Publications by authors named "Carol E Soteropulos"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The Impact of Prior Abdominal Surgery on Complications of Abdominally Based Autologous Breast Reconstruction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Reconstr Microsurg 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin.

Background:  Approximately half of all patients presenting for autologous breast reconstruction have abdominal scars from prior surgery, the presence of which is considered by some a relative contraindication for abdominally based reconstruction. This meta-analysis examines the impact of prior abdominal surgery on the complication profile of breast reconstruction with abdominally based free tissue transfer.

Methods:  Literature search was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Included studies examined patients with a history of prior abdominal surgery who then underwent abdominally based free flap breast reconstruction. Prior liposuction patients and those with atypical flap designs were excluded. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess study quality. Flap complications included total and partial flap loss, fat necrosis, infection, and reoperation. Donor-site complications included delayed wound healing, infection, seroma, hematoma, and abdominal wall morbidity (hernia, bulge, laxity). Relative risk and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between groups were calculated. Forest plots, statistic heterogeneity assessments, and publication bias funnel plots were produced. Publication bias was corrected with a trim-and-fill protocol. Overall effects were assessed by fixed-effects and random-effects models.

Results:  After inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, 16 articles were included for final review. These included 14 cohort and 2 case-control studies, with 1,656 (46.3%) patients and 2,236 (48.5%) flaps having undergone prior surgery. Meta-analysis showed patients with prior abdominal surgery were significantly more likely to experience donor-site delayed wound healing with a risk ratio of 1.27 (random 95% CI [1.00; 1.61]; = 4) after adjustment for publication bias. No other complications were statistically different between groups.

Conclusion:  In patients with a history of prior abdominal surgery, abdominally based free tissue transfer is a safe and reliable option. Abdominal scars may slightly increase the risk of delayed donor-site wound healing, which can aid the surgeon in preoperative counseling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1723816DOI Listing
March 2021

The Effect of Perforator Skeletonization on Pedicled Fasciocutaneous Flaps of the Lower Extremity: A Systematic Review.

J Reconstr Microsurg 2020 Nov 24;36(9):634-644. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin.

Background:  Lower extremity defects often require free tissue transfer due to a paucity of local donor sites. Locoregional perforator-based flaps offer durable, single-stage reconstruction while avoiding the pitfalls of microsurgery. Multiple harvest techniques are described, yet few studies provide outcome comparisons. Specifically, no study has examined the impact of perforator flap pedicle skeletonization on reconstructive outcomes. This systematic review characterizes technique and impact of pedicle skeletonization on perforator-based fasciocutaneous flaps of the lower extremity.

Methods:  PubMed, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were reviewed for literature examining perforator-based fasciocutaneous flaps from knee to ankle, from January 2000 through November 2018. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews-Individual Participant Data (PRISMA-IPD) structure was used.

Results:  Thirty-six articles were included for quantitative analysis. Of 586 flaps, 365 were skeletonized (60.1%) with 58 major (9.9%) and 19 minor complications (3.2%). With skeletonization, overall reoperative rate was higher (odds ratio [OR]: 9.71,  = 0.004), specifically in propeller (OR: 12.50,  = 0.004) and rotational flaps (OR: 18.87,  = 0.004). The complication rate of rotational flaps also increased (OR: 2.60,  = 0.04). Notably, skeletonization reduced complications in flaps rotated 90 degrees or more (OR: 0.21,  = 0.02). Reoperative rate of distal third defects (OR: 14.08,  = 0.02), flaps over 48 cm (OR: 33.33,  = 0.01), and length to width ratios over 1.75 (OR: 7.52,  = 0.03) was increased with skeletonization. Skeletonization increased complications in traumatic defects (OR: 2.87,  = 0.04) and reduced complications in malignant defects (OR: 0.10,  = 0.01).

Conclusion:  Pedicled, perforator-based flaps can provide a reliable locoregional alternative to free tissue transfer for lower extremity defects. Though skeletonization increased the overall reoperative rate, the complication rate for flaps with 90 degrees or more of rotation was significantly reduced. This suggests skeletonization should be considered when large rotational movements are anticipated to reduce complications that can arise from pedicle compression and venous congestion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1713598DOI Listing
November 2020

Reconstruction of Full Thickness Calvarial Defect With Dermal Regeneration Template and Full Thickness Skin Graft After Encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis.

