Publications by authors named "Carole Barin"

20 Publications

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The CADM1 tumor suppressor gene is a major candidate gene in MDS with deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11.

Blood Adv 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Belgian Cancer Registry, Brussels, Belgium.

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) represent a heterogeneous group of clonal hematopoietic stem-cell disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis leading to peripheral cytopenias and in a substantial proportion of cases to acute myeloid leukemia. The deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11, del(11q), is a rare but recurrent clonal event in MDS. Here, we detail the largest series of 113 cases of MDS and myelodysplastic syndromes/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) harboring a del(11q) analyzed at clinical, cytological, cytogenetic and molecular levels. Female predominance, a survival prognosis similar to other MDS, a low monocyte count and dysmegakaryopoiesis were the specific clinical and cytological features of del(11q) MDS. In most cases, del(11q) was isolated, primary and interstitial encompassing the 11q22-23 region containing ATM, KMT2A and CBL genes. The common deleted region at 11q23.2 is centered on an intergenic region between CADM1 (also known as TSLC1, Tumour Suppressor in Lung Cancer 1) and NXPE2. CADM1 was expressed in all myeloid cells analyzed in contrast to NXPE2. At the functional level, the deletion of Cadm1 in murine Lineage-Sca1+Kit+ cells modifies the lymphoid to myeloid ratio in bone marrow although not altering their multi-lineage hematopoietic reconstitution potential after syngenic transplantation. Together with the frequent simultaneous deletions of KMT2A, ATM and CBL and mutations of ASXL1, SF3B1 and CBL, we show that CADM1 may be important in the physiopathology of the del(11q) MDS, extending its role as tumor-suppressor gene from solid tumors to hematopoietic malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021005311DOI Listing
October 2021

Clinical and biological features of B-cell neoplasms with CDK6 translocations: an association with a subgroup of splenic marginal zone lymphomas displaying frequent CD5 expression, prolymphocytic cells, and TP53 abnormalities.

Br J Haematol 2021 04 13;193(1):72-82. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Service d'Hématologie Biologique, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP), Paris, France.

A translocation involving the cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) gene [t(CDK6)] is a rare but recurrent abnormality in B-cell neoplasms. To further characterise this aberration, we studied 57 cases; the largest series reported to date. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation analysis confirmed the involvement of CDK6 in all cases, including t(2;7)(p11;q21) immunoglobulin kappa locus (IGK)/CDK6 (n = 51), t(7;14)(q21;q32) CDK6/immunoglobulin heavy locus (IGH) (n = 2) and the previously undescribed t(7;14)(q21;q11) CDK6/T-cell receptor alpha locus (TRA)/T-cell receptor delta locus (TRD) (n = 4). In total, 10 patients were diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis or small lymphocytic lymphoma, and 47 had small B-cell lymphoma (SmBL) including 36 cases of marginal zone lymphoma (MZL; 34 splenic MZLs, one nodal MZL and one bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma). In all, 18 of the 26 cytologically reviewed cases of MZL (69%) had an atypical aspect with prolymphocytic cells. Among the 47 patients with MZL/SmBL, CD5 expression was found in 26 (55%) and the tumour protein p53 (TP53) deletion in 22 (47%). The TP53 gene was mutated in 10/30 (33%); the 7q deletion was detected in only one case, and no Notch receptor 2 (NOTCH2) mutations were found. Immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable-region (IGHV) locus sequencing revealed that none harboured an IGHV1-02*04 gene. Overall survival was 82% at 10 years and not influenced by TP53 aberration. Our present findings suggest that most t(CDK6)+ neoplasms correspond to a particular subgroup of indolent marginal zone B-cell lymphomas with distinctive features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17141DOI Listing
April 2021

Characteristics, combinations, treatments, and survival of second primary hematological neoplasm: a retrospective single-center cohort of 49 patients (Hemostudy).

Ann Hematol 2019 Oct 27;98(10):2367-2377. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

Department of Hematology and Cell Therapy, University Hospital of Tours, 2 Boulevard Tonnellé, 37044, Tours Cedex 9, France.

