66 ± 12 y; 25% women; mean left ventricular ejection fraction 33% ± 13%). Most patients were overweight (n = 5,176), followed by normal weight (n = 4,299), mildly obese (n = 2,157), moderately obese (n = 612), severely obese (n = 314), and underweight (n = 205). NT-proBNP inversely correlated with BMI (β = -0.174 for 1 kg/m; P < 0.001). Adding NT-proBNP to clinical models improved risk prediction across BMI categories, with the exception of severely obese patients. The best cutoffs of NT-proBNP for 5-y all-cause death prediction were lower as BMI increased (3,785 ng/L, 2,193 ng/L, 1,554 ng/L, 1,045 ng/L, 755 ng/L, and 879 ng/L, for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and mildly, moderately, and severely obese patients, respectively) and were higher in women than in men.

Conclusions: NT-proBNP maintains its independent prognostic value up to 40 kg/m BMI, and lower optimal risk-prediction cutoffs are observed in overweight and obese patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchf.2021.05.014DOI Listing
June 2021

Integrating High-Sensitivity Troponin T and Sacubitril/Valsartan Treatment in HFpEF: The PARAGON-HF Trial.

JACC Heart Fail 2021 Jun 29. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Cardiovascular Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: The authors examined the relationship among high-sensitivity troponin-T (hs-TnT), outcomes, and treatment with sacubitril/valsartan in patients with heart failure (HF) and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF).

Background: hs-TnT is a marker of myocardial injury in HF.

Methods: The PARAGON-HF trial randomized 4,796 patients with HFpEF to sacubitril/valsartan or valsartan. We compared the risk of the composite outcome of cardiovascular death (CVD) and total HF hospitalization (HHF) according to hs-TnT. We also assessed the effect of allocated treatment on hs-TnT.

Results: hs-TnT was available in 1,141 patients (24%) at run-in (median value: 17 ng/L) and 1,260 (26%) at randomization, with 58.3% having hs-TnT >14 ng/L (upper limit of normal). During a median follow-up of 34 months, there were 393 outcome events (82 CVD, 311 HHF). Adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), log-hs-TnT at randomization was an independent predictor of the composite outcome (HR: 1.38; 95% CI: 1.19-1.59; P < 0.001). Compared with valsartan, sacubitril/valsartan significantly reduced hs-TnT by 9% at week 16 (P < 0.001). Patients whose hs-TnT decreased from randomization to 16 weeks to at or below the median value of 17 ng/L subsequently had a lower risk of CVD/HHF compared with those with persistently elevated hs-TnT (P = 0.046). Patients with higher baseline hs-TnT (>17 ng/L) appeared to have a greater benefit from sacubitril/valsartan treatment when accounting for other potential effect modifiers (P interaction = 0.07).

Conclusions: Higher baseline hs-TnT was associated with increased risk of CVD/HHF, whereas hs-TnT decrease at 16 weeks led to lower subsequent risk of CVD/HHF compared with those who had persistently elevated values. Sacubitril/valsartan significantly reduced hs-TnT compared with valsartan. hs-TnT may be helpful in identifying patients with HFpEF who are more likely to benefit from sacubitril/valsartan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchf.2021.04.009DOI Listing
June 2021

Clinical Outcome Predictions for the VerICiguaT Global Study in Subjects With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction (VICTORIA) Trial.

J Card Fail 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.

Background: The prediction of outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF) may inform prognosis, clinical decisions regarding treatment selection, and new trial planning. The VerICiguaT Global Study in Subjects With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction included high-risk patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction and a recent worsening HF event. The study participants had a high event rate despite the use of contemporary guideline-based therapies. To provide generalizable predictive data for a broad population with a recent worsening HF event, we focused on risk prognostication in the placebo group.

Methods And Results: Data from 2524 participants randomized to placebo with chronic HF (New York Heart Association functional class II-IV) and an ejection fraction of less than 45% were studied and backward variable selection was used to create Cox proportional hazards models for clinical end points, selecting from 66 candidate predictors. Final model results were produced, accounting for missing data, and nonlinearities. Optimism-corrected c-indices were calculated using 200 bootstrap samples. Over a median follow-up of 10.4 months, the primary outcome of HF hospitalization or cardiovascular death occurred in 972 patients (38.5%). Independent predictors of increased risk for the primary end point included HF characteristics (longer HF duration and worse New York Heart Association functional class), medical history (prior myocardial infarction), and laboratory values (higher N-terminal pro-hormone B-type natriuretic peptide, bilirubin, urate; lower chloride and albumin). Optimism-corrected c-indices were 0.68 for the HF hospitalization/cardiovascular death model, 0.68 for HF hospitalization/all-cause death, 0.72 for cardiovascular death, and 0.73 for all-cause death.

Conclusions: Predictive models developed in a large diverse clinical trial with comprehensive clinical and laboratory baseline data-including novel measures-performed well in high-risk patients with HF who were receiving excellent guideline-based clinical care.

Clinical Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier, NCT02861534.Lay Summary: Patients with heart failure may benefit from tools that help clinicians to better understand a patient's risk for future events like hospitalization. Relatively few risk models have been created after the worsening of heart failure in a contemporary cohort. We provide insights on the risk factors for clinical events from a recent, large, global trial of patients with worsening heart failure to help clinicians better understand and communicate prognosis and select treatment options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cardfail.2021.05.016DOI Listing
June 2021

Clinical Outcome Predictions for the VerICiguaT Global Study in Subjects With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction (VICTORIA) Trial: VICTORIA Outcomes Model.

