Publications by authors named "Carol Ann Huff"

75 Publications

Nonmyeloablative, HLA-Mismatched Unrelated Peripheral Blood Transplantation with High-Dose Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Aug 20. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins Hospital University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. Electronic address:

High-dose post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) is an effective platform for prevention of severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic bone marrow (BM) transplantation with mismatched unrelated donors (mMUDs). Previous studies evaluating PTCy with mMUDs favored BM allografts over peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) due to concerns that PBSCT may be associated with an increased risk of acute and chronic GVHD. In addition, haploidentical PBSCT is associated with high rates of cytokine release syndrome (CRS), which is another concern with mMUD PBSCT. This study was conducted to determine the feasibility and safety of using mMUD PBSCT with PTCy as GVHD prophylaxis. Patients who received mMUD PBSCT using a PTCy-based GVHD prophylaxis at Johns Hopkins Hospital as part of a prospective clinical trial of mMUD and non-first-degree relative haploidentical transplantation with PTCy (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01203722) were included. All patients underwent T cell-replete PBSCT between November 2012 and August 2020. Statistical analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and proportional subdistribution hazard regression model for competing risks. The 29 patients in the study had a median age of 54 years, with 10 patients (34%) age ≥60 years. Nineteen grafts (66%) were matched for 9/10 HLA loci, 6 (21%) were match for 8/10, and 4 (14%) were matched for 7/10. No primary or secondary graft failure occurred. The median time to neutrophil recovery (≥500/µL) was 17 days, and that to platelet recovery (≥20,000/µL) was 28 days. Full donor chimerism was achieved in all patients by day +60. The cumulative incidence (CuI) of grade II-IV acute GVHD at 180 days was 15% (90% confidence interval [CI], 3% to 26%). There were no cases of severe chronic GVHD, 3 cases of mild chronic GVHD, and 1 case of moderate chronic GVHD. The CuI of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was 7% (90% CI, NA to 18%) at 1 year. Eighteen patients (62%) experienced mild CRS (grade 1-2), and 1 patient (3%) experienced severe CRS (grade 3-5). At 1 year, the CuI of relapse was 29% (90% CI, 8% to 50%), overall survival was 93% (90% CI, 85% to 100%), progression-free survival was 64% (90% CI, 46% to 88%), GVHD-free relapse-free survival was 41% (90% CI, 23% to 73%), and chronic GVHD-free relapse-free survival was 64% (90% CI, 46% to 88%). Our data indicate that mMUD PBSCT using PTCy-based GVHD prophylaxis is safe and feasible. All patients engrafted, and rates of NRM (7%) and acute GVHD (15%) at 1 year were low. There was only 1 case (3%) of severe CRS. Compared with previously published outcomes, mMUD PBSCT using PTCy-based GVHD prophylaxis has a safety and efficacy profile that may not be different from that of PBSCT from matched donors. These results further solidify that all patients who require blood or BM transplantation should be able to find an acceptable donor. © 2021 American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.08.013DOI Listing
August 2021

Allogeneic Blood or Marrow Transplantation with Nonmyeloablative Conditioning and High-Dose Cyclophosphamide-Based Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis for Secondary Central Nervous System Lymphoma.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Secondary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma is a rare and often fatal complication of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Treatment options include radiation therapy, high-dose systemic chemotherapy, intrathecal chemotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue, but outcomes remain poor. Allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (alloBMT) is widely used in patients with relapsed/refractory systemic NHL. We sought to understand whether a graft-versus-lymphoma effect could maintain remission in CNS disease. We reviewed outcomes in 20 consecutive patients with secondary CNS lymphoma who underwent alloBMT with nonmyeloablative conditioning using fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and 200 cGy total body irradiation. For graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis, all patients received post-transplantation cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, and a calcineurin inhibitor. With a median follow up of 4.1 years, the median overall survival for the entire cohort was not reached. Median progression-free survival was 3.8 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.3 months to not reached). The cumulative incidence of relapse was 25% (95% CI, 5% to 45%), and nonrelapse mortality was 30% (95% CI, 5% to 54%) at 4 years. Of the 5 patients who relapsed, 2 were CNS only, 1 was systemic only, and 2 were combined CNS/systemic. The use of alloBMT in CNS lymphoma merits further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.07.015DOI Listing
July 2021

Multiple Myeloma, Version 3.2021, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2020 12 2;18(12):1685-1717. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

28National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

Multiple myeloma is a malignant neoplasm of plasma cells that accumulate in bone marrow, leading to bone destruction and marrow failure. This manuscript discusses the management of patients with solitary plasmacytoma, smoldering multiple myeloma, and newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2020.0057DOI Listing
December 2020

Allogeneic transplantation for Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia with posttransplantation cyclophosphamide.

Blood Adv 2020 10;4(20):5078-5088

Division of Hematologic Malignancy and.

Allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (alloBMT) is standard of care for adults with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) in first complete remission (CR1). The routine pretransplant and posttransplant use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has dramatically improved outcomes, but the optimal conditioning regimen, donor type, and TKI remain undefined. The bone marrow transplant database at Johns Hopkins was queried for adult patients with de novo Ph+ ALL who received alloBMT using posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) as a component of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis from 2008 to 2018. Among transplants for Ph+ ALL, 69 (85%) were performed in CR1, and 12 (15%) were performed in second or greater remission (CR2+). The majority of transplants (58%) were HLA haploidentical. Nearly all patients (91.4%) initiated TKI posttransplant. For patients in CR1, the 5-year relapse-free survival (RFS) was 66%. The use of nonmyeloablative conditioning, absence of measurable residual disease (MRD) according to flow cytometry at transplant, and the use of dasatinib vs imatinib at diagnosis were associated with improved overall survival (OS) and RFS. Neither donor type nor recipient age ≥60 years affected RFS. When analyzing all transplants, alloBMT in CR1 (vs CR2+) and the absence of pretransplant MRD were associated with improved RFS. Most relapses were associated with the emergence of kinase domain mutations. The cumulative incidence of grade 3 to 4 acute GVHD at 1 year was 9%, and moderate to severe chronic GVHD at 2 years was 8%. Nonmyeloablative alloBMT with PTCy for Ph+ ALL in an MRD-negative CR1 after initial treatment with dasatinib yields favorable outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002945DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7594402PMC
October 2020

Thrombotic Microangiopathy after Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide-Based Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 12 19;26(12):2306-2310. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Baltimore, Maryland.

Transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (taTMA) is a systemic vascular illness associated with significant morbidity and mortality, resulting from a convergence of risk factors after allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (alloBMT). The diagnosis of taTMA has been a challenge, but most criteria include an elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), low haptoglobin, and schistocytes on peripheral blood smear. We performed a retrospective review of the 678 consecutive adults who received high-dose post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy)-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis between January 1, 2015, and August 31, 2018. In April 2016, we initiated a monitoring program of weekly LDH and haptoglobin measurements and blood smears when those 2 parameters were both abnormal on all of our adult patients undergoing alloBMT for hematologic malignancies. During the entire period, the 1-year cumulative incidence of taTMA was 1.4% (95% confidence interval, 0.5% to 2.3%). Eight patients were taking tacrolimus at the time of diagnosis, and 1 was not on any immunosuppression. Eight of 9 patients (89%) were hypertensive. Four patients had invasive infections at the time of diagnosis, 4 patients required renal replacement therapy, and 5 of 9 patients were neurologically impaired. Eculizumab was given to 6 patients (0.9%), of whom 2 died and 4 recovered with resolution of end-organ dysfunction. The paucity of events made the determination of risk factors difficult; however, the low incidence of taTMA in this cohort may be related to the limited use of myeloablative conditioning regimens, low incidence of severe GVHD, and use of PTCy. PTCy-based GVHD prophylaxis appears to be associated with a low incidence of severe taTMA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.09.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7686062PMC
December 2020

Shortened-Duration Immunosuppressive Therapy after Nonmyeloablative, Related HLA-Haploidentical or Unrelated Peripheral Blood Grafts and Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 11 18;26(11):2075-2081. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Baltimore, Maryland; Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland; Division of Pediatric Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Baltimore, Maryland.

With post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, nonmyeloablative (NMA) HLA-haploidentical (haplo) and HLA-matched blood or marrow transplantation (BMT) have comparable outcomes. Previous reports have shown that discontinuation of immunosuppression (IS) as early as day 60 after infusion of a bone marrow (BM) haplo allograft with PTCy is feasible. There are certain diseases in which peripheral blood (PB) may be favored over BM, but given the higher rates of GVHD with PB, excessive GVHD is of increased concern. We report a completed, prospective single-center trial of stopping IS at days 90 and 60 after NMA PB stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). Between 12/2015-7/2018, 117 consecutive patients with hematologic malignancies associated with higher rates of graft failure after NMA conditioned BMT and PTCy, received NMA PB allografts on trial. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of reduced-duration IS (from day 5 through day 90 in the D90 cohort and through day 60 in the D60 cohort). Of the 117 patients (median age, 64 years; range, 22 to 78 years), the most common diagnoses were myelodysplastic syndrome (33%), acute myelogenous leukemia (with minimal residual disease or arising from an antecedent disorder) (32%), myeloproliferative neoplasms (19%), myeloma (9%), and chronic lymphoblastic leukemia (7%). Shortened IS was feasible in 75 patients (64%) overall. Ineligibility for shortened IS resulted most commonly from GVHD (17 patients), followed by early relapse (11 patients), nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (7 patients), patient/ physician preference (4 patients) or graft failure (3 patients). Of the 57 patients in the D90 cohort, 33 (58%) stopped IS early as planned, and among the 60 patients in the D60 cohort, 42 (70%) stopped IS early as planned. The graft failure rate was 2.6%. After IS cessation, the median time to diagnosis of grade II-IV acute GVHD was 21 days in the D90 cohort and 32 days in the D60 cohort, with almost all cases developing within 40 days. Approximately one-third of these patients resumed IS. All outcome measures were similar in the 2 cohorts and our historical outcomes with 180 days of IS. The cumulative incidence of grade III-IV acute GVHD was low, 2% in the D90 cohort and 7% in the D60 cohort. The incidence of severe chronic GVHD at 2 years was 9% in the D90 cohort and 5% in the D60 cohort. The 2-year overall survival was 67% for both the D90 and D60 cohorts. The 2-year progression-free survival was 47% for the D90 cohort and 52% for the D60 cohort, and the GVHD-free, relapse-free survival was <35% for both cohorts. These data suggest that reduced-duration IS in patients undergoing NMA PBSCT with PTCy is feasible and has an acceptable safety profile. © 2020 American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.07.037DOI Listing
November 2020

Haploidentical BMT for severe aplastic anemia with intensive GVHD prophylaxis including posttransplant cyclophosphamide.

Blood Adv 2020 04;4(8):1770-1779

Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD.

Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is a stem cell disorder often treated with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) to reconstitute hematopoiesis. Outcomes of related HLA-haploidentical (haplo) donors after reduced-intensity conditioning with intensive graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis including posttransplantation cyclophosphamide are presented here from 37 SAA, 20 relapsed/refractory (R/R), and 17 treatment-naïve (TN) SAA patients. Median follow-up is 32 months (90% confidence interval [CI], 29-44). The median age was 25 (range, 4-69) years. The median time to neutrophil recovery was 17 days (range, 15-88). Four of 37 patients (11%) experienced graft failure (GF). There was 1 primary GF of 20 patients in the R/R group and 3 of 17 in the TN group at 200 cGy (1 primary, 2 secondary), but none in the 10 patients who received 400 cGy total body irradiation. Two patients with GF succumbed to infection and 2 were rescued with second haplo BMT. The overall survival for all patients is 94% (90% CI, 88-100) at 1 and 2 years. The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD at day 100 is 11%. The cumulative index of chronic GVHD at 2 years is 8%. Similar results were seen in 10 SAA patients who received the identical nonmyeloablative regimen with posttransplant cyclophosphamide but matched donor transplants. Haplo BMT with posttransplant cyclophosphamide represents a potential cure in SAA, with all 20 R/R currently alive, disease-free, and with no evidence of active GVHD. Extending this approach to TN patients was associated with higher GF rates, but an increase in total body irradiation dose to 400 cGy was associated with durable engraftment without greater early toxicity. Nonmyeloablative haplo BMT in TN SAA could lead to a paradigm shift, such that essentially all patients can proceed quickly to safe, curative BMT. These trials were registered at www.cincialtrials.gov as #NCT02224872) and #NCT02833805.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020001729DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7189283PMC
April 2020

Integrated safety profile of selinexor in multiple myeloma: experience from 437 patients enrolled in clinical trials.