The coexistence of dual hematological neoplasms is very rare. Sequential or synchronous neoplasms in hematology are an uncommon and complex clinical situation. The aim of the Hemo study was to describe the clinical characteristics and analyze the outcome of these patients. We performed a retrospective review of all patients diagnosed with sequential or synchronous hematological malignancies in the university hospital of Tours, between 2007 and 2018. We identified 49 patients in our study, with a prevalence of 0.89%. Sequential and synchronous combinations were found in 36 (73%) and 13 (27%) patients, respectively. One patient presented three sequential neoplasms. The median cumulative incidence was 6 years (95% CI 3-7). Among all neoplasms diagnosed (n = 99), we found 79 lymphoid neoplasms (LNs) (80%) and 20 myeloid neoplasms (MNs) (20%). Sex ratio was 1.88 with 65% of males and 35% of females. The most common LNs were Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 16; 16%) and multiple myeloma (n = 11; 11%). The most frequent MN was essential thrombocythemia (n = 5; 5%). The most common combination was Hodgkin lymphoma and follicular lymphoma in five (10%) patients. The overall survival from the first diagnosis (OS1) at 5 years was 82.4% (95% CI 72.1-94.3). The median overall survival from the second diagnosis (OS2) was 98 months (95% CI 44-NR) and 5-year OS2 was 58.7% (95% CI 45.5-75.7). Median progression-free survival from the second diagnosis (PFS) was 47 months (95% CI 27-NR) with 5-year PFS of 49% (95% CI 35.9-67). OS and PFS did not statistically differ between synchronous and sequential dual neoplasms. In this cohort, that the death relative risk (RR) was significantly lower if the second neoplasm appeared after more than 4 years following the first diagnosis (OR 0.37 (95% CI 0.16-0.90)). The Hemostudy confirmed the rarity of dual hematological neoplasms. In this cohort, HL and FL were the most frequent combinations. Our results may support that synchronous and sequential dual neoplasms bear the same prognosis. Further studies are needed to better characterize these uncommon clinical situations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-019-03778-9DOI Listing
October 2019

Poor prognosis of chromosome 7 clonal aberrations in Philadelphia-negative metaphases and relevance of potential underlying myelodysplastic features in chronic myeloid leukemia.

Haematologica 2019 06 20;104(6):1150-1155. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Département d'Hématologie, Institut Bergonié, Bordeaux, France.

Clonal chromosome abnormalities in Philadelphia-negative cells could concern chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated by tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The European LeukemiaNet distinguishes -7/del(7q) abnormalities as a "warning". However, the impact of clonal chromosome abnormalities, and specifically those of -7/del(7q), in Philadelphia-negative cells on clinical outcomes is unclear and based on case-reports showing morphological dysplasia and increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia, suggesting the coexistence of chronic myeloid leukemia and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. The aim of this study was to determine whether the impact of -7/del(7q) clonal chromosome abnormalities in Philadelphia-negative cells on the clinical outcome is different from that of other types of abnormalities, and we argue for an underlying associated high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. Among 102 chronic myeloid leukemia patients with clonal chromosome abnormalities in Philadelphia-negative cells with more than a median of 6 years of follow up, patients with -7/del(7q) more frequently had signs of dysplasia, a lower cumulative incidence of deep molecular response and often needed further treatment lines, with the consequent impact on event-free and progression-free survival. Morphological features of dysplasia are associated with myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia mutations and compromise the optimal response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, irrespectively of the type of clonal chromosome abnormalities in Philadelphia-negative cells. However, mutation patterns determined by next-generation sequencing could not clearly explain the underlying high-risk disease. We hereby confirm the pejorative prognostic value of -7/del(7q) clonal chromosome abnormalities in Philadelphia-negative cells and suggest that myelodysplastic features constitute a warning signal that response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be less than optimal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2018.208801DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6545846PMC
June 2019

"Double-hit" chronic lymphocytic leukemia: An aggressive subgroup with 17p deletion and 8q24 gain.

Am J Hematol 2018 03 18;93(3):375-382. Epub 2017 Dec 18.

