Publications by authors named "Carol M Forsblom"

11 Publications

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Nut Consumption Is Associated with Lower Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in Type 1 Diabetes.

Nutrients 2021 Oct 30;13(11). Epub 2021 Oct 30.

Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, 00290 Helsinki, Finland.

Although nut consumption has been associated with several health benefits, it has not been investigated in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Therefore, our aim was to assess nut consumption and its association with metabolic syndrome in adult individuals with type 1 diabetes taking part in the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study. The nut intake of the 1058 participants was assessed from 3-day food records that were completed twice, and the number of weekly servings, assuming a serving size of 28.4 g, was calculated. Metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of ≥3 of the cardiovascular risk factors: central obesity, high blood pressure (≥130/85 mmHg or use of antihypertensive medication), high triglyceride concentration (≥1.70 mmol/L or use of lipid-lowering medication), low HDL-cholesterol concentration (<1.00 mmol/L in men and <1.30 mmol/L in women or use of lipid-lowering medication), and hyperglycaemia. Overweight/obesity was defined as a BMI ≥25 kg/m. HbA > 59 mmol/mol (>7.5%) was used as a criterion for suboptimal glycaemic control. Of the 1058 (mean age 46 years, 41.6% men) participants, 689 (54.1%) reported no nut intake. In the remaining sample, the median weekly nut intake was 40.8 g. In the adjusted models, higher nut intake, as the continuous number of weekly servings and the comparison of those with <2 and ≥2 weekly servings, was associated with lower metabolic syndrome score, waist circumference, HbA, and BMI. Nut consumption as a continuous variable was negatively associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome, its blood pressure, triglyceride, and HDL-cholesterol components, and suboptimal glycaemic control. Consumption of ≥2 weekly servings was associated with lower odds of suboptimal glycaemic control (by 51.5%), overweight/obesity (by 33.4%), and metabolic syndrome (by 51.8%) and meeting the waist (by 37.3%), blood pressure (by 44.5%), triglyceride (by 37.7%), and HDL-cholesterol (by 36.2%) components of the metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, a weekly nut intake of ≥2 servings was beneficially associated with all the components of the metabolic syndrome in type 1 diabetes. The causality of this association will need to be investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13113909DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8620387PMC
October 2021

Apolipoprotein C-III predicts cardiovascular events and mortality in individuals with type 1 diabetes and albuminuria.

J Intern Med 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland.

Objectives: We studied apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) in relation to diabetic kidney disease (DKD), cardiovascular outcomes, and mortality in type 1 diabetes.

Methods: The cohort comprised 3966 participants from the prospective observational Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study. Progression of DKD was determined from medical records. A major adverse cardiac event (MACE) was defined as acute myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, stroke, or cardiovascular mortality through 2017. Cardiovascular and mortality data were retrieved from national registries.

Results: ApoC-III predicted DKD progression independent of sex, diabetes duration, blood pressure, HbA , smoking, LDL-cholesterol, lipid-lowering medication, DKD category, and remnant cholesterol (hazard ratio [HR] 1.43 [95% confidence interval 1.05-1.94], p = 0.02). ApoC-III also predicted the MACE in a multivariable regression analysis; however, it was not independent of remnant cholesterol (HR 1.05 [0.81-1.36, p = 0.71] with remnant cholesterol; 1.30 [1.03-1.64, p = 0.03] without). DKD-specific analyses revealed that the association was driven by individuals with albuminuria, as no link between apoC-III and the outcome was observed in the normal albumin excretion or kidney failure categories. The same was observed for mortality: Individuals with albuminuria had an adjusted HR of 1.49 (1.03-2.16, p = 0.03) for premature death, while no association was found in the other groups. The highest apoC-III quartile displayed a markedly higher risk of MACE and death than the lower quartiles; however, this nonlinear relationship flattened after adjustment.

