Publications by authors named "Carmen Orellana"

46 Publications

Haploinsufficiency of the Sin3/HDAC corepressor complex member SIN3B causes a syndromic intellectual disability/autism spectrum disorder.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 May 2;108(5):929-941. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Etablissement Français du Sang, 44000 Nantes, France; CRCINA, INSERM, CNRS, Université d'Angers, Université de Nantes, 44000 Nantes, France; LabEx IGO, Nantes 44000, France.

Proteins involved in transcriptional regulation harbor a demonstrated enrichment of mutations in neurodevelopmental disorders. The Sin3 (Swi-independent 3)/histone deacetylase (HDAC) complex plays a central role in histone deacetylation and transcriptional repression. Among the two vertebrate paralogs encoding the Sin3 complex, SIN3A variants cause syndromic intellectual disability, but the clinical consequences of SIN3B haploinsufficiency in humans are uncharacterized. Here, we describe a syndrome hallmarked by intellectual disability, developmental delay, and dysmorphic facial features with variably penetrant autism spectrum disorder, congenital malformations, corpus callosum defects, and impaired growth caused by disruptive SIN3B variants. Using chromosomal microarray or exome sequencing, and through international data sharing efforts, we identified nine individuals with heterozygous SIN3B deletion or single-nucleotide variants. Five individuals harbor heterozygous deletions encompassing SIN3B that reside within a ∼230 kb minimal region of overlap on 19p13.11, two individuals have a rare nonsynonymous substitution, and two individuals have a single-nucleotide deletion that results in a frameshift and predicted premature termination codon. To test the relevance of SIN3B impairment to measurable aspects of the human phenotype, we disrupted the orthologous zebrafish locus by genome editing and transient suppression. The mutant and morphant larvae display altered craniofacial patterning, commissural axon defects, and reduced body length supportive of an essential role for Sin3 function in growth and patterning of anterior structures. To investigate further the molecular consequences of SIN3B variants, we quantified genome-wide enhancer and promoter activity states by using H3K27ac ChIP-seq. We show that, similar to SIN3A mutations, SIN3B disruption causes hyperacetylation of a subset of enhancers and promoters in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Together, these data demonstrate that SIN3B haploinsufficiency leads to a hitherto unknown intellectual disability/autism syndrome, uncover a crucial role of SIN3B in the central nervous system, and define the epigenetic landscape associated with Sin3 complex impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.03.017DOI Listing
May 2021

Prevalence of pathogenic copy number variants among children conceived by donor oocyte.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 24;11(1):6752. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Genetics Unit, Hospital Universitario Y Politecnico La Fe, 46026, Valencia, Spain.

Development of assisted reproductive technologies to address infertility has favored the birth of many children in the last years. The majority of children born with these treatments are healthy, but some concerns remain on the safety of these medical procedures. We have retrospectively analyzed both the fertilization method and the microarray results in all those children born between 2010 and 2019 with multiple congenital anomalies, developmental delay and/or autistic spectrum disorder (n = 486) referred for array study in our center. This analysis showed a significant excess of pathogenic copy number variants among those patients conceived after in vitro fertilization with donor oocyte with respect to those patients conceived by natural fertilization (p = 0.0001). On the other hand, no significant excess of pathogenic copy number variants was observed among patients born by autologous oocyte in vitro fertilization. Further studies are necessary to confirm these results and in order to identify the factors that may contribute to an increased risk of genomic rearrangements, as well as consider the screening for genomic alterations after oocyte donation in prenatal diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86242-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7991411PMC
March 2021

Hidden etiology of cerebral palsy: genetic and clinical heterogeneity and efficient diagnosis by next-generation sequencing.

Pediatr Res 2020 Nov 11. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Neuropediatric Unit, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, Spain.

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder that causes movement and postural disabilities. Recent research studies focused on genetic diagnosis in patients with CP of unknown etiology. The present study was carried out in 20 families with one family member affected with idiopathic CP. Chromosomal microarray and exome sequencing techniques were performed in all patients. Chromosomal microarray analysis did not show any pathological or probable pathological structural variant. However, the next-generation sequencing study showed a high diagnostic yield. We report 11/20 patients (55%) with different pathogenic or potentially pathogenic variants detected by exome sequencing analysis: five patients with mutations in genes related to hereditary spastic paraplegia, two with mutations in genes related to Aicardi-Goutières syndrome, three with mutations in genes related to developmental/epileptic encephalopathies, and one with a mutation in the PGK1 gene. The accurate and precise patients' selection, the use of a high-throughput genetic platform, the selection of adequate target genes, and the application of rigorous criteria for the clinical interpretation are the most important elements for a good diagnostic performance. Based on our findings, next-generation sequencing should be considered in patients with cryptogenic CP as the first line of genetic workup. IMPACT: Sequencing techniques in CP of uncertain etiology provides a diagnostic yield of 55%. The appropriate selection of cases optimizes the diagnostic yield. NGS facilitate better understanding of new phenotypes of certain genetic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-020-01250-3DOI Listing
November 2020

Molecular characterization of Spanish patients with MECP2 duplication syndrome.