INSERM UMR_S 1138, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with 17p deletion (17p-) is associated with a lack of response to standard treatment and thus the worst possible clinical outcome. Various chromosomal abnormalities (including unbalanced translocations, deletions, ring chromosomes and isochromosomes) result in the loss of 17p and one copy of the TP53 gene. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the type of chromosomal abnormality leading to 17p- and the additional aberrations influenced the prognosis in a series of 195 patients with 17p-CLL. Loss of 17p resulted primarily from an unbalanced translocation (70%) with several chromosome partners (the most frequent being chromosome 18q), followed by deletion 17p (23%), monosomy 17 (8%), isochromosome 17q [i(17q)] (5%) and a ring chromosome 17 (2%). In a univariate analysis, monosomy 17, a highly complex karyotype (≥5 abnormalities), and 8q24 gain were associated with poor treatment-free survival, and i(17q) (P = .04), unbalanced translocations (P = .03) and 8q24 gain (P = .001) were significantly associated with poor overall survival. In a multivariate analysis, 8q24 gain remained a significant predictor of poor overall survival. We conclude that 17p deletion and 8q24 gain have a synergistic impact on outcome, and so patients with this "double-hit" CLL have a particularly poor prognosis. Systematic, targeting screening for 8q24 gain should therefore be considered in cases of 17p- CLL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.24990DOI Listing
March 2018

Genetic differences between paediatric and adult Burkitt lymphomas.

Br J Haematol 2016 Apr 16;173(1):137-44. Epub 2016 Feb 16.

Department of Haematology, Cliniques universitaires Saint-Luc - Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.

Dysregulation of MYC is the genetic hallmark of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) but it is encountered in other aggressive mature B-cell lymphomas. MYC dysregulation needs other cooperating events for BL development. We aimed to characterize these events and assess the differences between adult and paediatric BLs that may explain the different outcomes in these two populations. We analysed patterns of genetic aberrations in a series of 24 BLs: 11 adults and 13 children. We looked for genomic imbalances (copy number variations), copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (CN-LOH) and mutations in TP53, CDKN2A, ID3 (exon 1), TCF3 (exon17) and CCND3 (exon 6). Young patients displayed more frequent 13q31.3q32.1 amplification, 7q32q36 gain and 5q23.3 CN-LOH, while 17p13 and 18q21.3 CN-LOH were only detected in adult BLs. ID3 mutations were present in all adult samples, but only in 42% of childhood cases. CCND3 and ID3 double-hit mutations, as well as 18q21 CN-LOH, seemed to be associated with poorer outcome. For the first time, we report different genetic anomalies between adult and paediatric BLs, suggesting age-related heterogeneity in Burkitt lymphomagenesis. This may explain the poorer prognosis of adult BLs. Additional studies are needed to confirm these results in the setting of clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.13925DOI Listing
April 2016

14q deletions are associated with trisomy 12, NOTCH1 mutations and unmutated IGHV genes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and small lymphocytic lymphoma.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2014 Aug 12;53(8):657-66. Epub 2014 Apr 12.

INSERM U872, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris 6, France.

Deletions of the long arm of chromosome 14 [del(14q)] are rare but recurrently observed in mature B-cell neoplasms, particularly in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To further characterize this aberration, we studied 81 cases with del(14q): 54 of CLL and 27 of small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), the largest reported series to date. Using karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), the most frequent additional abnormality was trisomy 12 (tri12), observed in 28/79 (35%) cases, followed by del13q14 (12/79, 15%), delTP53 (11/80, 14%) delATM (5/79, 6%), and del6q21 (3/76, 4%). IGHV genes were unmutated in 41/53 (77%) patients, with a high frequency of IGHV1-69 (21/52, 40%). NOTCH1 gene was mutated in 14/45 (31%) patients. There was no significant difference in cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities between CLL and SLL. Investigations using FISH and SNP-array demonstrated the heterogeneous size of the 14q deletions. However, a group with the same del(14)(q24.1q32.33) was identified in 48% of cases. In this group, tri12 (P = 0.004) and NOTCH1 mutations (P = 0.02) were significantly more frequent than in the other patients. In CLL patients with del(14q), median treatment-free survival (TFS) was 27 months. In conclusion, del(14q) is associated with tri12 and with pejorative prognostic factors: unmutated IGHV genes (with over-representation of the IGHV1-69 repertoire), NOTCH1 mutations, and a short TFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.22176DOI Listing
August 2014

Chromosomal translocations involving the [email protected] locus in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia: 29 new cases and a review of the literature.