Conclusions: The impact of apoC-III on MACE risk and mortality is restricted to those with albuminuria among individuals with type 1 diabetes. This study also revealed that apoC-III predicts DKD progression, independent of the initial DKD category.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joim.13412DOI Listing
November 2021

The role of blood pressure in risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in type 1 diabetes.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2019 07 9;18(1):88. Epub 2019 Jul 9.

Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu 8, 00290, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Hypertension is one of the strongest risk factors for stroke in the general population, while systolic blood pressure has been shown to independently increase the risk of stroke in type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to elucidate the association between different blood pressure variables and risk of stroke in type 1 diabetes, and to explore potential nonlinearity of this relationship.

Methods: We included 4105 individuals with type 1 diabetes without stroke at baseline, participating in the nationwide Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study. Mean age at baseline was 37.4 ± 11.9 years, median duration of diabetes 20.9 (interquartile range 11.5-30.4) years, and 52% were men. Office systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured. Based on these pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were calculated. Strokes were classified based on medical and autopsy records, as well as neuroimaging. Cox proportional hazard models were performed to study how the different blood pressure variables affected the risk of stroke and its subtypes.

Results: During median follow-up time of 11.9 (9.21-13.9) years, 202 (5%) individuals suffered an incident stroke; 145 (72%) were ischemic and 57 (28%) hemorrhagic. SBP, DBP, PP, and MAP all independently increased the risk of any stroke. SBP, PP, and MAP increased the risk of ischemic stroke, while SBP, DBP, and MAP increased the risk of hemorrhagic stroke. SBP was strongly associated with stroke with a hazard ratio of 1.20 (1.11-1.29)/10 mmHg. When variables were modeled using restricted cubic splines, the risk of stroke increased linearly for SBP, MAP, and PP, and non-linearly for DBP.

Conclusions: The different blood pressure variables are all independently associated with increased risk of stroke in individuals with type 1 diabetes. The risk of stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke increases linearly at blood pressure levels less than the current recommended treatment guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12933-019-0891-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6617855PMC
July 2019

Body Mass Index and Mortality in Individuals With Type 1 Diabetes.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2019 11;104(11):5195-5204

Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland.

Context: The relationship between body mass index (BMI) and mortality may differ between patients with type 1 diabetes and the general population; it is not known which clinical characteristics modify the relationship.

Objective: Our aim was to assess the relationship between BMI and mortality and the interaction with clinically meaningful factors.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This prospective study included 5836 individuals with type 1 diabetes from the FinnDiane study.

Main Outcome Measure And Methods: We retrieved death data for all participants on 31 December 2015. We estimated the effect of BMI on the risk of mortality using a Cox proportional hazards model with BMI as a restricted cubic spline as well as effect modification by adding interaction terms to the spline.

Results: During a median of 13.7 years, 876 individuals died. The relationship between baseline BMI and all-cause mortality was reverse J-shaped. When analyses were restricted to those with normal albumin excretion rate, the relationship was U-shaped. The nadir BMI (BMI with the lowest mortality) was in the normal weight region (24.3 to 24.8 kg/m2); however, among individuals with diabetic nephropathy, the nadir BMI was in the overweight region (25.9 to 26.1 kg/m2). Diabetic nephropathy, diabetes-onset age, and sex modified the relationship between BMI and mortality (Pinteraction < 0.05).

Conclusions: Normal weight is optimal for individuals with type 1 diabetes to delay mortality, whereas underweight might be an indication of underlying complications. Maintaining normal weight may translate into reduced risk of mortality in type 1 diabetes, particularly for individuals of male sex, later diabetes-onset age, and normal albumin excretion rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2019-00042DOI Listing
November 2019

Prognosis and Its Predictors After Incident Stroke in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes.

Diabetes Care 2017 10 15;40(10):1394-1400. Epub 2017 Aug 15.

Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

Objective: Although patients with type 1 diabetes have a poor prognosis after a stroke, predictors of survival after an incident stroke in these patients are poorly studied.