J Card Fail 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC.

Background: Prediction of outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF) may inform prognosis, clinical decisions regarding treatment selection, and new trial planning. The VICTORIA trial included high-risk patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction and a recent worsening HF event. The study participants had an unusually high event rate despite usage of contemporary guideline-based therapies. To provide generalizable predictive data for a broad population with a recent worsening HF event, we focused on risk prognostication in the placebo group.

Methods: Data from 2524 participants randomized to placebo with chronic HF (New York Heart Association class [NYHA] II-IV) and ejection fraction <45% were studied and backward variable selection was used to create Cox proportional hazards models for clinical endpoints, selecting from 66 candidate predictors. Final model results were produced, accounting for missing data, non-linearities, and interactions with treatment. Optimism-corrected c-indices were calculated using 200 bootstrap samples.

Results: During a median follow-up of 10.4 months, the primary outcome of HF hospitalization or cardiovascular death occurred in 972 (38.5%) patients. Independent predictors of increased risk for the primary endpoint included HF characteristics (longer HF duration and worse NYHA class), medical history (prior myocardial infarction), and laboratory values (higher N-terminal pro-hormone B-type natriuretic peptide, bilirubin, urate; lower chloride and albumin). Optimism-corrected c-indices were 0.68 for the HF hospitalization/cardiovascular death model, 0.68 for HF hospitalization/all-cause death, 0.72 for cardiovascular death, and 0.73 for all-cause death.

Conclusions: Predictive models developed in a large diverse clinical trial with comprehensive clinical and laboratory baseline data-including novel measures-performed well in high-risk HF patients who were receiving excellent guideline-based clinical care.

Clinical Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier, NCT02861534.

Lay Summary: Patients with heart failure may benefit from tools that help clinicians better understand patient's risk for future events like hospitalization. Relatively few risk models have been created after worsening of heart failure in a contemporary cohort. We provide insights on risk factors for clinical events from a recent large, global trial of patients with worsening heart failure to help clinicians better understand and communicate prognosis and select treatment options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cardfail.2021.05.016DOI Listing
May 2021

Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes with Efpeglenatide in Type 2 Diabetes.

N Engl J Med 2021 Jun 28. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

From the Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences (H.C.G., C.R., L.H., L.D.), and McMaster University (H.C.G.) - both in Hamilton, ON, Canada; the Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom (N.S.); the Dallas Diabetes Research Center at Medical City, Dallas (J.R.); AdventHealth Translational Research Institute, Orlando, FL (R.P.); Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (R.D.L.); National Heart Centre Singapore and Duke-National University of Singapore, Singapore (C.S.P.L.); Sanofi, Bridgewater, NJ (N.S.K.); the Section of Metabolic Diseases and Diabetes, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy (S.D.P.); and the Division of Cardiology, University of Washington, Seattle (K.B.).

Background: Four glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists that are structurally similar to human GLP-1 have been shown to reduce the risk of adverse cardiovascular events among persons with type 2 diabetes. The effect of an exendin-based GLP-1 receptor agonist, efpeglenatide, on cardiovascular and renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes who are also at high risk for adverse cardiovascular events is uncertain.

Methods: In this randomized, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 344 sites across 28 countries, we evaluated efpeglenatide in participants with type 2 diabetes and either a history of cardiovascular disease or current kidney disease (defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 25.0 to 59.9 ml per minute per 1.73 m of body-surface area) plus at least one other cardiovascular risk factor. Participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive weekly subcutaneous injections of efpeglenatide at a dose of 4 or 6 mg or placebo. Randomization was stratified according to use of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors. The primary outcome was the first major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE; a composite of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or death from cardiovascular or undetermined causes).

Results: A total of 4076 participants were enrolled; 2717 were assigned to receive efpeglenatide and 1359 to receive placebo. During a median follow-up of 1.81 years, an incident MACE occurred in 189 participants (7.0%) assigned to receive efpeglenatide (3.9 events per 100 person-years) and 125 participants (9.2%) assigned to receive placebo (5.3 events per 100 person-years) (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58 to 0.92; P<0.001 for noninferiority; P = 0.007 for superiority). A composite renal outcome event (a decrease in kidney function or macroalbuminuria) occurred in 353 participants (13.0%) assigned to receive efpeglenatide and in 250 participants (18.4%) assigned to receive placebo (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.79; P<0.001). Diarrhea, constipation, nausea, vomiting, or bloating occurred more frequently with efpeglenatide than with placebo.

Conclusions: In this trial involving participants with type 2 diabetes who had either a history of cardiovascular disease or current kidney disease plus at least one other cardiovascular risk factor, the risk of cardiovascular events was lower among those who received weekly subcutaneous injections of efpeglenatide at a dose of 4 or 6 mg than among those who received placebo. (Funded by Sanofi; AMPLITUDE-O ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03496298.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2108269DOI Listing
June 2021

Guideline-Directed Medical Therapy in Females with Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction.

Curr Heart Fail Rep 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

George Institute for Global Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Purpose Of Review: This narrative review synthesizes sex differences in guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) use and response among female patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), discusses female representation in HFrEF clinical trials, and outlines future areas of investigation to reduce sex disparities in HFrEF care globally.

