Publications by authors named "Carolyn Campbell"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Reevaluation of the South Asian Intronic Deletion in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2020 06 12;13(3):e002783. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom (A.R.H., A.G., E.O., S.N., M.F., H.W., K.L.T.).

Background: The common intronic deletion, , detected in 4% to 8% of South Asian populations, is reported to be associated with cardiomyopathy, with ≈7-fold increased risk of disease in variant carriers. Here, we examine the contribution of to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in a large patient cohort.

Methods: Sequence data from 2 HCM cohorts (n=5393) was analyzed to determine frequency and co-occurrence of pathogenic variants in HCM genes. Case-control and haplotype analyses were performed to compare variant frequencies and assess disease association. Analyses were also undertaken to investigate the pathogenicity of a candidate variant c.1224-52G>A.

Results: Our data suggest that the risk of HCM, previously attributed to , can be explained by enrichment of a derived haplotype, , whereby a small subset of individuals bear both and a rare pathogenic variant, c.1224-52G>A. The intronic c.1224-52G>A variant, which is not routinely evaluated by gene panel or exome sequencing, was detected in ≈1% of our HCM cohort.

Conclusions: The c.1224-52G>A variant explains the disease risk previously associated with in the South Asian population and is one of the most frequent pathogenic variants in HCM in all populations; genotyping services should ensure coverage of this deep intronic mutation. Individuals carrying alone are not at increased risk of HCM, and this variant should not be tested in isolation; this is important for the large majority of the 100 million individuals of South Asian ancestry who carry and would previously have been declared at increased risk of HCM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.119.002783DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7299222PMC
June 2020

Preconditioning hippocampal slices with hypothermia promotes rapid tolerance to hypoxic depolarization and swelling: Mediation by erythropoietin.

Brain Res 2020 01 18;1726:146517. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, United States.

We suggested previously that hippocampal slices were protected from hypoxic depolarization and swelling by preincubating them at room temperature (Kreisman et al., 2000). We postulated that hypothermic preconditioning induced tolerance in our slices, which protected against hypoxic depolarization and swelling. Control hippocampal slices were incubated at 34-35 °C for two hours and the response to 10 min of severe hypoxia was compared to slices which were preconditioned for two hours at room temperature (22-23 °C) prior to warming to 34-35 °C. Recordings of the extracellular DC potential provided an index of tissue depolarization and changes in tissue light transmittance provided an index of swelling. Hypothermic preconditioning significantly reduced hypoxia-induced swelling, particularly in CA3 and the dentate inner blade. Since erythropoietin (EPO) had been shown to mediate hypoxic preconditioning, we tested whether EPO also mediated hypothermic preconditioning in our slices. Recombinant rat EPO (1-10 micromolar) mitigated hypoxia-induced swelling and depolarization in dentate inner blade of unconditioned slices in a dose-dependent manner. We also blocked the protective effects of hypothermic preconditioning on hypoxic depolarization and swelling in the inner blade of the dentate gyrus by administering soluble EPO receptor in the bath and treating slices with wortmannin to block phosphorylation of PI3 kinase, a critical step in the activation of the downstream neuroprotectant, Akt. These results suggest that EPO mediates tolerance to hypoxic depolarization and swelling induced by hypothermic preconditioning. They also emphasize that various preincubation protocols used in experiments with hippocampal slices may differentially affect basal electrophysiological and metabolic properties of those slices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.146517DOI Listing
January 2020

Estimating the effect size of the 15Q11.2 BP1-BP2 deletion and its contribution to neurodevelopmental symptoms: recommendations for practice.

J Med Genet 2019 10 26;56(10):701-710. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Montreal, Montreal, Québec, Canada

Background: The 15q11.2 deletion is frequently identified in the neurodevelopmental clinic. Case-control studies have associated the 15q11.2 deletion with neurodevelopmental disorders, and clinical case series have attempted to delineate a microdeletion syndrome with considerable phenotypic variability. The literature on this deletion is extensive and confusing, which is a challenge for genetic counselling. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect size of the 15q11.2 deletion and quantify its contribution to neurodevelopmental disorders.