Research Design And Methods: In this observational study, a total of 144 patients of 4,083 with type 1 diabetes from the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy (FinnDiane) Study suffered an incident stroke in 1997-2010, and were followed for a mean 3.4 ± 3.1 years after the stroke. Information was recorded on hard cardiovascular events and death as a result of cardiovascular or diabetes-related cause, collectively referred to as vascular composite end point. Information was collected from medical records, death certificates, and the National Care Register of Health Care. Predictors at the time of the incident stroke were studied for the end points.

Results: During follow-up, 104 (72%) patients suffered a vascular composite end point. Of these, 33 (32%) had a recurrent stroke, 33 (32%) a hard cardiovascular event, and 76 (53%) died of cardiovascular or diabetes-related causes, with an overall 1-year survival of 76% and 5-year survival of 58%. The predictors of a vascular composite end point were hemorrhagic stroke subtype (hazard ratio 2.03 [95% CI 1.29-3.19]), as well as chronic kidney disease stage 2 (2.48 [1.17-5.24]), stage 3 (3.04 [1.54-6.04]), stage 4 (3.95 [1.72-9.04]), and stage 5 (6.71 [3.14-14.34]). All-cause mortality increased with deteriorating kidney function.

Conclusions: Patients with type 1 diabetes with an incident stroke have a poor cardiovascular prognosis and a high risk of all-cause mortality. In particular, hemorrhagic stroke subtype and progression of diabetic kidney disease conveys worse outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc17-0681DOI Listing
October 2017

The Presence and Consequence of Nonalbuminuric Chronic Kidney Disease in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes.

Diabetes Care 2015 Nov 26;38(11):2128-33. Epub 2015 Aug 26.

Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland Research Programs Unit, Diabetes and Obesity, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Objective: This study investigated the prevalence of nonalbuminuric chronic kidney disease in type 1 diabetes to assess whether it increases the risk of cardiovascular and renal outcomes as well as all-cause mortality.

Research Design And Methods: This was an observational follow-up of 3,809 patients with type 1 diabetes from the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study. All patients were Caucasians and thoroughly examined at baseline. Their mean age was 37.6 ± 11.8 years and duration of diabetes 21.2 ± 12.1 years. Follow-up data on cardiovascular and renal outcomes and mortality were retrieved from registers. During 13 years of median follow-up, 378 developed end-stage renal disease, 415 suffered an incident cardiovascular event, and 406 died.

Results: At baseline, 78 (2.0%) had nonalbuminuric chronic kidney disease. This was associated with older age, female sex, history of retinal laser treatment, cardiovascular events, and the number of antihypertensive drugs in use, but not with blood pressure levels or specific antihypertensive agents. Nonalbuminuric chronic kidney disease did not increase the risk of albuminuria (hazard ratio [HR] 2.0 [95% CI 0.9-4.4]) or end-stage renal disease (HR 6.4 [0.8-53.0]) but did increase the risk of cardiovascular events (HR 2.0 [1.4-3.5]) and all-cause mortality (HR 2.4 [1.4-3.9]). The highest risk of cardiovascular and renal end points was observed in the patients with albuminuria.

Conclusions: Nonalbuminuric chronic kidney disease is not a frequent finding in patients with type 1 diabetes, but when present, it is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and all-cause mortality but not with renal outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc15-0641DOI Listing
November 2015

Different risk factor profiles for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Stroke 2014 Sep 24;45(9):2558-62. Epub 2014 Jul 24.

From the Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland (S.H., L.M.T., C.M.F., D.G., M.S., N.T., J.W., P.-H.G.); Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine (S.H., L.M.T., C.M.F., D.G., M.S., N.T., J.W., P.-H.G.) and Department of Neurology (R.L., J.P., T.T.), Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; Research Program Unit, Diabetes and Obesity, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland (S.H., L.M.T., C.M.F., D.G., M.S., N.T., J.W., P.-H.G.); and Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia (P.-H.G.).

Background And Purpose: Despite the fact that patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus have a markedly increased risk of experiencing a stroke, independent risk factors for stroke and its subtypes in these patients have remained unclear.