Clin Genet 2020 04 23;97(4):610-620. Epub 2020 Feb 23.

Institut de Recerca (VHIR), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.

MECP2 duplication syndrome (MDS) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a severe to profound intellectual disability, early onset hypotonia and diverse psycho-motor and behavioural features. To date, fewer than 200 cases have been published. We report the clinical and molecular characterization of a Spanish MDS cohort that included 19 boys and 2 girls. Clinical suspicions were confirmed by array comparative genomic hybridization and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Using, a custom in-house MLPA assay, we performed a thorough study of the minimal duplicated region, from which we concluded a complete duplication of both MECP2 and IRAK1 was necessary for a correct MDS diagnosis, as patients with partial MECP2 duplications lacked some typical clinical traits present in other MDS patients. In addition, the duplication location may be related to phenotypic severity. This observation may provide a new approach for genotype-phenotype correlations, and thus more personalized genetic counselling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.13718DOI Listing
April 2020

Mixed Phenotype of Langer-Giedion's and Cornelia de Lange's Syndromes in an 8q23.3-q24.1 Microdeletion without Deletion.

J Pediatr Genet 2020 Mar 3;9(1):53-57. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

Dysmorphology and Reproductive Genetics Unit, Neonatal Research Group, Health Research Institute Hospital La Fe, University and Polytechnic Hospital La Fe, Valencia, Spain.

Langer-Giedion's syndrome (LGS) or trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type II (TRPS II; MIM:150230) is a contiguous gene deletion syndrome caused by the haploinsufficiency of the and genes. Cornelia de Lange's syndrome (CdLS) is a genetically heterogeneous dysmorphic syndrome where heterozygous mutations of gene have been associated with a mild clinical presentation (CDLS type 4; MIM: 614701). We report a female patient with a 2.3-Mb interstitial deletion at 8q23.3-q24.1 encompassing and genes but not . Clinical findings in this patient are correlated with a mixed phenotype of LGS and CdLS type 4.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1694779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6976337PMC
March 2020

Correction: The ARID1B spectrum in 143 patients: from nonsyndromic intellectual disability to Coffin-Siris syndrome.

Genet Med 2019 Sep;21(9):2160-2161

University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Genetics, Groningen, The Netherlands.

The original version of this Article contained an error in the spelling of the author Pleuntje J. van der Sluijs, which was incorrectly given as Eline (P. J.) van der Sluijs. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-018-0368-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6752317PMC
September 2019

Expanding the Spectrum of BAF-Related Disorders: De Novo Variants in SMARCC2 Cause a Syndrome with Intellectual Disability and Developmental Delay.

Am J Hum Genet 2019 01 20;104(1):164-178. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus Medical Center, 3015 GD Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

SMARCC2 (BAF170) is one of the invariable core subunits of the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling BAF (BRG1-associated factor) complex and plays a crucial role in embryogenesis and corticogenesis. Pathogenic variants in genes encoding other components of the BAF complex have been associated with intellectual disability syndromes. Despite its significant biological role, variants in SMARCC2 have not been directly associated with human disease previously. Using whole-exome sequencing and a web-based gene-matching program, we identified 15 individuals with variable degrees of neurodevelopmental delay and growth retardation harboring one of 13 heterozygous variants in SMARCC2, most of them novel and proven de novo. The clinical presentation overlaps with intellectual disability syndromes associated with other BAF subunits, such as Coffin-Siris and Nicolaides-Baraitser syndromes and includes prominent speech impairment, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, behavioral abnormalities, and dysmorphic features such as hypertrichosis, thick eyebrows, thin upper lip vermilion, and upturned nose. Nine out of the fifteen individuals harbor variants in the highly conserved SMARCC2 DNA-interacting domains (SANT and SWIRM) and present with a more severe phenotype. Two of these individuals present cardiac abnormalities. Transcriptomic analysis of fibroblasts from affected individuals highlights a group of differentially expressed genes with possible roles in regulation of neuronal development and function, namely H19, SCRG1, RELN, and CACNB4. Our findings suggest a novel SMARCC2-related syndrome that overlaps with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with variants in BAF-complex subunits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.11.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6323608PMC
January 2019

The ARID1B spectrum in 143 patients: from nonsyndromic intellectual disability to Coffin-Siris syndrome.

Genet Med 2019 06 8;21(6):1295-1307. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Genetics, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Pathogenic variants in ARID1B are one of the most frequent causes of intellectual disability (ID) as determined by large-scale exome sequencing studies. Most studies published thus far describe clinically diagnosed Coffin-Siris patients (ARID1B-CSS) and it is unclear whether these data are representative for patients identified through sequencing of unbiased ID cohorts (ARID1B-ID). We therefore sought to determine genotypic and phenotypic differences between ARID1B-ID and ARID1B-CSS. In parallel, we investigated the effect of different methods of phenotype reporting.