Cancer Genet 2013 May 1;206(5):162-73. Epub 2013 Jul 1.

Department of Hematology, Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, University Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris 6, France.

Chromosomal translocations involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus ([email protected]) are recurrent but rare in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL), and various partner genes have been described. Here, we report a new series of 29 cases of BCP-ALL with [email protected] translocations. The partner gene was identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization and/or molecular cloning in 20 patients. Members of the CEBP gene family (n = 11), BCL2 (n = 3), ID4 (n = 3), EPOR (n = 2), and TRA/[email protected] (n = 1) were identified and demonstrated by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to be markedly up-regulated. The present cases, added to those already reported, confirm the diversity of the partner genes, which, apart from BCL2, are specific to BCP-ALL. Collectively, patients with [email protected] translocations may represent a novel sub-group of BCP-ALL occurring in adolescents and young adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cancergen.2013.04.004DOI Listing
May 2013

Chromosomal aberrations and their prognostic value in a series of 174 untreated patients with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia.

Haematologica 2013 Apr 12;98(4):649-54. Epub 2012 Oct 12.

Service d'Hématologie Biologique, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière and INSERM U872, UPMC Paris 6, France.

Waldenström's macroglobulinemia is a disease of mature B cells, the genetic basis of which is poorly understood. Few recurrent chromosomal abnormalities have been reported, and their prognostic value is not known. We conducted a prospective cytogenetic study of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia and examined the prognostic value of chromosomal aberrations in an international randomized trial. The main aberrations were 6q deletions (30%), trisomy 18 (15%), 13q deletions (13%), 17p (TP53) deletions (8%), trisomy 4 (8%), and 11q (ATM) deletions (7%). There was a significant association between trisomy of chromosome 4 and trisomy of chromosome 18. Translocations involving the IGH genes were rare (<5%). Deletion of 6q and 11q, and trisomy 4, were significantly associated with adverse clinical and biological parameters. Patients with TP53 deletion had short progression-free survival and short disease-free survival. Although rare (<5%), trisomy 12 was associated with short progression-free survival. In conclusion, the cytogenetic profile of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia appears to differ from that of other B-cell lymphomas. Chromosomal abnormalities may help with diagnosis and prognostication, in conjunction with other clinical and biological characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2012.070458DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3659998PMC
April 2013

Patterns of genomic aberrations suggest that Burkitt lymphomas with complex karyotype are distinct from other aggressive B-cell lymphomas with MYC rearrangement.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2013 Jan 25;52(1):81-92. Epub 2012 Sep 25.

Center for Human Genetics, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, de Duve Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.

We previously showed that complex karyotypes (CK) and chromosome 13q abnormalities have an adverse prognostic impact in childhood Burkitt lymphomas/leukemias (BL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL). The aim of our study was to identify recurrent alterations associated with MYC rearrangements in aggressive B-cell lymphomas with CK. Multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH) was performed in 84 patient samples (59 adults and 25 children), including 37 BL (13 lymphomas and 24 acute leukemias), 12 DLBCL, 28 B-cell lymphomas with intermediate features (DLBCL/BL), 4 B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemias (BCP-ALL), and 3 unclassifiable B-cell lymphomas. New (cytogenetically undetected) abnormalities were identified in 80% of patients. We also refined one-third of the chromosomal aberrations detected by karyotyping. M-FISH proved to be more useful in identifying chromosomal partners involved in unbalanced translocations and in revealing greater complexity of 13q rearrangements. Most of the newly identified or refined recurrent alterations involved 1q, 13q and 3q (gains/losses), 7q and 18q (gains), or 6q (losses), suggesting that these secondary aberrations may play a role in lymphomagenesis. Several patterns of genomic aberrations were identified: 1q gains in BL, trisomies 7 in DLBCL, and 18q-translocations in adult non-BL. BCP-ALL usually displayed an 18q21 rearrangement. BL karyotypes were less complex and aneuploid than those of other MYC-rearranged lymphomas. BCP-ALL and DLBCL/BL were associated with a higher rate of early death than BL and DLBCL. These findings support the categorization of DLBCL/BL as a distinct entity and suggest that BL with CK are indeed different from other aggressive MYC-rearranged lymphomas, which usually show greater genetic complexity. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.22008DOI Listing
January 2013

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia and prolymphocytic leukemia with MYC translocations: a subgroup with an aggressive disease course.