Methods: A total of 4083 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus from the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy (FinnDiane) Study, without a history of stroke at baseline, were included. Strokes were classified based on medical files and brain imaging. At baseline, mean age was 37.4±11.8 years, duration of diabetes mellitus was 20.0 (11.0-30.0) years, and 51% were men. During 9.0±2.7 years (36 680 patient-years) of follow-up, 105 patients experienced an ischemic stroke and 44 a hemorrhagic stroke. Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed to determine independent risk factors.

Results: Independent risk factors for ischemic stroke were duration of diabetes mellitus, presence of diabetic nephropathy, higher hemoglobin A1c, higher systolic blood pressure, insulin resistance, and history of smoking, whereas sex, lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and the metabolic syndrome were not associated with an increased risk. Diabetic nephropathy, severe diabetic retinopathy, higher systolic blood pressure, and lower body mass index were independently associated with hemorrhagic stroke.

Conclusions: The risk factor profile for ischemic stroke seems partly different from that of hemorrhagic stroke in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.005724DOI Listing
September 2014

Incidence of stroke according to presence of diabetic nephropathy and severe diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes.

Diabetes Care 2013 Dec 7;36(12):4140-6. Epub 2013 Oct 7.

Corresponding author: Per-Henrik Groop,

Objective: Type 1 diabetes is associated with a markedly increased risk of stroke, but only a few studies on the incidence of stroke in type 1 diabetes exist. Therefore, we assessed the incidence of stroke in patients with type 1 diabetes and studied the impact of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and severe diabetic retinopathy (SDR) on this risk.

Research Design And Methods: We studied 4,083 patients with type 1 diabetes from the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study. Mean age was 37.4 ± 11.8 years, duration of diabetes was 21.6 ± 12.1 years, and 52% were men. Strokes were identified from medical records, death certificates, and the National Hospital Discharge Register and classified based on medical files and brain images.

Results: During 36,680 person-years of follow-up, 149 (4%) patients suffered an incident stroke (105 infarctions and 44 hemorrhages). Of the infarctions, 58 (55%) were lacunar. The incidence of stroke, cerebral infarction, and cerebral hemorrhage was 406 (95% CI 344-477), 286 (234-347), and 120 (87-161) per 100,000 person-years, respectively. In an adjusted analysis, microalbuminuria increased the risk of stroke with a hazard ratio (HR) of 3.2 (1.9-5.6), macroalbuminuria 4.9 (2.9-8.2), and end-stage renal disease 7.5 (4.2-13.3), and SDR increased the risk with an HR of 3.0 (1.9-4.5). The risk of cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage, and lacunar infarction increased in a similar manner. The proportion of lacunar versus nonlacunar infarction did not change across DN groups.

Conclusions: The presence of SDR and DN, independently, increases the risk of stroke, cerebral infarction, and cerebral hemorrhage in patients with type 1 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc13-0669DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3836162PMC
December 2013

Subarachnoid hemorrhage in type 1 diabetes: a prospective cohort study of 4,083 patients with diabetes.

Diabetes Care 2013 Nov 22;36(11):3754-8. Epub 2013 Jul 22.

Corresponding authors: Miikka Korja,

Objective: To estimate for the first time the incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in type 1 diabetes.

Research Design And Methods: Using the nationwide Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy (FinnDiane) Study cohort of 4,083 patients with type 1 diabetes (mean age of 37.4 ± 11.8 years at enrollment), we analyzed the incidence of first-ever SAH events.

Results: During the follow-up time of 36,680 person-years (median 9.4 years), 15 patients with type 1 diabetes experienced an aneurysmal or nonaneurysmal SAH, and thus the crude incidence of SAH was 40.9 (95% CI 22.9-67.4) per 100,000 person-years. One patient had a verified aneurysmal SAH, and four patients died suddenly of an SAH, which was most likely caused by an aneurysm. SAHs in 10 out of 15 patients were classified as nonaneurysmal SAH, and thus the crude incidence of nonaneurysmal SAH was 27.3 (13.1-50.1) per 100,000 person-years. None of the nonaneurysmal SAHs were fatal. In univariate analysis, current smokers had a hazard ratio of 4.82 (95% CI 1.31-17.81) for nonaneurysmal SAH.