Methods: Clinicians entered clinical data in an extensive web-based survey.

Results: 79 ARID1B-CSS and 64 ARID1B-ID patients were included. CSS-associated dysmorphic features, such as thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, thick alae nasi, long and/or broad philtrum, small nails and small or absent fifth distal phalanx and hypertrichosis, were observed significantly more often (p < 0.001) in ARID1B-CSS patients. No other significant differences were identified.

Conclusion: There are only minor differences between ARID1B-ID and ARID1B-CSS patients. ARID1B-related disorders seem to consist of a spectrum, and patients should be managed similarly. We demonstrated that data collection methods without an explicit option to report the absence of a feature (such as most Human Phenotype Ontology-based methods) tended to underestimate gene-related features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-018-0330-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6752273PMC
June 2019

A Novel Mutation of in a Patient with Schaaf-Yang Syndrome and Hypopituitarism.

Int J Endocrinol Metab 2018 Jul 1;16(3):e67329. Epub 2018 Jul 1.

Neuropediatric Section, University and Polytechnic Hospital La Fe, Valencia, Spain.

Introduction: Schaaf-Yang syndrome (SYS) is caused by truncating point mutations of the paternal allele of , an imprinted gene located in the critical region of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). These patients present a phenotype with neurodevelopmental delay, hypotonia, joint contractures, and a particularly high prevalence of autism (up to 75% in affected individuals). The loss of function of is suggested to contribute to endocrine hypothalamic dysfunction in individuals with PWS.

Case Presentation: The current study presented the case of a patient with SYS and a novel truncating mutation of and phenotypic characteristics typical of this Prader-Willi-like syndrome and also including partial hypopituitarism, hypothyroidism, growth hormone deficiency, and hyperprolactinemia.

Conclusions: The clinical and molecular similarities between SYS and PWS suggested the need for a thorough endocrinological follow-up to improve the prognosis and long-term quality of life for patients with SYS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/ijem.67329DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6176277PMC
July 2018

Refining the phenotype associated with GNB1 mutations: Clinical data on 18 newly identified patients and review of the literature.

Am J Med Genet A 2018 11 8;176(11):2259-2275. Epub 2018 Sep 8.

Carle Physician Group, Urbana, Illinois.

De novo germline mutations in GNB1 have been associated with a neurodevelopmental phenotype. To date, 28 patients with variants classified as pathogenic have been reported. We add 18 patients with de novo mutations to this cohort, including a patient with mosaicism for a GNB1 mutation who presented with a milder phenotype. Consistent with previous reports, developmental delay in these patients was moderate to severe, and more than half of the patients were non-ambulatory and nonverbal. The most observed substitution affects the p.Ile80 residue encoded in exon 6, with 28% of patients carrying a variant at this residue. Dystonia and growth delay were observed more frequently in patients carrying variants in this residue, suggesting a potential genotype-phenotype correlation. In the new cohort of 18 patients, 50% of males had genitourinary anomalies and 61% of patients had gastrointestinal anomalies, suggesting a possible association of these findings with variants in GNB1. In addition, cutaneous mastocytosis, reported once before in a patient with a GNB1 variant, was observed in three additional patients, providing further evidence for an association to GNB1. We will review clinical and molecular data of these new cases and all previously reported cases to further define the phenotype and establish possible genotype-phenotype correlations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.40472DOI Listing
November 2018

De Novo Variants in the F-Box Protein FBXO11 in 20 Individuals with a Variable Neurodevelopmental Disorder.

Am J Hum Genet 2018 08 26;103(2):305-316. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Department of Human Genetics, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama 236-0004, Japan.

Next-generation sequencing combined with international data sharing has enormously facilitated identification of new disease-associated genes and mutations. This is particularly true for genetically extremely heterogeneous entities such as neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Through exome sequencing and world-wide collaborations, we identified and assembled 20 individuals with de novo variants in FBXO11. They present with mild to severe developmental delay associated with a range of features including short (4/20) or tall (2/20) stature, obesity (5/20), microcephaly (4/19) or macrocephaly (2/19), behavioral problems (17/20), seizures (5/20), cleft lip or palate or bifid uvula (3/20), and minor skeletal anomalies. FBXO11 encodes a member of the F-Box protein family, constituting a subunit of an E3-ubiquitin ligase complex. This complex is involved in ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation and thus in controlling critical biological processes by regulating protein turnover. The identified de novo aberrations comprise two large deletions, ten likely gene disrupting variants, and eight missense variants distributed throughout FBXO11. Structural modeling for missense variants located in the CASH or the Zinc-finger UBR domains suggests destabilization of the protein. This, in combination with the observed spectrum and localization of identified variants and the lack of apparent genotype-phenotype correlations, is compatible with loss of function or haploinsufficiency as an underlying mechanism. We implicate de novo missense and likely gene disrupting variants in FBXO11 in a neurodevelopmental disorder with variable intellectual disability and various other features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.07.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6080769PMC
August 2018

Chimeric Genes in Deletions and Duplications Associated with Intellectual Disability.