Recent Findings: Observational registries suggest sex-specific disparities persist in GDMT rates, and there may be key sex-specific differences in optimal dosing of GDMT in HFrEF patients. Underrepresentation of female patients in HF clinical trials is a key barrier, and sex disparities in HF clinical trial leadership may influence sex-specific knowledge generation of medical management of HFrEF patients. There are important sex-specific differences in GDMT use and response among female HFrEF patients that warrant further study. Increasing female representation in HFrEF clinical trials, diversifying HF trial leadership, and embedding sex-specific approaches in the lifecycle of research from conception to reporting are essential to decreasing sex disparities in clinical care of all HFrEF patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11897-021-00524-zDOI Listing
July 2021

Vericiguat in patients with atrial fibrillation and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: insights from the VICTORIA trial.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Canadian VIGOUR Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Aims: We evaluated the relation between baseline and new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) and outcomes, and assessed whether vericiguat modified the likelihood of new-onset AF in patients with worsening heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction in VICTORIA.

Methods And Results: Of 5050 patients randomized, 5010 with recorded AF status at baseline were analysed. Patients were classified into three groups: no known AF (n = 2661, 53%), history of AF alone (n = 992, 20%), and AF on randomization electrocardiogram (n = 1357, 27%). Compared with those with no AF, those with history of AF alone had a higher risk of cardiovascular death [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.47] without excess myocardial infarction or stroke; neither type of AF was associated with a higher risk of the primary composite outcome (time to cardiovascular death or first HF hospitalization), HF hospitalizations, or all cause-death. The beneficial effect of vericiguat on the primary composite outcome and its components was evident irrespective of AF status at baseline. Over a median follow-up of 10.8 months, new-onset AF occurred in 6.1% of those with no AF and 18.3% with history of AF alone (P < 0.0001). These events were not influenced by vericiguat treatment (adjusted HR 0.93, 95% CI 0.75-1.16; P = 0.51), but were associated with an increase in the hazard of both primary and secondary outcomes.

Conclusions: Atrial fibrillation was present in nearly half of this high-risk population with worsening HF. A history of AF alone at baseline portends an increased risk of cardiovascular death. Neither type of AF affected the beneficial effect of vericiguat. Development of AF post-randomization was associated with an increase in both cardiovascular death and HF hospitalization which was not influenced by vericiguat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2285DOI Listing
June 2021

Regional and ethnic influences on the response to empagliflozin in patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction: the EMPEROR-Reduced trial.

Eur Heart J 2021 Jun 29. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Baylor University Medical Center, 3500 Gaston Ave, Dallas, TX 75246, USA.

Aims: The aim of this article is to explore the influence of region and race/ethnicity on the effects of empagliflozin in the Empagliflozin Outcome Trial in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure and a Reduced Ejection Fraction (EMPEROR-Reduced) trial.

Methods And Results: Of 3730 patients, 1353 (36.3%) were enrolled in Europe, 1286 (34.5%) in Latin America, 425 (11.4%) in North America, and 493 (13.2%) in Asia; 2629 (70.5%) were White, 257 (6.9%) Black, and 672 (18.0%) Asian. Placebo event rates (per 100 patient-years) for cardiovascular death or heart failure (HF) hospitalization varied by region (Asia 27.7, North America 26.4, Latin America 21.4, and Europe 17.5) and race/ethnicity (Black 34.4, Asian 24.3, and White 18.7); driven by differences in HF hospitalization. The ratio of total HF hospitalization to cardiovascular death varied from 5.4 in Asia and 4.8 in North America to 2.1 in Europe; and from 4.8 in Black and 4.2 in Asian to 2.2 in White patients. Groups with the highest ratio had the greatest reduction in the primary outcome with empagliflozin. Inclusion of outpatient worsening HF episodes added more events in Europe vs. other regions; enhanced the placebo event rates in Europe vs. other regions; and increased the relative risk reduction with empagliflozin in Europe from 6% to 26%.

Conclusions: There were notable differences in the placebo event rates for major HF events across diverse regions and race/ethnic groups. The benefit of empagliflozin was most pronounced in groups with the highest ratio of HF hospitalization to cardiovascular death. Regional differences were attenuated when the definition of HF events was expanded to include outpatient worsening HF events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab360DOI Listing
June 2021

Classification of Heart Failure According to Ejection Fraction: JACC Review Topic of the Week.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Jun;77(25):3217-3225

Cardiovascular Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

The recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration expanded indication for sacubitril/valsartan introduces a new potential taxonomy for heart failure, with no reference to "preserved" ejection fraction but referring to "below normal" ejection fraction as those most likely to benefit. This review summarizes the evolution of nomenclature in heart failure and examines evidence showing that patients with ejection fraction in the "mid range" may benefit from neurohormonal blockade similar to those with more severely reduced (<40%) ejection fraction. Furthermore, prominent sex differences have been observed wherein the benefit of neurohormonal blockade appears to extend to a higher ejection fraction range in women compared to men. Based on emerging evidence, revised nomenclature is proposed defining heart failure with "reduced" (<40%), "mildly reduced," and "normal" (≥55% in men, ≥60% in women) ejection fraction. Such nomenclature signals consideration of potentially beneficial therapies in the largest group of patients with reduced or mildly reduced ejection fraction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.04.070DOI Listing
June 2021

Statin associated lower cancer risk and related mortality in patients with heart failure.

Eur Heart J 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Cardiology Division, Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong Shen Zhen Hospital, No. 1 Haiyuan 1st Rd, Futian district, Shenzhen city, Guangdong province, 518009, China.