Conclusions: The incidence of nonaneurysmal SAH is high among patients with type 1 diabetes. Our findings suggest that nonaneurysmal SAH is a distinct new microvascular complication in type 1 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc13-0260DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3816906PMC
November 2013

Dopamine D3 receptor gene polymorphisms, blood pressure and nephropathy in type 1 diabetic patients.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2004 Jun 5;19(6):1432-6. Epub 2004 Mar 5.

Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, , Finland.

Background: Dopamine modulates blood pressure in the kidney. The aim of this study was to investigate whether two previously known (-707 G/C, Ser9Gly) and one novel (Ala17Ala) polymorphism in the dopamine D3 receptor gene and/or their haplotypes are associated with blood pressure, diabetic nephropathy or renal variables in the study subjects.

Methods: A cross-sectional, case-control study with a total of 996 type 1 diabetic patients from the multicentre, nationwide FinnDiane Study. Patients were recruited consecutively and classified into four groups according to their renal status.

Results: The frequencies of the genotypes harbouring the minor allele were 33, 51 and 19% for the -707 G/C, Ser9Gly and Ala17Ala polymorphisms, respectively. Frequencies of the -707 G/C minor genotypes were 35 (normoalbuminuria), 32 (microalbuminuria), 28 (proteinuria) and 39% (end-stage renal disease) (chi(2) = 6.3, df = 3, P = 0.1), of the Ser9Gly 52, 51, 46 and 57% (chi(2) = 6.3, df = 3, P = 0.1) and of the Ala17Ala polymorphism 18, 19, 19 and 21% (chi(2) = 0.7, df = 3, P = 0.9), respectively. Five haplotypes were identified, but no differences were seen between those with and without diabetic nephropathy. Furthermore, there were no differences in blood pressure levels nor in any renal variables between genotypes or haplotypes.

Conclusions: These results do not provide evidence for an involvement of the dopamine D3 receptor gene in blood pressure levels or in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfh174DOI Listing
June 2004

Leucine 7 to proline 7 polymorphism in the preproneuropeptide Y is associated with proteinuria, coronary heart disease, and glycemic control in type 1 diabetic patients.

Diabetes Care 2004 Feb;27(2):503-9

Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, and Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Objective: Neuropeptide Y is a potent vasoconstrictor thought to enhance the development of atherosclerosis. The leucine 7 to proline 7 (Leu7Pro) polymorphism, located in the signal peptide part of the human preproneuropeptide Y, has been associated with serum lipid levels, intima-media thickness of the common carotid arteries, and diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients. Therefore, we investigated the impact of the Leu7Pro polymorphism on diabetic nephropathy, cardiovascular risk factors, and cardiovascular disease in type 1 diabetic patients.

Research Design And Methods: A total of 996 patients from the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy study were studied in a case-control, cross-sectional study. The carrier frequency of the Pro7 substitution was 13% in the entire study population.

Results: The Pro7 substitution was more common in patients with proteinuria than in those with a normal albumin excretion rate (16 vs. 11%, P < 0.05). Patients with the Pro7 allele had worse glycemic control (HbA(1c) 8.8 vs. 8.5%, P < 0.005), more coronary heart disease (CHD) (14 vs. 8%, P < 0.05), and higher serum triglycerides (1.65 vs. 1.35 mmol/l, P < 0.005) than patients with the wild-type genotype. There were no differences in the plasma neuropeptide Y levels between the patients with Pro7 compared with those with the wild-type genotype. The Leu7Pro polymorphism was independently associated with HbA(1c) (P < 0.001), proteinuria (P < 0.01), and CHD (P < 0.01) in multiple regression analyses.

Conclusions: We conclude that the Leu7Pro polymorphism may contribute to the genetic susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy and CHD in type 1 diabetic patients, possibly by influencing glycemic control and triglycerides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diacare.27.2.503DOI Listing
February 2004
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