J Craniofac Surg 2020 Jul-Aug;31(5):e514-e516

Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI.

Full-thickness defects of the calvarium often present reconstructive challenges, necessitating large rotational flaps or microsurgical free tissue transfer. Although the vascularity of the scalp is robust, there is an increased risk of wound healing complications after both direct and indirect intracranial revascularization procedures as compared to routine craniotomies, as these procedures utilize extracranial scalp vasculature to supply the ischemic brain. Patients presenting with wound healing complications following intracranial revascularization surgeries may not be candidates for extensive reconstructive procedures, as they are often medically comorbid with cardiac disease, diabetes, and a paucity of recipient vessels for free tissue transfer due to underlying vascular disease that prompts initial revascularization surgery. We present a case of full-thickness calvarial reconstruction using dermal regeneration template and full-thickness skin grafting to the dura in a patient with a full thickness calvarial defect due to wound breakdown and exposed hardware following indirect intracranial revascularization with encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000006653DOI Listing
November 2020

Improvement in Back Pain Following Abdominoplasty: Results of a 10-Year, Single-Surgeon Series.

Aesthet Surg J 2020 11;40(12):1309-1315

Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI.

Background: Few studies have examined the impact of abdominoplasty on chronic back pain.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to test our hypothesis that patients undergoing abdominoplasty with anterior abdominal wall plication will show significant improvements in back pain and physical function compared with those without plication.

Methods: We utilized Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes to identify patients who underwent abdominoplasty with the senior author over a 10-year period. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the RAND 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) were administered. All patients indicating preoperative back pain were reviewed.

Results: Of 338 patients, 143 surveys (42.3%) were returned; 51 patients (35.7%; n = 28 aesthetic, n = 23 massive weight loss) reported preoperative back pain on the ODI. Paired t tests compared overall and strata-specific changes in ODI and SF-36 pre- and postsurgery. Multivariable linear regression models were fitted to model relations between scores and plication, adjusting for presurgery scores and patient variables. There were significant improvements in overall patient cohort in ODI (-15.14), SF-36 physical function (19.92), and pain (17.42) (P < 0.001), as well as when patients were stratified by plication status. However, outcomes between those with plication and those without were not significantly different.

Conclusions: Abdominoplasty with and without anterior abdominal wall plication significantly improves ODI and SF-36 scores relating to physical function and pain, in both aesthetic and massive weight loss patients. Outcomes did not differ based on plication status. All patients with preoperative back pain showed improvement regardless of operation performed, suggesting that abdominoplasty with or without abdominal wall plication improves chronic back pain in this patient population.

Level Of Evidence: 4:
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/asj/sjaa032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7676454PMC
November 2020

Enhanced Recovery after Surgery in Breast Reconstruction: A Systematic Review.

J Reconstr Microsurg 2019 Nov 1;35(9):695-704. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin.

Background:  Enhanced Recovery after Surgery (ERAS) principles have received focused attention in breast reconstruction. Many protocols have been described in the literature for both autologous and alloplastic reconstruction. This systematic review serves to better characterize successful ERAS protocols described in the literature for potential ease of adoption at institutions desiring implementation.

Methods:  A systematic review of ERAS protocols for autologous and alloplastic breast reconstruction was conducted using Medline, the Cochrane Database, and Web of Science.

Results:  Eleven cohort studies evaluating ERAS protocols for autologous ( = 8) and alloplastic ( = 3) breast reconstruction were included for review. The majority compared with a retrospective cohort of traditional perioperative care. All studies described the full spectrum of implemented ERAS protocols including preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative phases of care. Most frequently reported significant outcomes were reduced length of stay and opioid use with ERAS implementation. No significant change in major complication or readmission rate was demonstrated.