Aims: Patients with heart failure (HF) have an increased risk of incident cancer. Data relating to the association of statin use with cancer risk and cancer-related mortality among patients with HF are sparse.

Methods And Results: Using a previously validated territory-wide clinical information registry, statin use was ascertained among all eligible patients with HF (n = 87 102) from 2003 to 2015. Inverse probability of treatment weighting was used to balance baseline covariates between statin nonusers (n = 50 926) with statin users (n = 36 176). Competing risk regression with Cox proportional-hazard models was performed to estimate the risk of cancer and cancer-related mortality associated with statin use. Of all eligible subjects, the mean age was 76.5 ± 12.8 years, and 47.8% was male. Over a median follow-up of 4.1 years (interquartile range: 1.6-6.8), 11 052 (12.7%) were diagnosed with cancer. Statin use (vs. none) was associated with a 16% lower risk of cancer incidence [multivariable adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR) = 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.80-0.89]. This inverse association with risk of cancer was duration dependent; as compared with short-term statin use (3 months to <2 years), the adjusted SHR was 0.99 (95% CI, 0.87-1.13) for 2 to <4 years of use, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.70-0.97) for 4 to <6 years of use, and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.65-0.93) for ≥6 years of use. Ten-year cancer-related mortality was 3.8% among statin users and 5.2% among nonusers (absolute risk difference, -1.4 percentage points [95% CI, -1.6% to -1.2%]; adjusted SHR = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.67-0.81).

Conclusion: Our study suggests that statin use is associated with a significantly lower risk of incident cancer and cancer-related mortality in HF, an association that appears to be duration dependent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab325DOI Listing
June 2021

New-onset atrial fibrillation in patients with worsening heart failure and coronary artery disease: an analysis from the COMMANDER-HF trial.

Clin Res Cardiol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Centre D'Investigation Clinique 1433 Module Plurithématique, CHRU Nancy - Hopitaux de Brabois, CHRU de Nancy, FCRIN INI-CRCT, Institut Lorrain du Coeur et des Vaisseaux Louis Mathieu, Université de Lorraine, Nancy, France.

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) in the presence of heart failure (HF) is associated with poor outcomes including a high-risk of stroke and other thromboembolic events. Identifying patients without AF who are at high-risk of developing this arrhythmia has important clinical implications.

Aims: To develop a risk score to identify HF patients at high risk of developing AF.

Methods: The COMMANDER-HF trial enrolled 5022 patients with HF and a LVEF ≤ 40%, history of coronary artery disease, and absence of AF at baseline (confirmed with an electrocardiogram). Patients were randomized to either rivaroxaban (2.5 mg bid) or placebo. New-onset AF was confirmed by the investigator at study visits.

Results: 241 (4.8%) patients developed AF during the follow-up (median 21 months). Older age (≥ 65 years), LVEF < 35%, history of PCI or CABG, White race, SBP < 110 mmHg, and higher BMI (≥ 25 kg/m) were independently associated with risk of new-onset AF, whereas the use of DAPT was associated with a lower risk of new-onset AF. We then built a risk score from these variables (with good accuracy C-index = 0.71) and calibration across observed and predicted tertiles of risk. New-onset AF events rates increased steeply by increasing tertiles of the risk-score. Compared to tertile 1, the risk of new-onset AF was 2.5-fold higher in tertile 2, and 6.3-fold higher in tertile 3. Rivaroxaban had no effect in reducing new-onset AF. In time-updated models, new-onset AF was associated with a higher risk of subsequent all-cause death: HR (95%CI) 1.38 (1.11-1.73).

Conclusions: A well-calibrated risk-score identified patients at risk of new-onset AF in the COMMANDER-HF trial. Patients who developed AF had a higher risk of subsequent death. Risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation in patients with HFrEF and coronary artery disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00392-021-01891-2DOI Listing
June 2021

Ending Gender Inequality in Cardiovascular Clinical Trial Leadership: JACC Review Topic of the Week.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Jun;77(23):2960-2972

Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Winters Center for Heart Failure Research, Cardiovascular Institute, Cardiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Women are under-represented as leaders of cardiovascular randomized controlled trials, representing 1 in 10 lead authors of cardiovascular trials published in high-impact journals. Although the proportion of cardiovascular specialists who are women has increased in recent years, the proportion of cardiovascular clinical trialists who are women has not. This gap, underpinned by systemic sexism, has not been adequately addressed. The benefits of diverse randomized controlled trial leadership extend to patients and professionals. In this position statement, we present strategies adopted by some organizations to end gender inequality in research leadership. We offer an actionable roadmap for early-career researchers, scientists, academic institutions, professional societies, trial sponsors, and journals to follow, with the goal of harnessing the strength of women and under-represented groups as research leaders and facilitating a just culture in the cardiovascular clinical trial enterprise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.04.038DOI Listing
June 2021

Associations of obesity and malnutrition with cardiac remodeling and cardiovascular outcomes in Asian adults: A cohort study.

PLoS Med 2021 Jun 1;18(6):e1003661. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

National Heart Centre Singapore, Singapore.

Background: Obesity, a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease and heart failure (HF), is associated with adverse cardiac remodeling in the general population. Little is known about how nutritional status modifies the relationship between obesity and outcomes. We aimed to investigate the association of obesity and nutritional status with clinical characteristics, echocardiographic changes, and clinical outcomes in the general community.