Methods: We performed meta-analyses on new and previously published case-control studies and used statistical models trained in unselected populations with cognitive assessments. We used new (n=241) and previously published (n=150) data from a clinically referred group of deletion carriers. 15q11.2 duplications (new n=179 and previously published n=35) were used as a neutral control variant.

Results: The deletion decreases IQ by 4.3 points. The estimated ORs and respective frequencies in deletion carriers for intellectual disabilities, schizophrenia and epilepsy are 1.7 (3.4%), 1.5 (2%) and 3.1 (2.1%), respectively. There is no increased risk for heart malformations and autism. In the clinically referred group, the frequency and nature of symptoms in deletions are not different from those observed in carriers of the 15q11.2 duplication suggesting that most of the reported symptoms are due to ascertainment bias.

Conclusions: We recommend that the deletion should be classified as 'pathogenic of mild effect size'. Since it explains only a small proportion of the phenotypic variance in carriers, it is not worth discussing in the developmental clinic or in a prenatal setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2018-105879DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6817694PMC
October 2019

Analysis of 51 proposed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy genes from genome sequencing data in sarcomere negative cases has negligible diagnostic yield.

Genet Med 2019 07 11;21(7):1576-1584. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Purpose: Increasing numbers of genes are being implicated in Mendelian disorders and incorporated into clinical test panels. However, lack of evidence supporting the gene-disease relationship can hinder interpretation. We explored the utility of testing 51 additional genes for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), one of the most commonly tested Mendelian disorders.

Methods: Using genome sequencing data from 240 sarcomere gene negative HCM cases and 6229 controls, we undertook case-control and individual variant analyses to assess 51 genes that have been proposed for HCM testing.

Results: We found no evidence to suggest that rare variants in these genes are prevalent causes of HCM. One variant, in a single case, was categorized as likely to be pathogenic. Over 99% of variants were classified as a variant of uncertain significance (VUS) and 54% of cases had one or more VUS.

Conclusion: For almost all genes, the gene-disease relationship could not be validated and lack of evidence precluded variant interpretation. Thus, the incremental diagnostic yield of extending testing was negligible, and would, we propose, be outweighed by problems that arise with a high rate of uninterpretable findings. These findings highlight the need for rigorous, evidence-based selection of genes for clinical test panels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-018-0375-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6614037PMC
July 2019

High-flow nasal oxygen versus noninvasive ventilation in adult patients with cystic fibrosis: a randomized crossover physiological study.

Ann Intensive Care 2018 Sep 5;8(1):85. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Background: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is the first-line treatment of adult patients with exacerbations of cystic fibrosis (CF). High-flow nasal oxygen therapy (HFNT) might benefit patients with hypoxemia and can reduce physiological dead space. We hypothesized that HFNT and NIV would similarly reduce work of breathing and improving breathing pattern in CF patients. Our objective was to compare the effects of HFNT versus NIV in terms of work of breathing, assessed noninvasively by the thickening fraction of the diaphragm (TFdi, measured with ultrasound), breathing pattern, transcutaneous CO (PtcCO), hemodynamics, dyspnea and comfort.

Methods: Adult CF patients who had been stabilized after requiring ventilatory support for a few days were enrolled and ventilated with HFNT and NIV for 30 min in crossover random order.

Results: Fifteen patients were enrolled. Compared to baseline, HFNT, but not NIV, reduced respiratory rate (by 3 breaths/min, p = 0.01) and minute ventilation (by 2 L/min, p = 0.01). Patients also took slightly larger tidal volumes with HFNT compared to NIV (p = 0.02). TFdi per breath was similar under the two techniques and did not change from baseline. MAP increased from baseline with NIV and compared to HFNT (p ≤ 0.01). Comfort was poorer with the application of both HFNT and NIV than baseline. No differences were found for heart rate, SpO, PtcCO or dyspnea.

