Publications by authors named "Caroline V Fulkerson"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Atypical multiple myeloma in 3 young dogs.

Vet Pathol 2022 Sep 11;59(5):787-791. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.

Three dogs under 12 months old were diagnosed with atypical multiple myeloma (MM), having an aggressive multifocal anaplastic round cell sarcoma in bone marrow, viscera, and/or peripheral blood, which were confirmed by cytology and immunohistochemistry to be of plasma cell origin. The intramedullary sarcomas caused myelophthisis, osteolysis, and hypercalcemia. Complete or free light chain monoclonal gammopathy in the serum and/or urine was demonstrated by protein electrophoresis and immunofixation. The polymerase chain reaction for antigen receptor rearrangement assay performed on 2 cases identified a clonally rearranged immunoglobulin gene. Neoplastic cells lacked expression of CD45, CD3, CD18, CD21, CD34, and MHCII by flow cytometry. Immunohistochemistry revealed MUM1 immunoreactivity of the neoplastic cells. Combining all data, the diagnosis was MM. An aggressive form of MM in young dogs should be a differential diagnosis for patients with an immunoglobulin-productive, B cell-clonal, CD45-negative, MUM1-positive discrete cell neoplasm arising from the bone marrow.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03009858221087637DOI Listing
September 2022

Pathology in Practice.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2022 03 1;259(S2):1-3. Epub 2022 Mar 1.

Department of Comparative Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.

In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.20.01.0003DOI Listing
March 2022

Radiographic characteristics of canine subungual keratoacanthoma.

Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2022 Mar 29. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, Indiana, USA.

Subungual keratoacanthoma (SKA) is a rare benign nail bed tumor in dogs, and its radiographic characteristics have not been reported based on the authors' review of the literature. The purpose of this multicenter, retrospective, observational, descriptive study was to describe the radiographic features of SKA in dogs. Twelve dogs for a total of 12 digits with histologically confirmed SKA met the inclusion criteria. The radiographs of the manus or pes were reviewed by two veterinary radiologists and one veterinarian. The radiology reports were interpreted based on a consensus. In six dogs, there was lysis of both the middle phalanx (P2) and the distal phalanx (P3), whereas in the other six dogs, there was only lysis of P3. In all dogs with osteolysis of P2, the lysis involved the distal articular surface. Osteolysis of P3 was more severe in the ungual process than in the ungual crest in all dogs. The margins of the lytic regions of P2 and P3 were well defined and smoothly marginated in most dogs. Expansile changes in the P3 crest were observed in 83.3% (10/12 dogs), and the nail of the affected digit was enlarged and deformed in 91.6% (11/12 dogs). In summary, the radiographic features of canine SKA include severe pressure resorption of the P3 ungual process, expansile change of the P3 ungual crest, and nail enlargement and deformation. With these radiographic features, SKA should be considered as a differential diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vru.13083DOI Listing
March 2022

Tracheal stenosis following endotracheal intubation in a dog.

Can Vet J 2021 12;62(12):1289-1291

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA.

A 2-month-old intact female Rottweiler was presented for investigation of coughing and respiratory distress 9 d after an exploratory laparotomy for intestinal foreign body removal. Tracheal stenosis was suspected by radiography and confirmed with computed tomography (CT) and tracheoscopy. After 1 wk of medical management, clinical signs had resolved and the severity of the tracheal narrowing was markedly improved, as confirmed by radiography and tracheoscopy. Tracheal stenosis is a considerable complication of endotracheal intubation in veterinary medicine and may be medically managed, depending on the severity of the tracheal injury. Key clinical message: To our knowledge, this is the first clinical case report of tracheal stenosis resulting from endotracheal intubation in a dog and its resolution after medical management.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8591574PMC
December 2021

Ultrasonographic diagnosis of a hair foreign body in the urinary bladder of a dog.

Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2021 Nov 26;62(6):e25-e28. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA.

A 13-year-old male neutered mixed-breed dog with a history of gallbladder mucocele and urolithiasis was evaluated by ultrasound. Two hyperechoic, linear foreign bodies with no distal acoustic shadowing were detected in the urinary bladder and urethra. Following the ultrasound examination, the patient underwent cystoscopy, and two single hairs were found and successfully retrieved. Considering that urinary bladder foreign bodies may be a source for urinary tract infection and can act as a nidus for urocystolith formation, removal is recommended. This is the first published report describing ultrasonographic diagnosis of a hair foreign body in the canine urinary bladder and urethra.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vru.13011DOI Listing
November 2021

Anal sacculiths may be an incidental finding in dogs.

Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2021 Mar 25;62(2):175-180. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Department of Comparative Pathobiology, Purdue University College of Veterinary Medicine, West Lafayette, Indiana.

Mineral-attenuating material is occasionally seen in the anal sacs of dogs during abdominal CT studies. This retrospective, descriptive study was performed to estimate the prevalence and CT appearance of this mineral-attenuating material. A total of 357 abdominal CTs were reviewed retrospectively. The mineral-attenuating material was most easily identifiable using the brain window setting (window width: 120 HU; window level: 40 HU). In the current study, the prevalence of mineral-attenuating material in the anal sacs was 7.6% (95% confidence interval, 5.0-10.8%) with 48.1% bilateral involvement and equal distribution in the right and left in dogs with unilateral involvement. Successful collection and material analysis were performed in three dogs. The material was determined to be 100% dried blood, 100% waxy matter, and a "small amount of fat enmeshed in unidentified noncrystallined material." Given the CT appearance and the Hounsfield unit of these mineral-attenuating material within the anal sacs, the term "anal sacculiths" is proposed. All dogs with anal sacculiths within this study population did not have any reported disease of the anal sacs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vru.12931DOI Listing
March 2021

An ultrasound based platform for image-guided radiotherapy in canine bladder cancer patients.

Phys Imaging Radiat Oncol 2019 Oct 15;12:10-16. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.

Background And Purpose: Ultrasound (US) is a non-invasive, non-radiographic imaging technique with high spatial and temporal resolution that can be used for localizing soft-tissue structures and tumors in real-time during radiotherapy (RT) (inter- and intra-fraction). A comprehensive approach incorporating an in-house 3D-US system within RT is presented. This system is easier to adopt into existing treatment protocols than current US based systems, with the aim of providing millimeter intra-fraction alignment errors and sensitivity to track intra-fraction bladder movement.

Materials And Methods: An in-house integrated US manipulator and platform was designed to relate the computed tomographic (CT) scanner, 3D-US and linear accelerator coordinate systems. An agar-based phantom with measured speed of sound and densities consistent with tissues surrounding the bladder was rotated (0-45°) and translated (up to 55 mm) relative to the US and CT coordinate systems to validate this device. After acquiring and integrating CT and US images into the treatment planning system, US-to-US and US-to-CT images were co-registered to re-align the phantom relative to the linear accelerator.

Results: Statistical errors from US-to-US registrations for various patient orientations ranged from 0.1 to 1.7 mm for x, y, and z translation components, and 0.0-1.1° for rotational components. Statistical errors from US-to-CT registrations were 0.3-1.2 mm for the x, y and z translational components and 0.1-2.5° for the rotational components.

Conclusions: An ultrasound-based platform was designed, constructed and tested on a CT/US tissue-equivalent phantom to track bladder displacement with a statistical uncertainty to correct and track inter- and intra-fractional displacements of the bladder during radiation treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phro.2019.10.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7807639PMC
October 2019

Remission after complete excision of an intramedullary hemangioma with an identifiable tumor plane in a dog.

Vet Surg 2019 Nov 9;48(8):1507-1513. Epub 2019 Jun 9.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana.

Objective: To describe the use of an identifiable tumor plane (ITP) during myelotomy to excise an intramedullary hemangioma in a dog and report the outcome.

Study Design: Case report.

Animals: One 5.5-year-old 42.9-kg spayed female Leonberger dog.

Methods: Clinical signs included progressive proprioceptive deficits of both pelvic limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging was consistent with a dorsal intramedullary mass at L3-L4. A laminectomy of the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae provided access for dorsal myelotomy. A clear surgical ITP was identified between the intramedullary mass and the spinal cord facilitating complete surgical resection.

Results: Histopathological examination was consistent with a hemangioma. Postoperative MRI was consistent with complete excision of the mass. No evidence of recurrence was found by MRI at 3 months and at 22 months after surgery. Mild proprioceptive deficits persisted in the right pelvic limb.

Conclusion: A clear ITP was present, and gross-total resection (GTR) was achieved without significant morbidity. Persistent clinical remission resulted from surgery as the sole therapy.

Clinical Significance: For an intramedullary tumor, GTR is the absence of visible tumor on intraoperative inspection combined with the absence of intramedullary contrast enhancement on postoperative MRI. When an ITP is present, GTR and resultant long-term remission may be more likely.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vsu.13238DOI Listing
November 2019

Pneumoperitoneum should be investigated.

Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2019 11 30;60(6):753. Epub 2019 May 30.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vru.12778DOI Listing
November 2019

Optimized computed tomography protocol for assessment of dentition in alpacas.

Am J Vet Res 2018 Mar;79(3):311-316

OBJECTIVE To determine the optimal protocol for acquisition of CT images of the dentition in alpacas. ANIMALS 3 healthy adult male alpacas. PROCEDURES Each alpaca was anesthetized with an IM injection of a combination of ketamine, xylazine, and butorphanol and positioned in sternal recumbency on the CT couch with its legs folded in a natural cush position and its head positioned within the isocenter of the gantry of a 64-slice CT scanner. Images were acquired by means of 6 protocols (sequential and helical modes at slice thicknesses of 1.25, 2.5, and 5 mm). Five images (2 molar, 2 premolar, and mandibular incisor teeth) were selected from each protocol for evaluation by 3 veterinary radiologists. For each image, tooth root visibility and sharpness and image noise artifact were subjectively evaluated on a 3-point scoring system. RESULTS Slice thickness significantly affected tooth root visibility and tooth root sharpness but did not affect image noise artifact. Acquisition mode significantly affected tooth root visibility and tooth root sharpness as well as image noise artifact. Tooth root visibility and sharpness did not differ significantly between the helical and sequential images when the slice thickness was 1.25 mm. Image noise artifact was greater for helical images than sequential images but did not differ by slice thickness within either acquisition mode. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that for a 64-slice CT scanner, the optimal protocol for the acquisition of CT images of the dentition in alpacas was a sequential scan with a slice thickness of 1.25 mm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.79.3.311DOI Listing
March 2018

Bacterial isolates, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, and factors associated with infection and outcome in foals with septic arthritis: 83 cases (1998-2013).

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015 Apr;246(7):785-93

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

Objective: To determine clinical characteristics, clinicopathologic data, and bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility results associated with septic arthritis in foals ≤ 180 days old.

Design: Retrospective case series.

Animals: 83 foals with septic arthritis.

Procedures: Medical records at 2 teaching hospitals between 1998 and 2013 were searched to identify those for foals ≤ 180 days old with confirmed infection of ≥ 1 synovial structure. Data extracted from the records included signalment, clinicopathologic information, bacteriologic culture and antimicrobial susceptibility results, and outcome. Data were analyzed for all foals as a single population and for foals stratified into 3 age groups (≤ 7 days, 8 to 30 days, and 31 to 180 days).

Results: Mean ± SD age of all foals was 18.2 ± 25 days (range, 0 to 180 days). The median number of joints affected per foal was 2 (range, 1 to 10 joints). Forty-seven of 83 (56.6%) foals survived to discharge from the hospital. Seventy antemortem synovial fluid samples underwent bacteriologic culture, of which 60 (85.7%) yielded growth. Of the 72 bacterial isolates identified, 45 (62.5%) were gram negative and 27 (375%) were gram positive. Survival rate was positively associated with plasma fibrinogen concentration and negatively associated with number of affected joints.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Results indicated the frequency with which certain bacterial agents were isolated from septic joints, which may be beneficial for the empirical treatment of septic arthritis in foals. Also, the positive association between survival rate and plasma fibrinogen concentration may have prognostic value in a clinical setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.246.7.785DOI Listing
April 2015

MRI characteristics of cerebral microbleeds in four dogs.

Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2012 Jul-Aug;53(4):389-93. Epub 2012 Jan 11.

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.

Cerebral microbleeds in people are small foci of hemosiderin-containing macrophages in normal brain parenchyma. They are the remnant of previous hemorrhage and occur with greater frequency in older individuals. Our purpose was to describe the magnetic resonance (MR) appearance of cerebral microbleeds in four dogs. These lesions appeared as round, hypointense foci measuring ≤4 mm on T2*-gradient-recalled echo images. They were less conspicuous or absent on T2-weighting, being iso- or hypointense, and uniformly invisible on T1-weighted images. No contrast enhancement was seen in any of the cerebral microbleeds. Necropsy-derived histopathologic analysis of one brain confirmed these lesions to be chronic cerebrocortical infarcts containing hemosiderin. The MR changes seen in dogs were analogous to what has been described in people and will be helpful in distinguishing cerebral microbleeds from other brain lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-8261.2011.01910.xDOI Listing
August 2012
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