Int J Genomics 2017 24;2017:4798474. Epub 2017 May 24.

Unidad de Genética, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Avenida de Fernando Abril Martorell 106, 46026 Valencia, Spain.

We report on three nonrelated patients with intellectual disability and CNVs that give rise to three new chimeric genes. All the genes forming these fusion transcripts may have an important role in central nervous system development and/or in gene expression regulation, and therefore not only their deletion or duplication but also the resulting chimeric gene may contribute to the phenotype of the patients. Deletions and duplications are usually pathogenic when affecting dose-sensitive genes. Alternatively, a chimeric gene may also be pathogenic by different gain-of-function mechanisms that are not restricted to dose-sensitive genes: the emergence of a new polypeptide that combines functional domains from two different genes, the deregulated expression of any coding sequence by the promoter region of a neighboring gene, and/or a putative dominant-negative effect due to the preservation of functional domains of partially truncated proteins. Fusion oncogenes are well known, but in other pathologies, the search for chimeric genes is disregarded. According to our findings, we hypothesize that the frequency of fusion transcripts may be much higher than suspected, and it should be taken into account in the array-CGH analyses of patients with intellectual disability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/4798474DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5463148PMC
May 2017

Generation of a disease-specific iPS cell line derived from a patient with Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2K lacking functional GDAP1 gene.

Stem Cell Res 2017 01 2;18:1-4. Epub 2016 Dec 2.

Departamento de Biología Celular, Biología Funcional y Antropología Física, Universidad de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot, Spain. Electronic address:

Human CMT2-FiPS4F1 cell line was generated from fibroblasts of a patient with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease harbouring the following mutations in the GDAP1 gene in heterozygosis: p.Q163X/p.T288NfsX3. This patient did not present mutations in the PM22, MPZ or GJB genes. Human reprogramming factors OCT3/4, KLF4, SOX2 and C-MYC were delivered using a non-integrative methodology that involves the use of Sendai virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scr.2016.11.017DOI Listing
January 2017

High diagnostic yield of syndromic intellectual disability by targeted next-generation sequencing.

J Med Genet 2017 02 12;54(2):87-92. Epub 2016 Sep 12.

Unidad de Genética, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, Spain.

Background: Intellectual disability is a very complex condition where more than 600 genes have been reported. Due to this extraordinary heterogeneity, a large proportion of patients remain without a specific diagnosis and genetic counselling. The need for new methodological strategies in order to detect a greater number of mutations in multiple genes is therefore crucial.

Methods: In this work, we screened a large panel of 1256 genes (646 pathogenic, 610 candidate) by next-generation sequencing to determine the molecular aetiology of syndromic intellectual disability. A total of 92 patients, negative for previous genetic analyses, were studied together with their parents. Clinically relevant variants were validated by conventional sequencing.

Results: A definitive diagnosis was achieved in 29 families by testing the 646 known pathogenic genes. Mutations were found in 25 different genes, where only the genes KMT2D, KMT2A and MED13L were found mutated in more than one patient. A preponderance of de novo mutations was noted even among the X linked conditions. Additionally, seven de novo probably pathogenic mutations were found in the candidate genes AGO1, JARID2, SIN3B, FBXO11, MAP3K7, HDAC2 and SMARCC2. Altogether, this means a diagnostic yield of 39% of the cases (95% CI 30% to 49%).

Conclusions: The developed panel proved to be efficient and suitable for the genetic diagnosis of syndromic intellectual disability in a clinical setting. Next-generation sequencing has the potential for high-throughput identification of genetic variations, although the challenges of an adequate clinical interpretation of these variants and the knowledge on further unknown genes causing intellectual disability remain to be solved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2016-103964DOI Listing
February 2017

De novo mutations in genes of mediator complex causing syndromic intellectual disability: mediatorpathy or transcriptomopathy?

Pediatr Res 2016 12 8;80(6):809-815. Epub 2016 Aug 8.

Genetics Unit, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, Spain.

Background: Mutations in the X-linked gene MED12 cause at least three different, but closely related, entities of syndromic intellectual disability. Recently, a new syndrome caused by MED13L deleterious variants has been described, which shows similar clinical manifestations including intellectual disability, hypotonia, and other congenital anomalies.

Methods: Genotyping of 1,256 genes related with neurodevelopment was performed by next-generation sequencing in three unrelated patients and their healthy parents. Clinically relevant findings were confirmed by conventional sequencing.

Results: Each patient showed one de novo variant not previously reported in the literature or databases. Two different missense variants were found in the MED12 or MED13L genes and one nonsense mutation was found in the MED13L gene.