Methods And Findings: We examined 5,300 consecutive asymptomatic Asian participants who were prospectively recruited in a cardiovascular health screening program (mean age 49.6 ± 11.4 years, 64.8% male) between June 2009 to December 2012. Clinical and echocardiographic characteristics were described in participants, stratified by combined subgroups of obesity and nutritional status. Obesity was indexed by body mass index (BMI) (low, ≤25 kg/m2 [lean]; high, >25 kg/m2 [obese]) (WHO-recommended Asian cutoffs). Nutritional status was defined primarily by serum albumin (SA) concentration (low, <45 g/L [malnourished]; high, ≥45 g/L [well-nourished]), and secondarily by the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) and Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) criteria. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine a 1-year composite outcome of hospitalization for HF or all-cause mortality while adjusting for age, sex, and other clinical confounders. Our community-based cohort consisted of 2,096 (39.0%) lean-well-nourished (low BMI, high SA), 1,369 (25.8%) obese-well-nourished (high BMI, high SA), 1,154 (21.8%) lean-malnourished (low BMI, low SA), and 681 (12.8%) obese-malnourished (high BMI, low SA) individuals. Obese-malnourished participants were on average older (54.5 ± 11.4 years) and more often women (41%), with a higher mean waist circumference (91.7 ± 8.8 cm), the highest percentage of body fat (32%), and the highest prevalence of hypertension (32%), diabetes (12%), and history of cardiovascular disease (11%), compared to all other subgroups (all p < 0.001). N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were substantially increased in the malnourished (versus well-nourished) groups, to a similar extent in lean (70.7 ± 177.3 versus 36.8 ± 40.4 pg/mL) and obese (73.1 ± 216.8 versus 33.2 ± 40.8 pg/mL) (p < 0.001 in both) participants. The obese-malnourished (high BMI, low SA) group also had greater left ventricular remodeling (left ventricular mass index, 44.2 ± 1.52 versus 33.8 ± 8.28 gm/m2; relative wall thickness 0.39 ± 0.05 versus 0.38 ± 0.06) and worse diastolic function (TDI-e' 7.97 ± 2.16 versus 9.87 ± 2.47 cm/s; E/e' 9.19 ± 3.01 versus 7.36 ± 2.31; left atrial volume index 19.5 ± 7.66 versus 14.9 ± 5.49 mL/m2) compared to the lean-well-nourished (low BMI, high SA) group, as well as all other subgroups (p < 0.001 for all). Over a median 3.6 years (interquartile range 2.5 to 4.8 years) of follow-up, the obese-malnourished group had the highest multivariable-adjusted risk of the composite outcome (hazard ratio [HR] 2.49, 95% CI 1.43 to 4.34, p = 0.001), followed by the lean-malnourished (HR 1.78, 95% CI 1.04 to 3.04, p = 0.034) and obese-well-nourished (HR 1.41, 95% CI 0.77 to 2.58, p = 0.27) groups (with lean-well-nourished group as reference). Results were similar when indexed by other anthropometric indices (waist circumference and body fat) and other measures of nutritional status (PNI and GLIM criteria). Potential selection bias and residual confounding were the main limitations of the study.

Conclusions: In our cohort study among asymptomatic community-based adults in Taiwan, we found that obese individuals with poor nutritional status have the highest comorbidity burden, the most adverse cardiac remodeling, and the least favorable composite outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003661DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205172PMC
June 2021

Dapagliflozin in heart failure with preserved and mildly reduced ejection fraction: rationale and design of the DELIVER trial.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 Jul 9;23(7):1217-1225. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Aims: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, originally developed as glucose-lowering agents, have been shown to reduce heart failure hospitalizations in patients with type 2 diabetes without established heart failure, and in patients with heart failure with and without diabetes. Their role in patients with heart failure with preserved and mildly reduced ejection fraction remains unknown.

Methods: Dapagliflozin Evaluation to Improve the LIVEs of Patients With PReserved Ejection Fraction Heart Failure (DELIVER) is an international, multicentre, parallel group, event-driven, randomized, double-blind trial in patients with chronic heart failure and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) >40%, comparing the effect of dapagliflozin 10 mg once daily, vs. placebo, in addition to standard of care. Patients with or without diabetes, with signs and symptoms of heart failure, a LVEF >40%, elevation in natriuretic peptides and evidence of structural heart disease are eligible. The primary endpoint is time-to-first cardiovascular death or worsening heart failure event (heart failure hospitalization or urgent heart failure visit), and will be assessed in dual primary analyses - the full population and in those with LVEF <60%. The study is event-driven and will target 1117 primary events. A total of 6263 patients have been randomized.

Conclusions: DELIVER will determine the efficacy and safety of the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin, added to conventional therapy, in patients with heart failure and preserved and mildly reduced ejection fraction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2249DOI Listing
July 2021

Dosing of losartan in men versus women with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: the HEAAL trial.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Université de Lorraine, INSERM, Centre d'Investigations Cliniques Plurithématique 1433, UMR 1116, CHRU de Nancy, F-CRIN INI-CRCT Cardiovascular and Renal Clinical Trialists, Nancy, France.

Aims: In heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), guidelines recommend up-titration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptors blockers (ARBs) to the maximum tolerated dose. However, some studies suggest that women might need lower doses of ACEi/ARBs than men to achieve similar treatment benefit.