Leukemia 2020 09 24;34(9):2430-2440. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Karyopharm Therapeutics, Newton, MA, USA.

Selinexor is an oral, small molecule inhibitor of the nuclear export protein exportin 1 with demonstrated activity in hematologic and solid malignancies. Side effects associated with selinexor include nausea, vomiting, fatigue, diarrhea, decreased appetite, weight loss, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and hyponatremia. We reviewed 437 patients with multiple myeloma treated with selinexor and assessed the kinetics of adverse events and impact of supportive care measures. Selinexor reduced both platelets and neutrophils over the first cycle of treatment and reached a nadir between 28 and 42 days. Platelet transfusions and thrombopoietin receptor agonists were effective at treating thrombocytopenia, and granulocyte colony stimulating factors were effective at resolving neutropenia. The onset of gastrointestinal side effects (nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea) was most common during the first 1-2 weeks of treatment. Nausea could be mitigated with 5-HT3 antagonists and either neurokinin 1 receptor antagonists, olanzapine, or cannbainoids. Loperamide and bismuth subsalicylate ameliorated diarrhea. The primary constitutional side effects of fatigue and decreased appetite could be managed with methylphenidate, megestrol, cannabinoids or olanzapine, respectively. Hyponatremia was highly responsive to sodium replacement. Selinexor has well-established adverse effects that mainly occur within the first 8 weeks of treatment, are reversible, and respond to supportive care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-0756-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7449872PMC
September 2020

A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of multiple myeloma among men and women of African ancestry.

Blood Adv 2020 01;4(1):181-190

Division of Cancer Genetics and Epidemiology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD.

Persons of African ancestry (AA) have a twofold higher risk for multiple myeloma (MM) compared with persons of European ancestry (EA). Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) support a genetic contribution to MM etiology in individuals of EA. Little is known about genetic risk factors for MM in individuals of AA. We performed a meta-analysis of 2 GWASs of MM in 1813 cases and 8871 controls and conducted an admixture mapping scan to identify risk alleles. We fine-mapped the 23 known susceptibility loci to find markers that could better capture MM risk in individuals of AA and constructed a polygenic risk score (PRS) to assess the aggregated effect of known MM risk alleles. In GWAS meta-analysis, we identified 2 suggestive novel loci located at 9p24.3 and 9p13.1 at P < 1 × 10-6; however, no genome-wide significant association was noted. In admixture mapping, we observed a genome-wide significant inverse association between local AA at 2p24.1-23.1 and MM risk in AA individuals. Of the 23 known EA risk variants, 20 showed directional consistency, and 9 replicated at P < .05 in AA individuals. In 8 regions, we identified markers that better capture MM risk in persons with AA. AA individuals with a PRS in the top 10% had a 1.82-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.56-2.11) increased MM risk compared with those with average risk (25%-75%). The strongest functional association was between the risk allele for variant rs56219066 at 5q15 and lower ELL2 expression (P = 5.1 × 10-12). Our study shows that common genetic variation contributes to MM risk in individuals with AA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6960456PMC
January 2020

NCCN Guidelines Insights: Multiple Myeloma, Version 1.2020.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2019 10;17(10):1154-1165

National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

The NCCN Guidelines for Multiple Myeloma provide recommendations for diagnosis, workup, treatment, follow-up, and supportive care for patients with monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance, solitary plasmacytoma, smoldering myeloma, and multiple myeloma. These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight some of the important updates and changes in the 1.2020 version of the NCCN Guidelines for Multiple Myeloma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2019.0049DOI Listing
October 2019

Haploidentical transplantation using posttransplant cyclophosphamide as GVHD prophylaxis in patients over age 70.

Blood Adv 2019 09;3(17):2608-2616

Department of Hematologic Malignancy and.

Hematologic malignancies in older people are unlikely to be cured with chemotherapy alone. Advances in allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (alloBMT), especially nonmyeloablative (NMA) conditioning and the use of haploidentical donors, now make this therapy available to older people; however, long-term outcomes and predictors of success are unclear. We reviewed the outcomes of 93 consecutive patients aged 70 and older (median, 72; range, 70-78), who underwent haploidentical BMT at Johns Hopkins Hospital between 1 September 2009 and 1 April 2018. All patients received NMA conditioning and posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. The 2-year overall survival was 53%, and 2-year event-free survival was 43%. The 180-day cumulative incidence (CuI) of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was 14%, and the 2-year CuI was 27%. The 2-year CuI of relapse was 30%. Of 78 patients who were alive and had their weight recorded on day 180, weight loss predicted subsequent NRM (subdistribution hazard ratio, 1.0; 95% CI, 1-1.13; = .048). In conclusion, haploidentical BMT with PTCy is feasible and relatively safe in septuagenarians. Although early, 6-month NRM was relatively low at 14%, but overall NRM continued to climb to 27% at 2 years, at least in part because of late deaths that appeared to be somewhat age related. Further studies to elucidate predictors of NRM are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6737415PMC
September 2019

Severe Cytokine Release Syndrome after Haploidentical Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 12 5;25(12):2431-2437. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

Department of Hematologic Malignancy, Johns Hopkins/Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Baltimore, Maryland.

Inflammatory cytokines released by activated lymphocytes and innate cells in the context of cellular therapy can cause fever, vasodilatation, and end-organ damage, collectively known as cytokine release syndrome (CRS). CRS can occur after allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation, but is especially prevalent after HLA-haploidentical (haplo) peripheral blood transplantation (PBT). We reviewed charts of all patients who underwent haplo-PBT between October 1, 2013, and September 1, 2017 and graded CRS in these patients. A total of 146 consecutive patients who underwent related haplo-PBT were analyzed. CRS occurred in 130 patients (89%), with most cases of mild severity (grade 0 to 2). Severe CRS (grade 3 to 5) occurred in 25 patients (17%). In this group with severe CRS, 13 patients had encephalopathy, 12 required hemodialysis, and 11 were intubated. Death from the immediate complications of CRS occurred in 6 patients (24% of the severe CRS group and 4% of the entire haplo-PBT cohort). The cumulative probability of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was 38% at 6 months for the patients with severe CRS and 8% (121 of 146) in patients without severe CRS. In conclusion, CRS occurs in nearly 90% of haplo-PBTs. Older haplo-PBT recipients (odds ratio [OR], 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], .83 to 6.75; P = .11) and those with a history of radiation therapy (OR, 3.85; 95% CI, 1.32 to 11.24; P = .01) are at increased risk of developing severe CRS. Although most recipients of haplo-PBT develop CRS, <20% experience severe complications. The development of severe CRS is associated with a significantly increased risk of NRM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.07.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7402409PMC
December 2019

Multiple Myeloma: Current Advances and Future Directions.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2019 05 1;19(5):255-263. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Oncology and Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.