Conclusion: The phenotypic consequences of these mutations are closely related and/or have been previously reported in one or other gene. Additionally, MED12 and MED13L code for two closely related partners of the mediator kinase module. Consequently, we propose the concept of a common MED12/MED13L clinical spectrum, encompassing Opitz-Kaveggia syndrome, Lujan-Fryns syndrome, Ohdo syndrome, MED13L haploinsufficiency syndrome, and others.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/pr.2016.162DOI Listing
December 2016

TAF1 Variants Are Associated with Dysmorphic Features, Intellectual Disability, and Neurological Manifestations.

Am J Hum Genet 2015 Dec;97(6):922-32

Gene by Gene Ltd., Houston, TX 77008, USA.

We describe an X-linked genetic syndrome associated with mutations in TAF1 and manifesting with global developmental delay, intellectual disability (ID), characteristic facial dysmorphology, generalized hypotonia, and variable neurologic features, all in male individuals. Simultaneous studies using diverse strategies led to the identification of nine families with overlapping clinical presentations and affected by de novo or maternally inherited single-nucleotide changes. Two additional families harboring large duplications involving TAF1 were also found to share phenotypic overlap with the probands harboring single-nucleotide changes, but they also demonstrated a severe neurodegeneration phenotype. Functional analysis with RNA-seq for one of the families suggested that the phenotype is associated with downregulation of a set of genes notably enriched with genes regulated by E-box proteins. In addition, knockdown and mutant studies of this gene in zebrafish have shown a quantifiable, albeit small, effect on a neuronal phenotype. Our results suggest that mutations in TAF1 play a critical role in the development of this X-linked ID syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.11.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4678794PMC
December 2015

Haploinsufficiency of the MYT1L gene causes intellectual disability frequently associated with behavioral disorder.

Genet Med 2015 Aug;17(8):683-4

Unidad de Genética y Diagnóstico Prenatal, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/gim.2015.86DOI Listing
August 2015

Novel mutations of NFIX gene causing Marshall-Smith syndrome or Sotos-like syndrome: one gene, two phenotypes.

Pediatr Res 2015 Nov 22;78(5):533-9. Epub 2015 Jul 22.

Unidad de Genética, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, Spain.

Background: Only 15 point mutations in NFIX gene have been reported so far, nine of them cause the Marshall-Smith syndrome (MSS) and the remaining mutations lead to an overgrowth disorder with a less severe phenotype, defined as Sotos-like.

Methods: The clinical findings in three patients with MSS and two patients with a Sotos-like phenotype are presented. Analysis of the NFIX gene was performed both by conventional or next-generation sequencing.

Results: Five de novo mutations in NFIX gene were identified, four of them not previously reported. Two frameshift mutations and a donor-splice one caused MSS, while two missense mutations in the DNA binding/dimerisation domain entailed an overgrowth syndrome with some clinical features resembling Sotos syndrome, accompanied by a marfanoid habitus, very low BMI, long narrow face, or arachnodactyly.

Conclusion: Marshall-Smith mutations are scattered through exons 6-10 of NFIX gene, while most point mutations causing an overgrowth syndrome are clustered in exon 2. Clinical features of this overgrowth syndrome may well be considered an intermediate phenotype between Sotos and Marfan syndromes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/pr.2015.135DOI Listing
November 2015

In Pursuit of New Imprinting Syndromes by Epimutation Screening in Idiopathic Neurodevelopmental Disorder Patients.

Biomed Res Int 2015 27;2015:341986. Epub 2015 May 27.

Unidad de Genética y Diagnóstico Prenatal, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Avenida de Campanar 21, 46009 Valencia, Spain.

Alterations of epigenetic mechanisms, and more specifically imprinting modifications, could be responsible of neurodevelopmental disorders such as intellectual disability (ID) or autism together with other associated clinical features in many cases. Currently only eight imprinting syndromes are defined in spite of the fact that more than 200 genes are known or predicted to be imprinted. Recent publications point out that some epimutations which cause imprinting disorders may affect simultaneously different imprinted loci, suggesting that DNA-methylation may have been altered more globally. Therefore, we hypothesised that the detection of altered methylation patterns in known imprinting loci will indirectly allow identifying new syndromes due to epimutations among patients with unexplained ID. In a screening for imprinting alterations in 412 patients with syndromic ID/autism we found five patients with altered methylation in the four genes studied: MEG3, H19, KCNQ1OT1, and SNRPN. Remarkably, the cases with partial loss of methylation in KCNQ1OT1 and SNRPN present clinical features different to those associated with the corresponding imprinting syndromes, suggesting a multilocus methylation defect in accordance with our initial hypothesis. Consequently, our results are a proof of concept that the identification of epimutations in known loci in patients with clinical features different from those associated with known syndromes will eventually lead to the definition of new imprinting disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/341986DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4461700PMC
March 2016

Multi-system involvement in a severe variant of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (ACVR1 c.772G>A; R258G): A report of two patients.