Methods And Results: The HEAAL trial compared low vs. high dose of losartan. We reassessed the efficacy and safety of high- vs. low-dose in men vs. women using Cox models and machine learning algorithms. The mean age was 66 years and 30% of patients were women. Men appeared to have benefited more from high-dose than from low-dose losartan, whereas women appeared to have responded similarly to low and high doses [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) comparing high- vs. low-dose losartan for the composite outcome of all-cause death or all-cause hospitalization: 0.89 (0.81-0.98) in men and 1.10 (0.95-1.28) in women; interaction P = 0.018]. Female sex clustered along with older age, ischaemic heart failure, New York Heart Association class III/IV, and estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min. Patients with these features had a poorer response to high-dose losartan. Subgroup analyses supported no benefit from high-dose losartan in patients with poorer kidney function and severe heart failure symptoms.

Conclusions: Compared with men, women might need lower doses of losartan to achieve similar treatment benefit. However, beyond sex, other factors (e.g. kidney function, age, and symptoms) may influence the response to high-dose losartan, suggesting that sex-based subgroup findings may be biased by other confounders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2255DOI Listing
May 2021

The World Heart Federation Global Study on COVID-19 and Cardiovascular Disease.

Glob Heart 2021 04 19;16(1):22. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Centre for Control of Chronic Conditions, Public Health Foundation India, World Heart Federation, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, UK.

Background: The emergence of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has presented an unprecedented global challenge for the healthcare community. The ability of SARS-CoV-2 to get transmitted during the asymptomatic phase, and its high infectivity have led to the rapid transmission of COVID-19 beyond geographic regions facilitated by international travel, leading to a pandemic. To guide effective control and interventions, primary data is required urgently, globally, including from low- and middle-income countries where documentation of cardiovascular manifestations and risk factors in people hospitalized with COVID-19 is limited.

Objectives: This study aims to describe the cardiovascular manifestations and cardiovascular risk factors in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.

Methods: We propose to conduct an observational cohort study involving 5000 patients recruited from hospitals in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Eligible adult COVID-19 patients will be recruited from the participating hospitals and followed-up until 30 days post admission. The outcomes will be reported at discharge and includes the need of ICU admission, need of ventilator, death (with cause), major adverse cardiovascular events, neurological outcomes, acute renal failure, and pulmonary outcomes.

Conclusion: Given the enormous burden posed by COVID-19 and the associated severe prognostic implication of CVD involvement, this study will provide useful insights on the risk factors for severe disease, clinical presentation, and outcomes of various cardiovascular manifestations in COVID-19 patients particularly from low and middle income countries from where the data remain scant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/gh.950DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8064295PMC
April 2021

Finerenone Reduces New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease and Type 2 Diabetes.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Jul 17;78(2):142-152. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Cardiology (CVK), and Berlin Institute of Health Center for Regenerative Therapies, German Centre for Cardiovascular Research Partner Site Berlin, Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are at risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter (AFF) due to cardiac remodeling and kidney complications. Finerenone, a novel, selective, nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, inhibited cardiac remodeling in preclinical models.

Objectives: This work aims to examine the effect of finerenone on new-onset AFF and cardiorenal effects by history of AFF in the Finerenone in Reducing Kidney Failure and Disease Progression in Diabetic Kidney Disease (FIDELIO-DKD) study.

Methods: Patients with CKD and T2D were randomized (1:1) to finerenone or placebo. Eligible patients had a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 to ≤5,000 mg/g, an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥25 to <75 ml/min/1.73 m and received optimized doses of renin-angiotensin system blockade. Effect on new-onset AFF was evaluated as a pre-specified outcome adjudicated by an independent cardiologist committee. The primary composite outcome (time to first onset of kidney failure, a sustained decrease of ≥40% in eGFR from baseline, or death from renal causes) and key secondary outcome (time to first onset of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or hospitalization for heart failure) were analyzed by history of AFF.

Results: Of 5,674 patients, 461 (8.1%) had a history of AFF. New-onset AFF occurred in 82 (3.2%) patients on finerenone and 117 (4.5%) patients on placebo (hazard ratio: 0.71; 95% confidence interval: 0.53-0.94; p = 0.016). The effect of finerenone on primary and key secondary kidney and cardiovascular outcomes was not significantly impacted by baseline AFF (interaction p value: 0.16 and 0.85, respectively).

Conclusions: In patients with CKD and T2D, finerenone reduced the risk of new-onset AFF. The risk of kidney or cardiovascular events was reduced irrespective of history of AFF at baseline. (EudraCT 2015-000990-11 [A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter, event-driven Phase III study to investigate the efficacy and safety of finerenone, in addition to standard of care, on the progression of kidney disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and the clinical diagnosis of diabetic kidney disease]; Efficacy and Safety of Finerenone in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetic Kidney Disease [FIDELIO-DKD]; NCT02540993).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.04.079DOI Listing
July 2021

The Lancet women and cardiovascular disease Commission: reducing the global burden by 2030.

Lancet 2021 Jun 16;397(10292):2385-2438. Epub 2021 May 16.