Conclusion:  Based on this systematic review, several core elements that make up a successful perioperative enhanced recovery protocol for breast reconstruction have been identified. Elements include patient counseling and education, limited preoperative fasting, appropriate thromboprophylaxis and antibiotic prophylaxis dependent on reconstructive method, preoperative antiemetics, multimodal analgesia and use of local anesthetic, goal-directed intravenous fluid management, prompt removal of drains and catheters, early diet advancement, and encouragement of ambulation postoperatively. Implementation of ERAS protocols in both autologous and alloplastic breast reconstruction can positively enhance patient experience and improve outcomes by reducing length of stay and opioid use, without compromising successful reconstructive outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1693699DOI Listing
November 2019

Nuances of Postoperative Management of Microvascular Breast Reconstruction Patients: Where Are the Data?

Plast Reconstr Surg 2019 03;143(3):672e-673e

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wis.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000005355DOI Listing
March 2019

Postoperative Management of Lower Extremity Free Tissue Transfer: A Systematic Review.

J Reconstr Microsurg 2019 Jan 29;35(1):1-7. Epub 2018 Jul 29.

Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin.

Background:  Free tissue transfer for lower extremity reconstruction is a safe and reliable option for a wide range of challenging wounds; however, no consensus exists regarding postoperative management.

Methods:  A systematic review of postoperative management of lower extremity free tissue transfer was conducted using Medline, Cochrane Database, and Web of Science. Multicenter surveys, randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, and case series were reviewed.

Results:  Fifteen articles investigating current protocols, flap physiology, and aggressive dangle protocols were reviewed. The following evidence-based conclusions were made: (1) Free tissue transfer to the lower extremity is unique due to altered hemodynamics and dependency during orthostasis. Free flap circulation is dependent on locally mediated responses and deprived of compensatory muscular and neurovascular mechanisms that prevent venous congestion in the normal extremity. (2) Compressive wrapping reduces venous congestion and edema and may induce ischemic conditioning, which can increase blood flow. (3) Dangle protocols vary widely in timing of initiation, frequency, and monitoring. Small volume studies examining aggressive mobilization protocols initiating early dependency have led to earlier ambulation and discharge, with no change in flap survival as compared with conservative protocols. (4) Weight bearing may begin after the completion of dangle protocol if no orthopedic injury is present.

Conclusions: Early initiation of a dangle protocol does not appear to negatively impact flap survival based on this systematic review. Compressive wrapping may be a useful adjunct. Many surgeons agree that clinical monitoring is sufficient; there is no consensus on the utility of adjunct monitoring techniques. Weight bearing may begin after completion of dangle protocol with close flap monitoring, if not prevented by orthopedic restrictions. By providing additional outflow vasculature to reduce venous congestion, flow-through anastomoses may eliminate the need for a dangle protocol. Further research, including large randomized controlled trials is still needed to establish high-level evidence-based conclusions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0038-1667049DOI Listing
January 2019

Use of Innovative Technologies in Pediatric Lower Extremity Reconstruction.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2016 Aug 1;4(8):e825. Epub 2016 Aug 1.

Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Albany Medical Center, Albany, NY; and Albany Medical College, Albany, NY.

The anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap has proven to be a reliable option for the coverage of soft tissue defects in adults and more recently in the pediatric population. When considering the use of the ALT flap in the pediatric patient, there are few studies that detail techniques specific to pediatric free flap management. We present a unique case of a 14- × 8-cm ALT flap used for traumatic wound coverage in a distal tibial injury in a 6-year-old girl. This case highlights innovative techniques in pediatric perioperative free flap monitoring and the use of continuous external tissue expansion to achieve delayed primary closure of the donor site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GOX.0000000000000820DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5010316PMC
August 2016

Tailoring the protein adsorption properties of whispering gallery mode optical biosensors.

Langmuir 2012 Nov 23;28(44):15743-50. Epub 2012 Oct 23.

Department of Biological Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, 65211, United States.