There have been many advances over the past decade that have dramatically changed the way we evaluate and treat patients with multiple myeloma (MM). These advances have more than doubled the average survival for patients with MM and have been crucial to an improved quality of life. We highlight recent changes to response assessment definitions, provide a review of minimal residual disease (MRD) testing, and describe how MRD testing may drive future goals of therapy. The evolving data from trials assessing novel combinations for frontline therapy and for the treatment of relapsed disease are reviewed. We present preliminary data from the 2 most promising novel agents, both of which may soon be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for patients with relapsed MM. Finally, we examine the exciting early data from phase 1 clinical trials investigating novel immunotherapeutics in refractory myeloma, including antibody-drug conjugates, dual-targeted T-cell-engaging antibodies, and chimeric antigen receptor T cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2019.03.025DOI Listing
May 2019

Effect of increased dose of total body irradiation on graft failure associated with HLA-haploidentical transplantation in patients with severe haemoglobinopathies: a prospective clinical trial.

Lancet Haematol 2019 Apr 14;6(4):e183-e193. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Hematologic Malignancies and Bone Marrow Transplantation Program, Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Although severe haemoglobinopathies can be cured with allogeneic blood or bone marrow transplantation, availability of matched donors and toxic effects can be problematic. We previously found that non-myeloablative haploidentical related bone marrow transplantation with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide expanded the donor pool while limiting graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). However, graft failure-albeit with full host haemopoietic recovery-occurred in 50% of patients. In this study, we investigated whether increasing total body irradiation from 200 cGy to 400 cGy would improve engraftment while maintaining the safety profile.

Methods: This study was done at Johns Hopkins Hospital (Baltimore, MD, USA). Patients aged 2-70 years receiving their first bone marrow transplant were eligible for inclusion in the study. Patients received rabbit-derived intravenous anti-thymocyte globulin 0·5 mg/kg on day -9 and 2 mg/kg on days -8 and -7, intravenous fludarabine 30 mg/m on days -6 to -2, intravenous cyclophosphamide 14·5 mg/kg on days -6 and -5, and total body irradiation 400 cGy administered as a single fraction on day -1. We collected unmanipulated bone marrow and infused on day 0. GVHD prophylaxis comprised intravenous cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg per day on days 3 and 4 after transplantation, oral mycophenolate mofetil 15 mg/kg per dose (maximum 1 g) every 8 h on days 5 to 35, and oral sirolimus to maintain a level of 5-15 ng/dL for at least 1 year starting on day 5. The original planned primary objectives of this phase 2 clinical trial were transplant-related mortality and progression-free survival. However, the coverage decision by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to only provide payment for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for patients with sickle cell disease on a clinical trial that had a comparison arm with patients not receiving bone marrow transplantation prompted the closure of this trial to accrual in 2017. Therefore, as we were unable to perform our planned statistical analysis, the primary objective was modified to evaluate engraftment, assessed by chimerism. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00489281. The study is closed to new participants and this is the primary analysis.

Findings: Between Sept 24, 2014, and Aug 1, 2017, we enrolled 17 consecutive patients: 12 (71%) with sickle cell disease and 5 (29%) with β-thalassaemia major. The median patient age was 16 years (range 6-31, IQR 7·7-27·5). One (6%) of 17 patients had primary graft failure with recovery of host haemopoiesis. 13 (76%) of 17 patients achieved full donor chimerism and three (18%) had mixed donor-host chimerism. Five (29%) of 17 patients developed grade 2-4 acute GVHD, including four (24%) with maximal grade 2 GVHD and one (6%) with grade 3 GVHD. Chronic GVHD developed in three (18%) patients. As of their last follow-up visit, GVHD had resolved in all patients and no patients were receiving systemic GVHD therapy. All patients remained alive as of Aug 4, 2019, and the median follow-up duration was 705 days (range 355-1294; IQR 398-943). Only one (6%) of the 16 engrafted patients remained transfusion dependent, and 14 (88%) discontinued immunosuppression.

Interpretation: Increasing total body irradiation to 400 cGy substantially reduced graft failure while maintaining the safety of haploidentical bone marrow transplantation with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide. These results suggest that engraftment after haploidentical bone marrow transplantation for haemoglobinopathies is possible, and primary graft failure-the main problem previously reported-might be addressed by this strategy. Therefore, this curative approach should no longer be restricted to patients with HLA-matched donors.

Funding: Maryland Stem Cell Research Fund and US National Institutes of Health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(19)30031-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6506220PMC
April 2019

Development of Grade II Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease Is Associated with Improved Survival after Myeloablative HLA-Matched Bone Marrow Transplantation using Single-Agent Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 06 30;25(6):1128-1135. Epub 2018 Dec 30.

Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. Electronic address:

Post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) can be used as the sole immunosuppression after myeloablative conditioning (MAC) for HLA-matched bone marrow transplantation (BMT). However, the effects of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) with this platform are undefined. We retrospectively analyzed 298 consecutive adult patients with hematologic malignancies who engrafted after MAC HLA-matched sibling donor (MSD; n = 187) or HLA-matched unrelated donor (MUD; n = 111) T-cell-replete BMT with PTCy 50 mg/kg on days +3 and +4. After MSD and MUD BMT, 35% and 57% of patients, respectively, developed grade II acute GVHD (aGVHD) by 100 days, 11% and 14% grade III to IV aGVHD by 100 days, and 9% and 16% chronic GVHD (cGVHD) by 1 year. In landmark analyses at 100 days after HLA-matched BMT, 4-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 57% (95% confidence interval [CI], .49 to .67) and 40% (95% CI, .31 to .51) in patients without grades II to IV aGVHD, and 68% (95% CI, .59 to .78) and 54% (95% CI, .44 to .65) in patients with grade II aGVHD. In adjusted time-dependent multivariable analyses, grade II aGVHD was associated with improved OS (hazard ratio, .58; 95% CI, .37 to .89; P = .01) and PFS (hazard ratio, .50; 95% CI, .34 to .74; P < .001) after HLA-matched BMT with PTCy. The ability of PTCy to limit grades III to IV aGVHD and cGVHD while maintaining grade II aGVHD may contribute to its effectiveness, and further attempts to reduce aGVHD may be detrimental.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.12.767DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6559825PMC
June 2019

Multiprofessional Ward Rounds for Inpatients With Advanced Cancers: Too Big to Succeed?