Conclusions: In adult CF patients stabilized after indication for ventilatory support, HFNT and NIV have similar effects on diaphragmatic work per breath, but high-flow therapy confers additional physiological benefits by decreasing respiratory rate and minute ventilation.

Clinical Trial Registration: Ethics Committee of St. Michael's Hospital (REB #14-338) and clinicaltrial.gov (NCT02262871).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13613-018-0432-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6125258PMC
September 2018

Transformation of follicular lymphoma.

Am J Hematol 2018 10 7;93(10):1292-1293. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Department of Haematology, St Mary's Hospital and Centre for Haematology, St Mary's Hospital Campus of Imperial College, Faculty of Medicine, St Mary's Hospital, London, W2 1NY, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25195DOI Listing
October 2018

Hepatoblastoma in a mosaic trisomy 18 child with hemihypertrophy.

BMJ Case Rep 2016 Jan 21;2016. Epub 2016 Jan 21.

Department of Clinical Cytogenetics, University of Oxford Hospitals, NHS Trust, Oxford, UK.

To date, there are 12 reported cases of hepatoblastoma in trisomy 18 patients, three of whom had a mosaic chromosome pattern. We report on an 18-month-old child who had hemihypertrophy and developmental delay, was found to have hepatoblastoma on surveillance ultrasound scan, and was subsequently diagnosed with mosaic trisomy 18 on array comparative genomic hybridisation from a peripheral blood sample and molecular cytogenetic analysis of the tumour specimen. Although hemihypertrophy has been associated with mosaic trisomies, there are only a couple of published case reports of hemihypertrophy or asymmetry in mosaic trisomy 18 patients and none in the reported cases of hepatoblastoma in a mosaic trisomy 18 setting. We have reviewed the published case reports of hepatoblastoma in trisomy 18 patients and found that they seem to tolerate the intensive treatment very well if there are no significant comorbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2015-211380DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4735188PMC
January 2016

Plasma amino acid profiles of breast cancer patients early in the trajectory of the disease differ from healthy comparison groups.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2014 Jun 12;39(6):740-4. Epub 2014 May 12.

a Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada.

This study describes and compares fasting plasma amino acid profiles of breast cancer patients near the initiation of chemotherapy with those of healthy age- and body mass index-matched females (HM), as well as young healthy females (HY). Breast cancer patients had significantly greater glutamate and histidine concentrations and significantly lower threonine concentrations compared with HM and HY females independent of protein or caloric intake. These differences may be related to metabolic perturbations associated with the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2013-0526DOI Listing
June 2014

The first year of behavioral development and maternal care of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) calves in human care.

Zoo Biol 2013 Sep-Oct;32(5):565-70. Epub 2013 Sep 5.

Department of Psychology, St. Mary's University, San Antonio, Texas.

The current study provides additional information for the behavioral development and maternal care of belugas or white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in the care of humans. The behaviors and mother-calf interactions of two female beluga calves were recorded from birth to 12 months as part of a longitudinal study of beluga behavioral development. As expected, the primary calf activity for both calves involved swimming with their mothers. The calves initiated the majority of the separations from and reunions with their mothers and exhibited early bouts of independence. Both mothers bonded with their calves and displayed similar maternal care behaviors but exhibited different behavioral patterns. Despite differences in social groupings, housing, and physical health, the two female belugas followed the behavioral development of beluga calves observed previously.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/zoo.21093DOI Listing
May 2014

A comprehensive metabolic evaluation reveals impaired glucose metabolism and dyslipidemia in breast cancer patients early in the disease trajectory.

Clin Nutr 2014 Jun 15;33(3):550-7. Epub 2013 Aug 15.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Burt Matthew Hall Rm. 1117, 200 University Avenue W., Waterloo, ON N2J 3G1, Canada. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Weight gain in breast cancer patients during treatment is prevalent; the metabolic implications of this weight gain are poorly understood. We aimed to characterize glucose metabolism in breast cancer patients near the initiation of chemotherapy.