Am J Med Genet A 2015 Oct 11;167A(10):2265-71. Epub 2015 Jun 11.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University Baylor College of Dentistry, Dallas, Texas.

Severe variants of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) affect <2% of all FOP patients worldwide, but provide an unprecedented opportunity to probe the phenotype-genotype relationships that propel the pathology of this disabling disease. We evaluated two unrelated children who had severe reduction deficits of the hands and feet with absence of nails, progressive heterotopic ossification, hypoplasia of the brain stem, motor and cognitive developmental delays, facial dysmorphology, small malformed teeth, and abnormal hair development. One child had sensorineural hearing loss, microcytic anemia, and a tethered spinal cord and the other had a patent ductus arteriosus and gonadal dysgenesis with sex reversal (karyotype 46, XY female). Both children had an identical mutation in ACVR1 c.772A>G; p.Arg258Gly (R258G), not previously described in FOP. Although many, if not most, FOP mutations directly perturb the structure of the GS regulatory subdomain and presumably the adjacent αC helix, substitution with glycine at R258 may directly alter the position of the helix in the kinase domain, eliminating a key aspect of the autoinhibitory mechanism intrinsic to the wild-type ACVR1 kinase. The high fidelity phenotype-genotype relationship in these unrelated children with the most severe FOP phenotype reported to date suggests that the shared features are due to the dysregulated activity of the mutant kinase during development and postnatally, and provides vital insight into the structural biology and function of ACVR1 as well as the design of small molecule inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.37205DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4567450PMC
October 2015

A novel missense mutation in the NSDHL gene identified in a Lithuanian family by targeted next-generation sequencing causes CK syndrome.

Am J Med Genet A 2015 Jun 21;167(6):1342-8. Epub 2015 Apr 21.

Unidad de Genética, Grupo de Investigación Traslacional en Genética, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, Spain.

The NSDHL gene encodes 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase involved in one of the later steps of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. Mutations in this gene can cause CHILD syndrome (OMIM 308050) and CK syndrome (OMIM 300831). CHILD syndrome is an X-linked dominant, male lethal disorder caused by mutations in the NSDHL gene that result in the loss of the function of the NSDHL protein. CK syndrome is an allelic X-linked recessive disorder. So far, 13 patients with CK syndrome from two families have been reported on. We present a new five-generation family with affected males manifesting clinical features of CK syndrome. Next generation sequencing was targeted to a custom panel of 542 genes with known or putative implication on intellectual disability. Missense mutation p.Gly152Asp was identified in the NSDHL gene in the DNA sample of the affected male. Mutation carrier status was confirmed for all the obligate carriers in the family. The clinical features of the affected males in the family manifested as weak fetal movements, severe intellectual disability, seizures, spasticity, atrophy of optic discs, microcephaly, plagiocephaly, skeletal abnormalities, and minor facial anomalies, including a high nasal bridge, strabismus, and micrognathia. A highly significant preferential transmission of the mutation was observed in this and previous families segregating CK syndrome. Our report expands the clinical spectrum of this syndrome to include weak fetal movements, spasticity, and plagiocephaly, and transmission ratio distortion. The various findings in these patients increase our understanding of the diversity of the clinical presentation of cholesterol biosynthesis disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.36999DOI Listing
June 2015

Pure duplication of 19p13.3 in three members of a family with intellectual disability and literature review. Definition of a new microduplication syndrome.

Am J Med Genet A 2015 Jul 9;167(7):1614-20. Epub 2015 Apr 9.

Unidad de Genética y Diagnóstico Prenatal, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, Spain.

This paper describes the presence of an interstitial pure duplication of 19p13.3 (4.95 Mb) in a patient with intellectual disability studied by array-CGH which was initially considered as a de novo alteration. The discovery of the same chromosomal alteration in a first-degree cousin of this patient led us to investigate the presence of insertional translocations, which were consequently found in three family generations. The same duplication was found in three intellectually disabled patients and among the translocation carrier family members a very high incidence of miscarriages are reported. A review of other published cases has allowed us to find three other patients with a similar pure duplication, all of them sharing some common clinical findings such as intrauterine growth retardation, microcephaly, motor and speech delay, moderate to severe intellectual disability, and dysmorphic features. These findings allow us to suggest the presence of a new microduplication syndrome in chromosomal region 19p13.3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.37046DOI Listing
July 2015

Infectious and immunologic phenotype of MECP2 duplication syndrome.

J Clin Immunol 2015 Feb 27;35(2):168-81. Epub 2015 Feb 27.