Label-free biosensor technologies have the potential to revolutionize environmental monitoring, medical diagnostics, and food safety evaluation processes due to their unique combinations of high-sensitivity signal transducers and high-specificity recognition elements. This enables their ability to perform real-time detection of deleterious compounds at extremely low concentrations. However, to further improve the biosensors' performance in complex environments, such as wastewater, blood, and urine, it is necessary to minimize nonspecific binding, which in turn will increase their specificity, and decrease the rate of false positives. In the present work, we illustrate the potential of combining emerging high-sensitivity optical signal transducers, such as whispering gallery mode (WGM) microcavities, with covalently bound poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coatings of varying thickness, as an effective treatment for the prevention of nonspecific protein adsorption onto the biosensor surface. We monitor the sensitivity of the coated biosensor, and investigate the effect of PEG chain length on minimizing nonspecific adsorption via protein adsorption studies. Experimental results confirm not only that PEG-functionalization reduces nonspecific protein adsorption to the surface of the sensor by as much as a factor of 4 compared to an initialized control surface, but also that chain length significantly impacts the nonfouling character of the microcavity surface. Surprisingly, it is the short chain PEG surfaces that experience the best improvement in specificity, unlike many other systems where longer PEG chains are preferred. The combination of WGM microcavities with PEG coatings tuned specifically to the device will significantly improve the overall performance of biosensor platforms, and enable their wider application in complex, real-world monitoring scenarios.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la302041dDOI Listing
November 2012

Attaching biological probes to silica optical biosensors using silane coupling agents.

J Vis Exp 2012 May 1(63):e3866. Epub 2012 May 1.

Department of Biological Engineering, University of Missouri, USA.

In order to interface with biological environments, biosensor platforms, such as the popular Biacore system (based on the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) technique), make use of various surface modification techniques, that can, for example, prevent surface fouling, tune the hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity of the surface, adapt to a variety of electronic environments, and most frequently, induce specificity towards a target of interest. These techniques extend the functionality of otherwise highly sensitive biosensors to real-world applications in complex environments, such as blood, urine, and wastewater analysis. While commercial biosensing platforms, such as Biacore, have well-understood, standard techniques for performing such surface modifications, these techniques have not been translated in a standardized fashion to other label-free biosensing platforms, such as Whispering Gallery Mode (WGM) optical resonators. WGM optical resonators represent a promising technology for performing label-free detection of a wide variety of species at ultra-low concentrations. The high sensitivity of these platforms is a result of their unique geometric optics: WGM optical resonators confine circulating light at specific, integral resonance frequencies. Like the SPR platforms, the optical field is not totally confined to the sensor device, but evanesces; this "evanescent tail" can then interact with species in the surrounding environment. This interaction causes the effective refractive index of the optical field to change, resulting in a slight, but detectable, shift in the resonance frequency of the device. Because the optical field circulates, it can interact many times with the environment, resulting in an inherent amplification of the signal, and very high sensitivities to minor changes in the environment. To perform targeted detection in complex environments, these platforms must be paired with a probe molecule (usually one half of a binding pair, e.g. antibodies/antigens) through surface modification. Although WGM optical resonators can be fabricated in several geometries from a variety of material systems, the silica microsphere is the most common. These microspheres are generally fabricated on the end of an optical fiber, which provides a "stem" by which the microspheres can be handled during functionalization and detection experiments. Silica surface chemistries may be applied to attach probe molecules to their surfaces; however, traditional techniques generated for planar substrates are often not adequate for these three-dimensional structures, as any changes to the surface of the microspheres (dust, contamination, surface defects, and uneven coatings) can have severe, negative consequences on their detection capabilities. Here, we demonstrate a facile approach for the surface functionalization of silica microsphere WGM optical resonators using silane coupling agents to bridge the inorganic surface and the biological environment, by attaching biotin to the silica surface. Although we use silica microsphere WGM resonators as the sensor system in this report, the protocols are general and can be used to functionalize the surface of any silica device with biotin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/3866DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3466951PMC
May 2012

Determination of binding kinetics using whispering gallery mode microcavities.

Appl Phys Lett 2011 Sep 8;99(10):103703-1037033. Epub 2011 Sep 8.

Silica optical microcavity sensors show great promise in the kinetic evaluation of binding pairs, fundamental in understanding biomolecular interactions. Here, we develop and demonstrate a novel platform, based on bioconjugated silica microsphere resonators, to study the binding kinetics of the biotin-streptavidin system. We characterize the optical performance, verify the covalent attachment of biotin to the surface, and perform streptavidin detection experiments. We perform preliminary kinetic analysis of the detection data which shows the potential of whispering gallery mode resonators in the determination of the dissociation constant of the binding pair, which is in good agreement with previously published values.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3634023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3189252PMC
September 2011