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women. Decades of grassroots campaigns have helped to raise awareness about the impact of cardiovascular disease in women, and positive changes affecting women and their health have gained momentum. Despite these efforts, there has been stagnation in the overall reduction of cardiovascular disease burden for women in the past decade. Cardiovascular disease in women remains understudied, under-recognised, underdiagnosed, and undertreated. This Commission summarises existing evidence and identifies knowledge gaps in research, prevention, treatment, and access to care for women. Recommendations from an international team of experts and leaders in the field have been generated with a clear focus to reduce the global burden of cardiovascular disease in women by 2030. This Commission represents the first effort of its kind to connect stakeholders, to ignite global awareness of sex-related and gender-related disparities in cardiovascular disease, and to provide a springboard for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00684-XDOI Listing
June 2021

Renal function and the effects of vericiguat in patients with worsening heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: insights from the VICTORIA (Vericiguat Global Study in Subjects with HFrEF) trial.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

Canadian VIGOUR Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

Aims: Vericiguat reduced the primary composite outcome of cardiovascular death or heart failure (HF) hospitalization in patients with worsening HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and a lower limit of baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 15 mL/min/1.73 m . We evaluated the relationship between the efficacy of vericiguat and baseline and subsequent changes in renal function.

Methods And Results: In VICTORIA, core laboratory serum creatinine was measured at baseline (n = 4956) and weeks 16, 32, and 48. Worsening renal function (WRF), defined as an increase ≥0.3 mg/dL in creatinine from baseline to week 16, was assessed via a Cox model with respect to subsequent primary events. Mean age was 69 years, 24% were female, and mean baseline eGFR was 61 mL/min/1.73 m . During 48 weeks of treatment, the trajectories in eGFR and creatinine with vericiguat were similar to placebo (P = 0.50 and 0.18). The beneficial effects of vericiguat on the primary outcome were not influenced by baseline eGFR (interaction P = 0.48). WRF occurred in 15% of patients and was associated with worse outcomes (adjusted hazard ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.11-1.47; P < 0.001), but the beneficial effects of vericiguat on the primary outcome were similar in patients with or without WRF (interaction P = 0.76).

Conclusion: Renal function trajectories were similar between vericiguat- and placebo-treated patients and the beneficial effects of vericiguat on the primary outcome were consistent across the full range of eGFR and irrespective of WRF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2221DOI Listing
May 2021

A Call to Action for New Global Approaches to Cardiovascular Disease Drug Solutions.

Circulation 2021 Jul 20;144(2):159-169. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Universite´ de Lorraine, INSERM CIC 1493, INI CRCT, CHRU, Nancy, France (F.Z.).

While we continue to wrestle with the immense challenge of implementing equitable access to established evidence-based treatments, substantial gaps remain in our pharmacotherapy armament for common forms of cardiovascular disease including coronary and peripheral arterial disease, heart failure, hypertension, and arrhythmia. We need to continue to invest in the development of new approaches for the discovery, rigorous assessment, and implementation of new therapies. Currently, the time and cost to progress from lead compound/product identification to the clinic, and the success rate in getting there reduces the incentive for industry to invest, despite the enormous burden of disease and potential size of market. There are tremendous opportunities with improved phenotyping of patients currently batched together in syndromic "buckets." Use of advanced imaging and molecular markers may allow stratification of patients in a manner more aligned to biological mechanisms that can, in turn, be targeted by specific approaches developed using high-throughput molecular technologies. Unbiased "omic" approaches enhance the possibility of discovering completely new mechanisms in such groups. Furthermore, advances in drug discovery platforms, and models to study efficacy and toxicity more relevant to the human disease, are valuable. Re-imagining the relationships among discovery, translation, evaluation, and implementation will help reverse the trend away from investment in the cardiovascular space, establishing innovative platforms and approaches across the full spectrum of therapeutic development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000981DOI Listing
July 2021

Global Differences in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction: The PARAGON-HF Trial.

Circ Heart Fail 2021 Apr 19;14(4):e007901. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

National Heart Centre Singapore (J.T., C.S.P.L.).

Background: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a global public health problem with important regional differences. We investigated these differences in the PARAGON-HF trial (Prospective Comparison of Angiotensin Receptor Neprilysin Inhibitor With Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Global Outcomes in HFpEF), the largest and most inclusive global HFpEF trial.

Methods: We studied differences in clinical characteristics, outcomes, and treatment effects of sacubitril/valsartan in 4796 patients with HFpEF from the PARAGON-HF trial, grouped according to geographic region.

Results: Regional differences in patient characteristics and comorbidities were observed: patients from Western Europe were oldest (mean 75±7 years) with the highest prevalence of atrial fibrillation/flutter (36%); Central/Eastern European patients were youngest (mean 71±8 years) with the highest prevalence of coronary artery disease (50%); North American patients had the highest prevalence of obesity (65%) and diabetes (49%); Latin American patients were younger (73±9 years) and had a high prevalence of obesity (53%); and Asia-Pacific patients had a high prevalence of diabetes (44%), despite a low prevalence of obesity (26%). Rates of the primary composite end point of total hospitalizations for HF and death from cardiovascular causes were lower in patients from Central Europe (9 per 100 patient-years) and highest in patients from North America (28 per 100 patient-years), which was primarily driven by a greater number of total hospitalizations for HF. The effect of treatment with sacubitril-valsartan was not modified by region (interaction >0.05).

Conclusions: Among patients with HFpEF recruited worldwide in PARAGON-HF, there were important regional differences in clinical characteristics and outcomes, which may have implications for the design of future clinical trials. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01920711.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.120.007901DOI Listing
April 2021

A call to action for new global approaches to cardiovascular disease drug solutions.

Eur Heart J 2021 04;42(15):1464-1475

Université de Lorraine, INSERM CIC 1493, INI CRCT, CHRU Nancy, France.