Pediatric Pneumology and Immunology, Charité University Medicine, Berlin, Germany,

MECP2 (methyl CpG binding protein 2) duplication causes syndromic intellectual disability. Patients often suffer from life-threatening infections, suggesting an additional immunodeficiency. We describe for the first time the detailed infectious and immunological phenotype of MECP2 duplication syndrome. 17/27 analyzed patients suffered from pneumonia, 5/27 from at least one episode of sepsis. Encapsulated bacteria (S.pneumoniae, H.influenzae) were frequently isolated. T-cell immunity showed no gross abnormalities in 14/14 patients and IFNy-secretion upon ConA-stimulation was not decreased in 6/7 patients. In 6/21 patients IgG2-deficiency was detected - in 4/21 patients accompanied by IgA-deficiency, 10/21 patients showed low antibody titers against pneumococci. Supra-normal IgG1-levels were detected in 11/21 patients and supra-normal IgG3-levels were seen in 8/21 patients - in 6 of the patients as combined elevation of IgG1 and IgG3. Three of the four patients with IgA/IgG2-deficiency developed multiple severe infections. Upon infections pronounced acute-phase responses were common: 7/10 patients showed CRP values above 200 mg/l. Our data for the first time show systematically that increased susceptibility to infections in MECP2 duplication syndrome is associated with IgA/IgG2-deficiency, low antibody titers against pneumococci and elevated acute-phase responses. So patients with MECP2 duplication syndrome and low IgA/IgG2 may benefit from prophylactic substitution of sIgA and IgG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-015-0129-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7101860PMC
February 2015

Phenotype profiling of patients with intellectual disability and copy number variations.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2014 Sep 18;18(5):558-66. Epub 2014 Apr 18.

Unidad de Genética y Diagnóstico Prenatal, Hospital Universitari i Politècnic "La Fe", Avenida Campanar 21, 46009 Valencia, Spain.

Background: Nowadays the microarray technology allows whole-genome analysis with a high resolution and performance for the genetic diagnosis in any patient with intellectual disability or autism spectrum disorder. However in the immediate future, with the development of massive sequencing systems for application at clinical diagnosis, it will be necessary to have clinical criteria to guide studies.

Aim: To perform an exhaustive clinical definition of patients with pathogenic copy number variations in order to establish the clinical criteria most suggestive of this kind of genomic rearrangements.

Method: We designed and implemented a database to collect 190 different clinical variables (pregnancy, neonatal, facial dysmorphism, congenital anomalies, neurological features and family history) in a series of 246 patients, with developmental delay/intellectual disability. All cases were studied with array comparative genomic hybridization.

Results: We have found a pathogenic genomic imbalance in 73 patients. Frequency analysis of all clinical variables showed that growth disorder, abnormalities of hands, low-set ears and hypertelorism are the more frequent features among patients with genomic rearrangements. However other clinical features, such as genital abnormalities and aggressiveness, are more specifically associated with pathogenic copy number variations in spite of their low frequencies in the overall series, yielding higher statistical significance values than other traits.

Conclusions: The genotype-phenotype comparison may be useful to set in the future the main clinical manifestations associated with deletions, duplications and unbalanced translocations. Theses analyses will improve the clinical indications and protocols to implement genomic arrays in the genetic study of patients with neurodevelopment disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpn.2014.04.010DOI Listing
September 2014

Duplication at Xq13.3-q21.1 with syndromic intellectual disability, a probable role for the ATRX gene.

Am J Med Genet A 2014 Apr 23;164A(4):918-23. Epub 2014 Jan 23.

Unidad de Genética y Diagnostico Prenatal, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, Spain.

Here we report on two unrelated male patients with syndromic intellectual disability (ID) due to duplication at Xq13.3-q21.1, a region of about 6 Mb and 25 genes. Among these, the most outstanding is ATRX, the causative gene of X-linked alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation. ATRX belongs to the growing list of genes implied in chromatin remodeling causing ID. Many these genes, such as MECP2, are dose-sensitive so that not only deletions and point mutations, but also duplications cause ID. Both patients have severe ID, absent expressive speech, early hypotonia, behavior problems (hyperactivity, repetitive self-stimulatory behavior), postnatal growth deficiency, microcephaly, micrognathia, cryptorchidism, low-set, posteriorly angulated ears, and downslanting palpebral fissures. These findings are also usually present among patients with loss-of-function mutations of the ATRX gene. Completely skewed X inactivation was observed in the only informative carrier mother, a constant finding among female carriers of inactivating point mutations of this gene. Participation of other duplicated genes cannot be excluded; nevertheless we propose that the increased dosage of ATRX is the major pathogenic mechanism of this X-linked disorder, a syndrome reminiscent of MECP2 duplication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.36371DOI Listing
April 2014

[Chromosomal location of submicroscopic duplications in patients with neurodevelopmental disorders to identify cases with high risk of familial recurrence].

Med Clin (Barc) 2014 Jun 20;142(12):531-7. Epub 2013 Jun 20.