Methods: Stage I-II breast cancer patients (n = 8) were evaluated near the initiation of chemotherapy and compared with a group of age- and body mass index-matched, as well as a group of young healthy, non-malignant females. Fasting blood samples (analyzed for lipids and cytokines) were taken and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Body composition, waist circumference, diet, cardiovascular fitness and muscle strength were evaluated.

Results: Breast cancer patients were abdominally obese (mean ± SD: 94.6 ± 14.0 cm), overweight (28.8 ± 6.0 kg/m(2)) and dyslipidemic (triacylglycerides: 1.84 ± 1.17 mM; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: 1.08 ± 0.23 mM). Compared to non-malignant matched females, fasting glucose and insulin concentrations were similar but fasting c-peptide was greater in patients (2.6 ± 1.2 ng/mL vs. 1.9 ± 0.8 ng/mL, p = 0.005). Glucose was elevated to a greater extent in patients during the oral glucose tolerance test compared with all non-malignant females. During the glucose tolerance test, c-peptide, but not insulin, remained elevated in patients compared with all non-malignant females. No differences in body composition, serum cytokines, nutrition or exercise capacity between patients and matched, non-malignant females emerged.

Conclusions: Breast cancer patients present with unhealthy metabolic features early in the disease trajectory. Future investigations need to examine the underlying mechanisms and the potential longitudinal changes following chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2013.08.001DOI Listing
June 2014

A comparison of the extended-release and standard-release formulations of tacrolimus in de novo kidney transplant recipients: a 12-month outcome study.

Clin Kidney J 2013 Feb 1;6(1):45-49. Epub 2012 Jan 1.

Renal Transplant Program, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada, and Division of Nephrology , University of Toronto , Toronto, ON , Canada.

BACKGROUND: Limited comparative data are available on the outcomes between extended-release and standard-release tacrolimus when used de novo in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). METHODS: We identified KTRs transplanted at our institution during 2009-10 routinely prescribed extended-release tacrolimus and compared them with those transplanted during 2008-09 prescribed standard-release tacrolimus. Graft function (eGFR by MDRD-7 equation) at 12 months post-transplant (primary outcome); new-onset diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors, BK viremia incidence, acute rejection, and graft survival to 12 months (secondary outcomes) were compared by intent-to-treat analysis. Time-to-steady-state concentration and number of dose adjustments required to attain steady state were recorded. RESULTS: There were no important demographic differences between the extended-release (N = 106) and standard-release (N = 95) cohorts. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 12 months was similar (58.8 ± 17 versus 59.2 ± 18 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P = 0.307). There was no difference in new-onset diabetes (17 versus 20%, P = 0.581), BK viremia (10 versus 7%, P = 0.450), acute rejection (7 versus 16%, P = 0.067) or graft survival (97 versus 95%, P = 0.301). Time-to-steady state was similar (9.2 ± 1.1 versus 8.1 ± 4.7 days, P = 0.490) although extended-release patients required fewer adjustments to attain steady state (1.2 ± 1.7 [0-8] versus 1.7 ± 1.5 [0-7], P = 0.030) but a similar dose (7.2 ± 2.4 [2-17] versus 7 ± 2.7 [2-16] mg/day, P = 0.697). CONCLUSION: De novo KTRs prescribed extended-release or standard-release tacrolimus demonstrate similar 12-month outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ckj/sfs169DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3560378PMC
February 2013

Diagnosing idiopathic learning disability: a cost-effectiveness analysis of microarray technology in the National Health Service of the United Kingdom.

Genomic Med 2007 5;1(1-2):35-45. Epub 2007 Jun 5.