Whilst we continue to wrestle with the immense challenge of implementing equitable access to established evidence-based treatments, substantial gaps remain in our pharmacotherapy armament for common forms of cardiovascular disease including coronary and peripheral arterial disease, heart failure, hypertension, and arrhythmia. We need to continue to invest in the development of new approaches for the discovery, rigorous assessment, and implementation of new therapies. Currently, the time and cost to progress from lead compound/product identification to the clinic, and the success rate in getting there reduces the incentive for industry to invest, despite the enormous burden of disease and potential size of market. There are tremendous opportunities with improved phenotyping of patients currently batched together in syndromic 'buckets'. Use of advanced imaging and molecular markers may allow stratification of patients in a manner more aligned to biological mechanisms that can, in turn, be targeted by specific approaches developed using high-throughput molecular technologies. Unbiased 'omic' approaches enhance the possibility of discovering completely new mechanisms in such groups. Furthermore, advances in drug discovery platforms, and models to study efficacy and toxicity more relevant to the human disease, are valuable. Re-imagining the relationships among discovery, translation, evaluation, and implementation will help reverse the trend away from investment in the cardiovascular space, establishing innovative platforms and approaches across the full spectrum of therapeutic development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab068DOI Listing
April 2021

Global Differences in Burden and Treatment of Ischemic Heart Disease in Acute Heart Failure: REPORT-HF.

JACC Heart Fail 2021 May 7;9(5):349-359. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

University of Bergen, Stavanger University Hospital, Stavanger, Norway. Electronic address:

Objectives: The primary aim of the current study was to investigate global differences in prevalence, association with outcome, and treatment of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) in the REPORT-HF (International Registry to Assess Medical Practice With Longitudinal Observation for Treatment of Heart Failure) registry.

Background: Data on IHD in patients with AHF are primarily from Western Europe and North America. Little is known about global differences in treatment and prognosis of patients with IHD and AHF.

Methods: A total of 18,539 patients with AHF were prospectively enrolled from 44 countries and 365 centers in the REPORT-HF registry. Patients with a history of coronary artery disease, an ischemic event causing admission for AHF, or coronary revascularization were classified as IHD. Clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of patients with and without IHD were explored.

Results: Compared with 8,766 (47%) patients without IHD, 9,773 (53%) patients with IHD were older, more likely to have a left ventricular ejection fraction <40% (heart failure with reduced ejection fraction [HFrEF]), and reported more comorbidities. IHD was more common in lower income compared with high-income countries (61% vs. 48%). Patients with IHD from countries with low health care expenditure per capita or without health insurance less likely underwent coronary revascularization or used anticoagulants at discharge. IHD was independently associated with worse cardiovascular death (hazard ratio: 1.21; 95% confidence interval: 1.09 to 1.35). The association between IHD and cardiovascular death was stronger in HFrEF compared with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (p <0.001).

Conclusions: In this large global contemporary cohort of patients with AHF, IHD was more common in low-income countries and conveyed worse 1-year mortality, especially in HFrEF. Patients in regions with the greatest burden of IHD were less likely to receive coronary revascularization and treatment for IHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchf.2020.12.015DOI Listing
May 2021

Remote monitoring and digital health tools in CVD management.

Nat Rev Cardiol 2021 07;18(7):457-458

National Heart Centre Singapore & Duke-National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41569-021-00548-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8023506PMC
July 2021

Age dependent associations of risk factors with heart failure: pooled population based cohort study.

BMJ 2021 03 23;372:n461. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Cardiovascular Research Center, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA

Objective: To assess age differences in risk factors for incident heart failure in the general population.

Design: Pooled population based cohort study.

Setting: Framingham Heart Study, Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease Study, and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

Participants: 24 675 participants without a history of heart failure stratified by age into young (<55 years; n=11 599), middle aged (55-64 years; n=5587), old (65-74 years; n=5190), and elderly (≥75 years; n=2299) individuals.

Main Outcome Measure: Incident heart failure.

Results: Over a median follow-up of 12.7 years, 138/11 599 (1%), 293/5587 (5%), 538/5190 (10%), and 412/2299 (18%) of young, middle aged, old, and elderly participants, respectively, developed heart failure. In young participants, 32% (n=44) of heart failure cases were classified as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction compared with 43% (n=179) in elderly participants. Risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, current smoking history, and previous myocardial infarction conferred greater relative risk in younger compared with older participants (P for interaction <0.05 for all). For example, hypertension was associated with a threefold increase in risk of future heart failure in young participants (hazard ratio 3.02, 95% confidence interval 2.10 to 4.34; P<0.001) compared with a 1.4-fold risk in elderly participants (1.43, 1.13 to 1.81; P=0.003). The absolute risk for developing heart failure was lower in younger than in older participants with and without risk factors. Importantly, known risk factors explained a greater proportion of overall population attributable risk for heart failure in young participants (75% 53% in elderly participants), with better model performance (C index 0.79 0.64). Similarly, the population attributable risks of obesity (21% 13%), hypertension (35% 23%), diabetes (14% 7%), and current smoking (32% 1%) were higher in young compared with elderly participants.

Conclusions: Despite a lower incidence and absolute risk of heart failure among younger compared with older people, the stronger association and greater attributable risk of modifiable risk factors among young participants highlight the importance of preventive efforts across the adult life course.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n461DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7986583PMC
March 2021

Universal Definition and Classification of Heart Failure: Is It universal? Does It Define Heart Failure?

J Card Fail 2021 May 15;27(5):509-511. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cardfail.2021.03.003DOI Listing
May 2021
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