Unidad de Genética y Diagnóstico Prenatal, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, España. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: An important proportion of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) results from unbalanced genomic alterations (duplication or deletion). These chromosomal rearrangements may be considered as de novo, despite they arise as a result of a balanced rearrangement not detected in a phenotypically normal parent. Therefore, if the rearrangements are inherited, the recurrence risk and the genetic counseling of these cases change radically. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a technique that allows detecting both balanced and unbalanced rearrangements, identifying also the location of duplicated segments. We tried to locate in the genome the duplicated segments detected in patients with NDDs in order to identify those cases due to inherited rearrangements.

Patients And Method: The study was conducted in 13 patients with NDDs and genomic duplications detected by compared genomic hybridization-array (CGH-array). Two approaches of FISH technique were taken: hybridization with painting chromosome probes and with specific probes for each duplication.

Results: In the studied series of 13 patients with duplication, 11 patients were found to carry tandem duplications, one with an intrachromosomal insertional translocation, and another with an interchromosomal insertional translocation. Therefore, 2 of the duplications considered de novo were actually an unbalanced rearrangement inherited from a parent who is a balanced carrier.

Conclusion: The results illustrate the need to characterize by FISH technique the rearrangements that are detected by CGH-array to identify those cases with a high risk of recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medcli.2013.04.034DOI Listing
June 2014

Reciprocal deletion and duplication at 2q23.1 indicates a role for MBD5 in autism spectrum disorder.

Eur J Hum Genet 2014 Jan 1;22(1):57-63. Epub 2013 May 1.

1] Department of Human and Molecular Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, USA [2] Department of Pediatrics, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, USA [3] Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Copy number variations associated with abnormal gene dosage have an important role in the genetic etiology of many neurodevelopmental disorders, including intellectual disability (ID) and autism. We hypothesize that the chromosome 2q23.1 region encompassing MBD5 is a dosage-dependent region, wherein deletion or duplication results in altered gene dosage. We previously established the 2q23.1 microdeletion syndrome and report herein 23 individuals with 2q23.1 duplications, thus establishing a complementary duplication syndrome. The observed phenotype includes ID, language impairments, infantile hypotonia and gross motor delay, behavioral problems, autistic features, dysmorphic facial features (pinnae anomalies, arched eyebrows, prominent nose, small chin, thin upper lip), and minor digital anomalies (fifth finger clinodactyly and large broad first toe). The microduplication size varies among all cases and ranges from 68 kb to 53.7 Mb, encompassing a region that includes MBD5, an important factor in methylation patterning and epigenetic regulation. We previously reported that haploinsufficiency of MBD5 is the primary causal factor in 2q23.1 microdeletion syndrome and that mutations in MBD5 are associated with autism. In this study, we demonstrate that MBD5 is the only gene in common among all duplication cases and that overexpression of MBD5 is likely responsible for the core clinical features present in 2q23.1 microduplication syndrome. Phenotypic analyses suggest that 2q23.1 duplication results in a slightly less severe phenotype than the reciprocal deletion. The features associated with a deletion, mutation or duplication of MBD5 and the gene expression changes observed support MBD5 as a dosage-sensitive gene critical for normal development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2013.67DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3865402PMC
January 2014

Expression of aquaporins early in human pregnancy.

Early Hum Dev 2012 Aug 14;88(8):589-94. Epub 2012 Feb 14.

Neonatal Research Unit, Research Institute Hospital La Fe, Bulevar Sur s/n, Valencia, Spain.

Background: Aquaporins (AQPs) constitute a family of channel proteins implicated in transmembrane water transport. Thirteen different AQPs (AQP0-12) have been described but their precise biologic function still remains unclear. AQPs 1, 3, 4, 8, and 9 expression has been described in human chorion, amnion and placenta; however, AQP4 is the only that has been identified in the first trimester of human pregnancy.

Objective: To assess multiplicity of AQPs expression from 10th to 14th week gestation.

Population And Methods: Chorionic villi samples (CVS) collected in pregnant women for prenatal diagnosis were analysed by real time-PCR to assess cDNA expression of AQPs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 11, and compared with AQPs expression in placentas from normal term pregnancies.

Results: 26 CVS corresponding to 26 pregnant women (age: 32.7±4.5 years; gestational age: 12.4±0.9 weeks) and 10 placental samples corresponding to normal term pregnancies were analysed. In CVS karyotype was normal in 16 cases, trisomy in 6 cases, mosaicism in 1 and unknown in 1. We found high mRNA expression for AQPs 1, 3, 9 and 11, low for AQPs 4, 5, and 8, and non-detectable for AQPs 2, 6, and 7 in chorionic villi.

Conclusions: This is the first study systematically assessing the expression of a multiplicity of AQPs in chorionic villi samples between 10th and 14th weeks of gestation. High expression of AQP11 has been identified for the first time in early stages of human pregnancy. Chromosomal abnormalities did not alter AQPs' expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2012.01.009DOI Listing
August 2012