Ann Hematol 2012 Jun 30;91(6):863-73. Epub 2011 Dec 30.

Center for Human Genetics, Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium.

Translocations involving MYC are rare in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and up to now, their prognostic significance remains unclear. We report the characteristics of 21 patients with CLL and nine patients with prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL), diagnosed in multiple centers (n = 13), which showed an MYC translocation demonstrated by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The prevalence was estimated to be <1%. Advanced age and male predominance were observed. Morphological analysis frequently revealed the presence of prolymphocytes. A typical "CLL-immunophenotype" was found in four of nine cases with PLL. Moreover, CD5 and CD23 were frequently expressed in PLL. The latter findings are atypical for PLL and may suggest transformation or progression of an underlying CLL. MYC translocations were frequently observed with concomitant adverse cytogenetic markers, such as del(11q) (n = 8/30) and/or del(17p)/monosomy 17 (n = 7/30). In addition, the presence of unbalanced translocations (n = 24 in 13/30 cases) and complex karyotype (n = 16/30) were frequent in cases with MYC translocations. Altogether, del(17p)/monosomy 17, del(11q), and/or complex karyotype were observed in 22 of 30 patients. Survival outcome was poor: the median time to treatment was only 5 months, and overall survival (OS) from clinical diagnosis and from genetic detection was 71 and 19 months, respectively. In conclusion, CLL/PLL with MYC translocations is a rare entity, which seems to be associated with adverse prognostic features and unfavorable outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-011-1393-yDOI Listing
June 2012

Dismal prognostic value of monosomal karyotype in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia: a GOELAMS study of 186 patients with unfavorable cytogenetic abnormalities.

Blood 2011 Jul 26;118(3):679-85. Epub 2011 May 26.

Clinical Hematology, University Hospital Nancy Brabois, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France.

The prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is very poor in elderly patients, especially in those classically defined as having unfavorable cytogenetics. The recent monosomal karyotype (MK) entity, defined as 2 or more autosomal monosomies or combination of 1 monosomy with structural abnormalities, has been reported to be associated with a worse outcome than the traditional complex karyotype (CK). In this retrospective study of 186 AML patients older than 60 years, the prognostic influence of MK was used to further stratify elderly patients with unfavorable cytogenetics. CK was observed in 129 patients (69%), and 110 exhibited abnormalities according to the definition of MK (59%). MK(+) patients had a complete response rate significantly lower than MK(-) patients: 37% vs 64% (P = .0008), and their 2-year overall survival was also decreased at 7% vs 22% (P < .0001). In multivariate analysis, MK appeared as the major independent prognostic factor related to complete remission achievement (odds ratio = 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1-5.4, P = .05) and survival (hazard ratio = 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.5, P = .008). In the subgroup of 129 CK(+) patients, survival was dramatically decreased for MK(+) patients (8% vs 28% at P = .03). These results demonstrate that MK is a major independent factor of very poor prognosis in elderly AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2010-09-307264DOI Listing
July 2011

Specific chromosomal IG translocations have different prognoses in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Am J Blood Res 2011 15;1(1):13-21. Epub 2011 Apr 15.

Background: Chromosomal translocations are usually analyzed as a single entity, and are associated with a poor outcome in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Translocations involving immunoglobulin genes are recurrent, but uncommon (<5%), and their individual prognosis is not clear. The two most frequent partners are BCL2 (18q21) and BCL3 (19q13).

Designs And Methods: Herein, 75 cases are reported of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and t(14;18) (BCL2-CLLs). Our series benefits from morphological, immunological and cytogenetical reviews. The IGHV status analyses were performed by referring laboratories. Comparison was made with our previously published series of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with t(14;19) (BCL3-CLLs, n=29).