J Oncol Pract 2018 09 15;14(9):517-520. Epub 2018 Aug 15.

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JOP.18.00100DOI Listing
September 2018

Early Fever after Haploidentical Bone Marrow Transplantation Correlates with Class II HLA-Mismatching and Myeloablation but Not Outcomes.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 10 15;24(10):2056-2064. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. Electronic address:

Noninfectious fevers are common early after T cell-replete HLA haploidentical (haplo) peripheral blood transplants and have been associated with cytokine release syndrome and overall mortality. However, less is known regarding the incidence and associations of early fever after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy). We hypothesized that early fever would be associated with myeloablative conditioning (MAC), because of its relative increase in tissue damage augmenting antigen presentation and class II HLA-mismatching because of recognition of antigen-presenting cells by CD4 T cells. In 672 recipients of MAC HLA-matched related donor (MRD) (n = 183), MAC HLA-matched unrelated donor (MUD) (n = 115), MAC haplo (n = 79), or nonmyeloablative (NMA) haplo (n = 295) T cell-replete BMT with PTCy, we retrospectively analyzed early noninfectious fever defined as temperature of ≥38.3°C once or ≥38.0°C twice or more on days 1 to 6. Fever occurred in 13% after MAC MRD, 23% after MAC MUD, 44% after NMA haplo, and 84% after MAC haplo BMT (P < .0001). Survival outcomes did not differ between patients with and without early fever. In NMA haplo BMT, mismatch in the graft-versus-host direction at HLA-DRB1 or -DPB1 (but not HLA-A, -B, -Cw, or -DQB1) was associated with early fever compared with no mismatches at these loci (P < .0001 and P = .02, respectively). In multivariable modeling, -DRB1 or -DPB1 mismatch and higher CD3 graft cell dose were significantly associated with early fever. Early fever is more common after haplo compared with HLA-matched BMT. Fever is associated with myeloablation, -DRB1 or -DPB1 mismatching, and higher CD3 graft cell dose but not survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.06.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6385878PMC
October 2018

A phase 2 study of modified lenalidomide, bortezomib and dexamethasone in transplant-ineligible multiple myeloma.

Br J Haematol 2018 07 8;182(2):222-230. Epub 2018 May 8.

Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, MA, USA.

We sought a regimen that incorporates optimal novel agents and balances efficacy with toxicity in transplant-ineligible multiple myeloma (MM) patients. Our study evaluated modified lenalidomide-bortezomib-dexamethasone (RVD lite) in this population and was administered over a 35-day cycle. Lenalidomide 15 mg was given orally on days 1-21; bortezomib 1·3 mg/m weekly subcutaneously on days 1, 8, 15 and 22; and dexamethasone 20 mg orally was given on the day of and day after bortezomib for 9 cycles followed by 6 cycles of consolidation with lenalidomide and bortezomib. The primary objective was to evaluate the overall response rate (ORR); secondary objectives included safety, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Fifty-three eligible patients were screened between April 2013 and May 2015; 50 received at least one dose of therapy. Median age at study entry was 73 years (range 65-91). The ORR was 86% and 66% of patients achieved a very good partial response or better. Median PFS was 35·1 months (95% confidence interval 30·9-not reached) and median OS was not reached at a median follow-up of 30 months. Peripheral neuropathy was reported in 31 (62%) patients with only 1 patient experiencing grade 3 symptoms. RVD lite is a well-tolerated and highly effective regimen, with robust PFS and OS, in the transplant-ineligible MM population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15261DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6074026PMC
July 2018

Haploidentical Bone Marrow Transplantation with Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide Using Non-First-Degree Related Donors.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 05 13;24(5):1099-1102. Epub 2018 Feb 13.

Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. Electronic address:

Outcomes of nonmyeloablative (NMA) haploidentical (haplo) blood or marrow transplant (BMT) with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) using non-first-degree relatives are unknown. We evaluated 33 consecutive adult patients (median age, 56 years) with hematologic malignancies who underwent NMA haplo T cell-replete BMT with PTCy at Johns Hopkins using second- or third-degree related donors. Donors consisted of 10 nieces (30%), 9 nephews (27%), 7 first cousins (21%), 5 grandchildren (15%), and 2 uncles (6%). Thirty-one patients (94%) reached full donor chimerism by day 60. The estimated cumulative incidence (CuI) of grades II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) at day 180 was 24% (90% confidence interval [CI], 9% to 38%). Only 1 patient experienced grades III to IV aGVHD. At 1 year the CuI of chronic GVHD was 10% (90% CI, 0% to 21%). The CuI of nonrelapse mortality at 1 year was 5% (90% CI, 0% to 14%). At 1 year the probability of relapse was 31% (90% CI, 12% to 49%), progression-free survival 64% (90% CI, 48% to 86%), and overall survival 95% (90% CI, 87% to 100%). The 1-year probability of GVHD-free, relapse-free survival was 57% (90% CI, 41% to 79%). NMA haplo BMT with PTCy from non-first-degree relatives is an acceptably safe and effective alternative donor platform, with results similar to those seen with first-degree relatives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.02.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6439277PMC
May 2018

Ibrutinib alone or with dexamethasone for relapsed or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma: phase 2 trial results.

Br J Haematol 2018 03 13;180(6):821-830. Epub 2018 Feb 13.

Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Novel therapies with unique new targets are needed for patients who are relapsed/refractory to current treatments for multiple myeloma. Ibrutinib is a first-in-class, once-daily, oral covalent inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase, which is overexpressed in the myeloma stem cell population. This study examined various doses of ibrutinib ± low-dose dexamethasone in patients who received ≥2 prior lines of therapy, including an immunomodulatory agent. Daily ibrutinib ± weekly dexamethasone 40 mg was assessed in 4 cohorts using a Simon 2-stage design. The primary objective was clinical benefit rate (CBR; ≥minimal response); secondary objectives included safety. Patients (n = 92) received a median of 4 prior regimens. Ibrutinib + dexamethasone produced the highest CBR (28%) in Cohort 4 (840 mg + dexamethasone; n = 43), with median duration of 9·2 months (range, 3·0-14·7). Progression-free survival was 4·6 months (range, 0·4-17·3). Grade 3-4 haematological adverse events included anaemia (16%), thrombocytopenia (11%), and neutropenia (2%); grade 3-4 non-haematological adverse events included pneumonia (7%), syncope (3%) and urinary tract infection (3%). Ibrutinib + dexamethasone produced notable responses in this heavily pre-treated population. The encouraging efficacy, coupled with the favourable safety and tolerability profile of ibrutinib, supports its further evaluation as part of combination treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5873373PMC
March 2018

Selective Inhibition of Nuclear Export With Oral Selinexor for Treatment of Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma.

J Clin Oncol 2018 03 30;36(9):859-866. Epub 2018 Jan 30.

Dan T. Vogl, Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; David Dingli, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; Robert Frank Cornell, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN; Carol Ann Huff, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; Sundar Jagannath, Tisch Cancer Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine; David Kaminetzky, New York University Langone Medical Center; Ajai Chari, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sanai, New York, NY; Divaya Bhutani and Jeffrey Zonder, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, Detroit; Craig Cole, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; Rachid Baz, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa; James E. Hoffman, Sylvester Cancer Center, University of Miami, Miami, FL; Ajay Nooka, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA; Joshua Richter and David Siegel, John Theurer Cancer Center at the Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, NJ; Ravi Vij, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO; Andrzej Jakubowiak, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, IL; Rafat Abonour, Indiana University Cancer Center, Indianapolis, IN; Gary Schiller, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA; Terri L. Parker, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT; Luciano J. Costa, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL; Andrew J. Yee, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Boston; Michael Kauffman, Sharon Shacham, Jean-Richard Saint-Martin, Carla D. Picklesimer, and Cassandra Choe-Juliak, Karyopharm Therapeutics, Newton, MA; Rafael Fonseca, Scott Van Wier, Gregory Ahmann, Ilsel Lopez, and A. Keith Stewart, Mayo Clinic of Arizona, Phoenix, AZ.

Purpose Selinexor, a first-in-class, oral, selective exportin 1 (XPO1) inhibitor, induces apoptosis in cancer cells through nuclear retention of tumor suppressor proteins and the glucocorticoid receptor, along with inhibition of translation of oncoprotein mRNAs. We studied selinexor in combination with low-dose dexamethasone in patients with multiple myeloma refractory to the most active available agents. Patients and Methods This phase II trial evaluated selinexor 80 mg and dexamethasone 20 mg, both orally and twice weekly, in patients with myeloma refractory to bortezomib, carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and pomalidomide (quad-refractory disease), with a subset also refractory to an anti-CD38 antibody (penta-refractory disease). The primary end point was overall response rate (ORR). Results Of 79 patients, 48 had quad-refractory and 31 had penta-refractory myeloma. Patients had received a median of seven prior regimens. The ORR was 21% and was similar for patients with quad-refractory (21%) and penta-refractory (20%) disease. Among patients with high-risk cytogenetics, including t(4;14), t(14;16), and del(17p), the ORR was 35% (six of 17 patients). The median duration of response was 5 months, and 65% of responding patients were alive at 12 months. The most common grade ≥ 3 adverse events were thrombocytopenia (59%), anemia (28%), neutropenia (23%), hyponatremia (22%), leukopenia (15%), and fatigue (15%). Dose interruptions for adverse events occurred in 41 patients (52%), dose reductions occurred in 29 patients (37%), and treatment discontinuation occurred in 14 patients (18%). Conclusion The combination of selinexor and dexamethasone has an ORR of 21% in patients with heavily pretreated, refractory myeloma with limited therapeutic options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2017.75.5207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6905485PMC
March 2018

Shortened-Duration Tacrolimus after Nonmyeloablative, HLA-Haploidentical Bone Marrow Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 05 17;24(5):1022-1028. Epub 2018 Jan 17.

Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. Electronic address:

With post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, nonmyeloablative HLA-haploidentical (NMA haplo) and HLA-matched blood or marrow transplantation (BMT) have comparable outcomes. Early discontinuation of immunosuppression may reduce the risk of relapse and improve immune reconstitution, but may increase the risk of GVHD. We conducted a prospective trial of NMA haplo BMT for patients with hematologic malignancies (median age, 61 years), evaluating the safety of early discontinuation of tacrolimus. All patients received T cell-replete bone marrow followed by high-dose PTCy, mycophenolate mofetil, and tacrolimus. Tacrolimus was prespecified to stop without taper at day +90, +60, or +120, contingent on having ≥5% donor T cells, no relapse, and no grade II-IV acute or significant chronic GVHD. Safety stopping rules were based on ≥5% graft failure, ≥10% nonrelapse mortality (NRM), or a ≥20% combined incidence of severe acute and chronic GVHD from the tacrolimus stop date through day +180. Of the 47 patients in the day +90 arm, 23 (49%) stopped tacrolimus as planned. Of the 55 patients in the day +60 arm, 38 (69%) stopped as planned. Safety stopping criteria were not met. In both arms, at day +180, the probability of grade II-IV acute GVHD was <40%, that of grade III-IV acute GVHD was <8%, and that of NRM was <5%. The 1-year probabilities of chronic GVHD and NRM were <15% and <10%, respectively, in both arms. The 1-year GVHD-free relapse-free survival was higher in the day 60 arm. Thus, stopping tacrolimus as early as day +60 is feasible and carries acceptable risks after NMA haplo BMT with PTCy. This approach may facilitate post-transplantation strategies for relapse reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.01.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5977987PMC
May 2018

NCCN Guidelines Insights: Multiple Myeloma, Version 3.2018.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2018 01;16(1):11-20

The NCCN Guidelines for Multiple Myeloma provide recommendations for diagnosis, evaluation, treatment, including supportive-care, and follow-up for patients with myeloma. These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight the important updates/changes specific to the myeloma therapy options in the 2018 version of the NCCN Guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2018.0002DOI Listing
January 2018

Prospective study of nonmyeloablative, HLA-mismatched unrelated BMT with high-dose posttransplantation cyclophosphamide.

Blood Adv 2017 6;1(4):288-292. Epub 2017 Jan 6.

Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

Allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (BMT) candidates may lack HLA-matched, related haploidentical, and unrelated umbilical cord options. Barriers to partially HLA-mismatched, unrelated donor (mMUD) BMT include excess graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), graft failure, and death. We prospectively studied nonmyeloablative (NMA) mMUD BMT with high-dose posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) for patients with hematologic malignancies. Three transplants were performed with busulfan/fludarabine conditioning, with subsequent change to fludarabine/Cy/total body irradiation (flu/Cy/TBI). Twenty mMUD transplants are reported using flu/Cy/TBI, T-cell replete bone marrow grafts, and PTCy, mycophenolate mofetil, and sirolimus or tacrolimus (1 patient) for GVHD prophylaxis. The median patient age was 56. Ofthese unrelated grafts, 45% had ≥2 mismatched HLA loci, 25% had ≥3 mismatched loci, and 50% had HLA-C mismatches. No graft failure or grades 3-4 acute GVHD occurred. The median times to neutrophil recovery (≥500/μL) and platelet recovery (≥20 000/μL) were 19 days and 31 days, respectively. Full-donor chimerism was achieved in 95% of evaluable patients by day 60. The 180-day probability of grades 2-4 acute GVHD (all grade 2) was 25%, and the 1-year probability of any chronic GVHD was 16% (none severe). The 2-year nonrelapse mortality probability was 6%. With 4-year median follow-up, the 1-year progression-free and overall survival probabilities were 65% and 75%, respectively. NMA, T-cell replete mMUD BMT is thus a potentially viable option for patients without other suitable donors. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01203722.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2016002766DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5726600PMC
January 2017

Grade II Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease and Higher Nucleated Cell Graft Dose Improve Progression-Free Survival after HLA-Haploidentical Transplant with Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 02 18;24(2):343-352. Epub 2017 Oct 18.

Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Compared with standard graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis platforms, post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) after T cell-replete HLA-haploidentical (haplo) bone marrow transplantation (BMT) reduces the risk of grades III to IV acute (a) and chronic (c) GVHD, but maintains similar rates of grade II aGVHD. Given that mild GVHD has been associated with reduced treatment failure in HLA-matched BMT, we evaluated the risk factors for and effects of GVHD on survival in 340 adults with hematologic malignancies who engrafted after nonmyeloablative haplo-BMT with PTCy, mycophenolate mofetil, and tacrolimus. The cumulative incidence at 100 days of grade II and grades III to IV aGVHD were 30% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25% to 35%) and 2% (95% CI, 1% to 4%), respectively. The 1-year cumulative incidence of cGVHD was 10% (95% CI, 7% to 13%). In landmark analyses at 100 days, the 4-year probabilities of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were, 48% (95% CI, 41% to 56%) and 39% (95% CI, 32% to 47%) for patients without grades II to IV aGVHD, compared with 63% (95% CI, 53% to 73%) and 59% (95% CI, 50% to 71%) for patients with grade II aGVHD (P = .05 and P = .009). In multivariable modeling, when compared with patients who never experienced GVHD, the hazard ratio (HR) for OS and PFS in patients with grade II aGVHD was .78 (95% CI, .54 to 1.13; P = .19) and .69 (95% CI, .48 to .98; P = .04). Higher nucleated cell graft dose was also associated with improved OS (HR, .88; 95% CI, .78 to 1.00; P = .05) and PFS (HR, .89; 95% CI, .79 to 1.0; P = .05) and decreased risk of grades III to IV aGVHD (subdistribution HR, .66; 95% CI, .46 to .96; P = .03). PTCy reduces grades III to IV aGVHD and cGVHD, but retains similar incidence of grade II aGVHD, the development of which improves PFS. Higher nucleated cell graft dose goals may also improve survival after nonmyeloablative haplo-BMT with PTCy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2017.10.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6464126PMC
February 2018

Major Histocompatibility Mismatch and Donor Choice for Second Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2017 Nov 25;23(11):1887-1894. Epub 2017 Jul 25.

Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, Division of Hematologic Malignancies, Bunting Blaustein Cancer Research Bldg., 1650 Orleans Street, Baltimore, Maryland. Electronic address:

Large alternative donor pools provide the potential for selecting a different donor for a second allogeneic (allo) bone or marrow transplant (BMT). As HLA disparity may contribute to the graft-versus-tumor effect, utilizing new mismatched haplotype donors may potentially improve the antitumor activity for relapsed hematologic malignancies despite a previous alloBMT. Data from patients who received a second alloBMT for relapsed hematologic malignancies at Johns Hopkins were analyzed. Outcomes were compared between patients who received a second allograft with the same MHC composition and those who received an allograft with a new mismatched haplotype. Loss of heterozygosity analysis was performed for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) whose first allograft was haploidentical. Between 2005 and 2015, 40 patients received a second BMT for a relapsed hematologic malignancy. The median follow-up is 750 (range, 26 to 2950) days. The median overall survival (OS) in the cohort is 928 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 602 to not reached [NR]); median event-free survival (EFS) for the cohort is 500 days (95% CI, 355 to NR). The 4-year OS is 40% (95% CI, 25% to 64%), and the 4-year EFS is 36% (95% CI, 24% to 55%). The cumulative incidence of nonrelapsed mortality by 2 years was 27% (95% CI, 13% to 42%). The cumulative incidence of grade 3 to 4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) at 100 days was 15% (95% CI, 4% to 26%); the cumulative incidence of extensive chronic GVHD at 2 years was 22% (95% CI, 9% to 36%). The median survival was 552 days (95% CI, 376 to 2950+) in the group who underwent transplantation with a second allograft that did not harbor a new mismatched haplotype, while it was not reached in the group whose allograft contained a new mismatched haplotype (hazard ratio [HR], .36; 95% CI, .14 to .9; P = .02). EFS was also longer in the group who received an allograft containing a new mismatched haplotype, (NR versus 401 days; HR, .50; 95% CI, .22 to 1.14; P = .09). Although the allograft for this patient's second BMT contained a new mismatched haplotype, AML nevertheless relapsed a second time. Second BMTs are feasible and provide a reasonable chance of long-term survival. An allograft with a new mismatched haplotype may improve outcomes after second BMTs for relapsed hematologic malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2017.07.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5881910PMC
November 2017

Allogeneic Blood or Marrow Transplantation with Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide as Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis in Multiple Myeloma.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2017 Nov 12;23(11):1903-1909. Epub 2017 Jul 12.