Health Economics Research Centre, Department of Public Health, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus, Headington, Oxford, OX3 7LF, UK,

Array based comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) is a powerful technique for detecting clinically relevant genome imbalance and can offer 40 to > 1000 times the resolution of karyotyping. Indeed, idiopathic learning disability (ILD) studies suggest that a genome-wide aCGH approach makes 10-15% more diagnoses involving genome imbalance than karyotyping. Despite this, aCGH has yet to be implemented as a routine NHS service. One significant obstacle is the perception that the technology is prohibitively expensive for most standard NHS clinical cytogenetics laboratories. To address this, we investigated the cost-effectiveness of aCGH versus standard cytogenetic analysis for diagnosing idiopathic learning disability (ILD) in the NHS. Cost data from four participating genetics centres were collected and analysed. In a single test comparison, the average cost of aCGH was pound442 and the average cost of karyotyping was pound117 with array costs contributing most to the cost difference. This difference was not a key barrier when the context of follow up diagnostic tests was considered. Indeed, in a hypothetical cohort of 100 ILD children, aCGH was found to cost less per diagnosis ( pound3,118) than a karyotyping and multi-telomere FISH approach ( pound4,957). We conclude that testing for genomic imbalances in ILD using microarray technology is likely to be cost-effective because long-term savings can be made regardless of a positive (diagnosis) or negative result. Earlier diagnoses save costs of additional diagnostic tests. Negative results are cost-effective in minimising follow-up test choice. The use of aCGH in routine clinical practice warrants serious consideration by healthcare providers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11568-007-9005-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2276893PMC
July 2011

A study of community guides: lessons for professionals practicing with and in communities.

Soc Work 2004 Oct;49(4):550-61

Maritime School of Social Work, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

A study of 35 nonprofessional helpers, identified as community "guides," focused on the contribution each made to helping marginalized individuals and families become a part of their communities. The lessons learned through these lay helpers can inform a postmodern social work practice that promotes the use of indigenous practice principles appropriate for work with and in culturally distinct communities. The practice wisdom of these guides demonstrates a need for professionals to reposition themselves in the associational life of a community, and to make their practice less visible. It is shown that an effective community-building practice that respects community solutions to individual and community problems requires permeable boundaries on the part of intervening professionals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sw/49.4.550DOI Listing
October 2004

Relationship between cranio-cervical flexion range of motion and pressure change during the cranio-cervical flexion test.

Man Ther 2003 May;8(2):92-6

Department of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

The purpose of this study was to quantify the sagittal angular displacement of the head (cranio-cervical flexion) for the five incremental stages of the cranio-cervical flexion test (CCFT). Range of cranio-cervical flexion during the CCFT was measured using a digital imaging method in 20 healthy volunteer subjects. The intra-and inter-rater reliability of the digital imaging technique for the assessment of this movement were also examined. The results of this study demonstrated a linear relationship between the incremental pressure targets of the CCFT and the percentages of full range cranio-cervical flexion range of motion (ROM) measured in the supine lying position of the test using a digital imaging technique. A mean of 22.9% full range cranio-cervical flexion was used to reach the first pressure target of the CCFT followed by linear increments up to 76.6% for the last stage of the test. An increasing amount of cranio-cervical flexion ROM was used to achieve the five successive stages of the CCFT reflecting an increasing contractile demand on the deep cervical flexor muscles. Excellent inter-rater (ICC=0.994) and intra-rater reliability (ICC=0.988-0.998) were demonstrated for the angular measurements using this digital imaging technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1356-689x(03)00008-0DOI Listing
May 2003

Primary chemoradiation as definitive treatment for unresectable cancer of the trachea.

Can Respir J 2003 Apr;10(3):143-4

Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute,Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

A 64-year-old man was diagnosed with unresectable cancer of the trachea. He was treated definitively with a novel chemoradiation regimen. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy (ChT) was given for two cycles as induction, followed by concurrent administration of this ChT with external beam radiotherapy (RT) (total dose 60 Gy). An unexpected partial tumour response was noted after the induction of ChT alone. Six weeks after finishing ChT/RT, complete response of the lesion was noted on computed tomography imaging. Two years later, the patient was free of disease. Primary chemoradiation appears to be effective in managing locally advanced tracheal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2003/382026DOI Listing
April 2003