Results: Compared with BCL3-CLLs, lymphocytosis was lower in BCL2-CLLs (p<0.008), and splenomegaly was less frequent (p<0.0001). There were more "typical" morphologies (p<0.005) and Matutes scores >4 (p<0.001) in the BCL2-CLLs group, and less CD38 expression (p<0.04). More variant BCL2-translocations were observed (t(18;22), n=11; 2t(2;18), n=2; p<0.02), and BCL2-translocation was frequently single (p<0.002). Complex karyotypes (p<0.02), trisomy 12 (p<0.03), 6q deletion (p<0.002) and TP53 deletion (p<0.02) were less frequent in BCL2-CLLs, whereas 13q deletion was more frequent (p<0.005). The IGHV gene was frequently mutated in BCL2-CLLs (p<0.0001). Treatment-free survival was longer in BCL2-CLLs (p<0.0001).

Conclusions: BCL2-CLL.S express CD5 and lack expression of CD38, and have a Matutes score ≥4, frequent trisomy 12, no ATM and 6q deletions, and a mutated IGHV status. Compared to BCL3-CLLs, BCL2-CLLs are much less aggressive; indicating that identifying individual translocations and cytogenetic partners would allow improved patient stratification.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3301415PMC
August 2012

NUP98-MLL fusion in human acute myeloblastic leukemia.

Blood 2010 Sep 17;116(13):2332-5. Epub 2010 Jun 17.

INSERM U985, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, Villejuif, France.

Posttranscriptional modifications of histones play important roles in the control of chromatin structure and transcription. H3K4 (histone H3 lysine 4) methylation by the SET domain of the trithorax-group protein MLL (mixed-lineage leukemia) is important for the control of homeobox (HOX) gene expression during development. MLL is tethered to the HOXA locus through interaction of its amino-terminus with menin. MLL fusion proteins associated with human leukemia contain the menin interaction peptide and frequently recruit H3K79 (histone H3 lysine 79) methylation activity. This allows sustained expression of HOXA genes important for cellular transformation. We have characterized a novel recurrent chromosomal aberration, inv(11)(p15q23), as an isolated chromosomal abnormality in 2 patients with acute myeloid leukemia. This aberration is predicted to result in the expression of an NUP98 (nucleoporin 98 kDa)-MLL fusion protein that is unable to interact with menin. As expected, low levels of HOXA gene expression were observed in the patients' samples. This fusion protein is predicted to participate in cellular transformation by activating MLL targets other than HOXA genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2010-04-277806DOI Listing
September 2010

Wide diversity of PAX5 alterations in B-ALL: a Groupe Francophone de Cytogenetique Hematologique study.

Blood 2010 Apr 16;115(15):3089-97. Epub 2010 Feb 16.

Inserm, U563, 31024 Toulouse, France.

PAX5 is the main target of somatic mutations in acute B lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). We analyzed 153 adult and child B-ALL harboring karyotypic abnormalities at chromosome 9p, to determine the frequency and the nature of PAX5 alterations. We found PAX5 internal rearrangements in 21% of the cases. To isolate fusion partners, we used classic and innovative techniques (rolling circle amplification-rapid amplification of cDNA ends) and single nucleotide polymorphism-comparative genomic hybridization arrays. Recurrent and novel fusion partners were identified, including NCoR1, DACH2, GOLGA6, and TAOK1 genes showing the high variability of the partners. We noted that half the fusion genes can give rise to truncated PAX5 proteins. Furthermore, malignant cells carrying PAX5 fusion genes displayed a simple karyotype. These data strongly suggest that PAX5 fusion genes are early players in leukemogenesis. In addition, PAX5 deletion was observed in 60% of B-ALL with 9p alterations. Contrary to cases with PAX5 fusions, deletions were associated with complex karyotypes and common recurrent translocations. This supports the hypothesis of the secondary nature of the deletion. Our data shed more light on the high variability of PAX5 alterations in B-ALL. Therefore, it is probable that gene fusions occur early, whereas deletions should be regarded as a late/secondary event.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2009-07-234229DOI Listing
April 2010

Detection of chromosomal abnormalities associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: what is the best method?

Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2009 Nov;195(1):37-42

Laboratory of Hematology and Cytogenetics, Hospital Avicenne, Bobigny Cedex, France.

B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) follows a heterogeneous clinical course, for which several biological markers may predict clinical outcome. Cytogenetic aberrations are considered major prognostic indicators for predicting the survival of CLL patients. Given the difficulties in obtaining abnormal metaphases in CLL, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with specific probes is generally used to detect the most frequent abnormalities. To determine the best strategy for identifying cytogenetic abnormalities, we compared results obtained by FISH analysis on peripheral blood mononuclear cells with those obtained by FISH after culture with mitogens. We studied 46 CLL patients selected from two different institutions. The most frequent structural aberrations leading to loss of genetic material were loss of the 13q14 region, in 32 cases (70%), and loss of TP53 in 11 cases (24%). Of the 46 cases patients, 10 patients (21.7%) had deletion of the ATM locus at 11q22 and 8 patients (17%) had trisomy 12. Results could be interpreted as discordant in four cases in which the abnormal clone was small and both values were around the threshold. FISH performed on stimulated cells detected the same frequency of abnormalities as FISH performed without culture. This equivalence between the two techniques allows performing both conventional cytogenetic and FISH analyses on the same sample.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cancergencyto.2009.06.004DOI Listing
November 2009

Overexpression of CEBPA resulting from the translocation t(14;19)(q32;q13) of human precursor B acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Blood 2006 Nov 27;108(10):3560-3. Epub 2006 Jul 27.

Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP) Service d'Hématologie Biologique, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France.

Subtle variation in the expression or function of a small group of transcription factors can drive leukemogenesis. The CEBPA protein is known to regulate the balance between cell proliferation and differentiation during early hematopoietic development and myeloid differentiation. In human myeloid leukemia, CEBPA is frequently inactivated by mutation and indirect and posttranslational mechanisms, in keeping with tumor suppressor properties. We report that CEBPA is activated by juxtaposition to the immunoglobulin gene enhancer upon its rearrangement with the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus in precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia harboring t(14;19)(q32;q13). Overexpression of apparently normal CEBPA RNA or protein was observed in 6 patients. These data indicate that CEBPA may exhibit oncogenic as well as tumor suppressor properties in human leukemogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2006-03-010835DOI Listing
November 2006

Abnormalities of the long arm of chromosome 21 in 107 patients with hematopoietic disorders: a collaborative retrospective study of the Groupe Français de Cytogénétique Hématologique.

Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2006 Apr;166(1):1-11

Laboratoire de Génétique, Centre Hospitalier de Mulhouse, 20 rue du Docteur Laennec, BP130, 68070, Mulhouse Cedex, France.

Chromosome 21 is frequently rearranged in hematopoietic malignancies. In order to detect new chromosomal aberrations, the Groupe Français de Cytogénétique Hématologique collected a series of 107 patients with various hematologic disorders and acquired structural abnormalities of the long arm of chromosome 21. The abnormalities were subclassified into 10 groups, according to the location of the 21q breakpoint and the type of abnormality. Band 21q22 was implicated in 72 patients (excluding duplications, triplications, and amplifications). The involvement of the RUNX1 gene was confirmed in 10 novel translocations, but the gene partners were not identified. Eleven novel translocations rearranging band 21q22 with bands 1q25, 2p21, 2q37, 3p21, 3p23, 4q31, 6p24 approximately p25, 6p12, 7p15, 16p11, and 18q21 were detected. Rearrangements of band 21q11 and 21q21 were detected in six novel translocations with 5p15, 6p21, 15q21, 16p13, and 20q11 and with 1p33, 3q27, 5p14, 11q11, and 14q11, respectively. Duplications, triplications, amplifications, and isodicentric chromosomes were detected in eight, three, eight, and three patients, respectively. The present study shows both the wide distribution of the breakpoints on the long arm of chromosome 21 in hematopoietic malignancy and the diversity of the chromosomal rearrangements and the hematologic disorders involved. The findings invite further investigation of the 21q abnormalities to detect their associated molecular rearrangements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cancergencyto.2005.08.005DOI Listing
April 2006
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