School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (alloBMT) may lead to long-term disease control in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). However, historically, the use of alloBMT in MM has been limited by its high nonrelapse mortality (NRM) rates, primarily from graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We previously demonstrated that post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) decreases the toxicities of both acute and chronic GVHD after alloBMT. Here, we examine the impact of PTCy in patients with MM undergoing alloBMT at Johns Hopkins Hospital. From 2003 to 2011, 39 patients with MM underwent bone marrow or peripheral blood alloBMT from HLA-matched related/unrelated or haploidentical related donors after either myeloablative or nonmyeloablative conditioning. Post-transplantation GVHD prophylaxis consisted of cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg) on days +3 and +4 with or without mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus. Engraftment was detected in 95% of patients, with neutrophil and platelet recovery at a median of 15 and 16 days, respectively. The cumulative incidences of acute grades 2 to 4 and grades 3 and 4 GVHD were .41 and .08, respectively, and no cases of grade 4 acute GVHD were observed. The cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was .13. One patient succumbed to NRM. All cases of chronic GVHD involved extensive disease and 60% of these patients received systemic therapy with complete resolution. After alloBMT, the overall response rate was 62% with complete, very good partial, and partial response rates of 26%, 21%, and 15%, respectively. The median progression-free survival was 12 months and was associated with the depth of response but not cytogenetic risk. The estimated cumulative incidence of relapse was .46 (95% confidence interval [CI], .3 to .62) at 1 year and .56 (95% CI, .41 to .72) at 2 years. At last follow-up, 23% of patients remain without evidence of disease at a median follow-up of 10.3 years after alloBMT. The median overall survival was 4.4 years and the 5-year and 10-year overall survival probabilities were 49% (95% CI, 35% to 67%) and 43% (95% CI, 29% to 62%), respectively. The use of PTCy after alloBMT for MM is feasible and results in low NRM and GVHD rates. The safety of this approach may allow the development of novel post-transplantation maintenance strategies to improve long-term disease control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2017.07.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5682203PMC
November 2017

Multiple Myeloma, Version 3.2017, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2017 02;15(2):230-269

Multiple myeloma (MM) is caused by the neoplastic proliferation of plasma cells. These neoplastic plasma cells proliferate and produce monoclonal immunoglobulin in the bone marrow causing skeletal damage, a hallmark of multiple myeloma. Other MM-related complications include hypercalcemia, renal insufficiency, anemia, and infections. The NCCN Multiple Myeloma Panel members have developed guidelines for the management of patients with various plasma cell dyscrasias, including solitary plasmacytoma, smoldering myeloma, multiple myeloma, systemic light chain amyloidosis, and Waldenström's macroglobulinemia. The recommendations specific to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with newly diagnosed MM are discussed in this article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2017.0023DOI Listing
February 2017

Low immunosuppressive burden after HLA-matched related or unrelated BMT using posttransplantation cyclophosphamide.

Blood 2017 03 3;129(10):1389-1393. Epub 2017 Jan 3.

Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

The intensive and prolonged immunosuppressive therapy required to prevent or treat graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (alloBMT) puts patients at substantial risk for life-threatening infections, organ toxicity, and disease relapse. Posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) can function as single-agent GVHD prophylaxis after myeloablative, HLA-matched related (MRD), or HLA-matched unrelated (MUD) donor T-cell-replete bone marrow allografting, obviating the need for additional prophylactic immunosuppression. However, patients who develop GVHD require supplemental treatment. We assessed the longitudinal requirement for immunosuppressive therapy in 339 patients treated with this transplantation platform: 247 receiving busulfan/cyclophosphamide (BuCy) conditioning (data collected retrospectively) and 92 receiving busulfan/fludarabine (BuFlu) conditioning (data collected prospectively). Approximately 50% of MRD patients and 30% of MUD patients never required immunosuppression beyond PTCy. In patients requiring further immunosuppression, typically only 1 to 2 agents were required, and the median durations of systemic pharmacologic immunosuppression for the BuCy MRD, BuFlu MRD, BuCy MUD, and BuFlu MUD groups all were 4.5 to 5 months. For these 4 groups, 1-year probabilities of being alive and off all systemic immunosuppression were 61%, 53%, 53%, and 51% and 3-year probabilities were 53%, 48%, 49%, and 56%, respectively. These data suggest that PTCy minimizes the global immunosuppressive burden experienced by patients undergoing HLA-matched alloBMT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2016-09-737825DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5345732PMC
March 2017

Comparable composite endpoints after HLA-matched and HLA-haploidentical transplantation with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide.

Haematologica 2017 02 20;102(2):391-400. Epub 2016 Oct 20.

Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA

Composite endpoints that not only encompass mortality and relapse, but other critical post-transplant events such as graft-versus-host disease, are being increasingly utilized to quantify survival without significant morbidity after allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation. High-dose, post-transplantation cyclophosphamide reduces severe graft-versus-host disease with allogeneic marrow transplantation, making composite endpoints after this management particularly interesting. We retrospectively analyzed 684 adults with hematologic malignancies who received T-cell-replete bone marrow grafts and cyclophosphamide after myeloablative HLA-matched related (n=192) or unrelated (n=120), or non-myeloablative HLA-haploidentical (n=372) donor transplantation. The median follow up was 4 (range, 0.02-11.4) years. Graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival was defined as the time after transplantation without grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease, chronic graft-versus-host disease requiring systemic treatment, relapse, or death. Chronic graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival was defined as the time after transplantation without moderate or severe chronic graft-versus-host disease, relapse, or death. One-year graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival and chronic graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival estimates were, respectively, 47% (95% CI: 41-55%) and 53% (95% CI: 46-61%) after myeloablative HLA-matched related, 42% (95% CI: 34-52%) and 52% (95% CI: 44-62%) after myeloablative HLA-matched unrelated, and 45% (95% CI: 40-50%) and 50% (95% CI: 45-55%) after non-myeloablative HLA-haploidentical donor transplantation. In multivariable models, there were no differences in graft-versus-host disease-free, or chronic graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival after either myeloablative HLA-matched unrelated or non-myeloablative HLA-haploidentical, compared with myeloablative HLA-matched related donor transplantation. Although limited by inclusion of dissimilar cohorts, we found that post-transplantation cyclophosphamide-based platforms yield comparable composite endpoints across conditioning intensity, donor type, and HLA match.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2016.144139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5286947PMC
February 2017
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